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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Inger
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Leo, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för skolledarutveckling.
    Larsson, Anna
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Carita
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Persson, Roger
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine; and Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden; Centre for Medicine and Technology for Working Life and Society (Metalund), Lund, Sweden.
    Björk, Jonas
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Burnout among school teachers: quantitative and qualitative results from a follow-up study in southern Sweden2019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikel-id 655Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This longitudinal study aimed to (a) identify which occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors and self-efficacy at baseline that were of importance for burnout, (b) explore associations between changes in the studied factors versus changes in burnout, and (c) by interviews increase the understanding of perceived job demands among teachers.

    Methods: A cohort of 310 Swedish teachers in school-years 4–9 responded to a questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors, self-efficacy and burnout, at baseline and at follow-up (mean 30 months later). A combined measure with four levels of burnout was crafted, based on exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey). Quantitative data were analysed with multiple ordinal regression, and qualitative data were analysed with content analysis of interview responses from a subgroup of the teachers (n = 81).

    Results: The occurrence of high burnout (level 2 and 3 combined) were similar at baseline and follow-up (14% vs. 15%). However, many teachers fluctuated between the levels of burnout (28% increased and 24% decreased). Burnout at baseline was of importance for change of work or being off duty at follow up. In the multi-exposure model, low self-efficacy [OR 0.42; CI 0.26–0.68] and high job demands [OR 1.97; CI 1.02–3.8] were the strongest explanatory variables. Low self-efficacy remained as the strongest explanatory factor after adjustment for burnout at baseline. Increased job demands during follow-up was associated with an increased level of burnout [OR 3.41; CI 1.73–6.69], whereas increased decision latitude was associated with a decreased level of burnout [OR 0.51; CI 0.30–0.87]. Two major categories of demands emerged in the qualitative analysis; i.e. too high workload and a sense of inadequacy.

    Conclusions: A substantial proportion of teachers showed signs of burnout at both occasions. Low self-efficacy and high job demands was of importance for burnout, and changes in burnout was further associated with changes in decision latitude. The results points to the need of actions on individual, organizational and a societal levels.

  • 2.
    Leo, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för skolledarutveckling.
    Rättslig reglering och professionella normer som påverkar rektorers ledarskap2016Ingår i: Retten i skolen: mellom pedagogikk, juss og politikk / [ed] Kristian Andenæs og Jorunn Møller, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2016, s. 245-259Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Leo, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för skolledarutveckling. Centrum för skolledarutveckling.
    Rasmusson, Bodil
    Lunds universitet.
    Wickenberg, Per
    Lunds universitet.
    Barns rättigheter i skolmiljö: Från internationella initiativ till lokal praktik i skolmiljö2019Ingår i: Perspektiv på barnkonventionen: Forskning, teori och praktik / [ed] Ponnert Lina; Sonander, Anna, Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, s. 329-362Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter är en internationell överenskommelse, beslutad 1989, som fått stort inflytande på barnpolitik och lagstiftning i många av världens länder. Vi presenterar här några erfarenheter från ett mångårigt utbild-ningsprogram om barns rättigheter inom utbildningssektorn, finansierat av Sida och genomfört av Lunds universitet. Författarna har medverkat i programmet som lärare och har genom åren besökt ett 20-tal länder och fått nära inblick i förändringsarbeten på skilda administrativa nivåer i dessa länders skolsystem. Kunskaper om hur implementering kan gå till i andra länder och världsdelar ger perspektiv på utvecklingen i Sverige.

  • 4.
    Leo, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för skolledarutveckling.
    Rasmusson, Bodil
    Child Rights Institute, School of Social Work, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wickenberg, Per
    Child Rights Institute, Sociology of Law Department, Lund University, Sweden.
    Children´s Rights in Schools: from International Initiatives to Local Implementation2019Ingår i: International Studies on Enactment of Children´s Rights in Education: 30 researchers from non-western countries / [ed] Wickenberg, Per; Rasmusson, Bodil; Leo, Ulf, Sociology of Law, Lund University , 2019, s. 135-160Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is a human rights treaty adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989, which has had a major impact on children’s rights, policies and legislation in many countries around the world. This paper describes longstanding experiences of running a Sida-funded training programme on children’s rights at Lund University. The authors have participated in the programme as teachers, and have, over the years, visited around 20 countries and gained deep insights into change processes at different administrative levels of these countries’ education systems. These experiences from similar projects in other countries and continents help put developments in Sweden into perspective.

    The aim of the present chapter is firstly to gain an understanding of how the CRC can be used to bring about change in schools and in the classroom. The chapter’s secondary aim is to analyse and reflect on, from a norm perspective, how the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has contributed to bringing about change at different levels of the participating countries’ education systems.

    The chapter consists of five sections. Each one begins by describing the programme’s background, goal and objective. This is followed by a description of the changes implemented in the participating countries since 2003, which are based in three key CRC perspectives: ’Participation’, ’Protection’ and ’Provision’. The third section introduces norm-theory and the importance of norms in change processes, both in an international as well as as a Swedish context. The fourth section deals with change processes from the local to the national level and can be initiated both from the bottom–up as well as top–down. The final discussion addresses how some school problems, seen from a Swedish perspective, could be discussed in terms of changing norms in areas where children and students are able to exert a degree of influence.

    The terms “children”, “pupils” and “students” are used variably throughout the text. The Swedish Education Act adheres to the CRC and defines children as “every human being below the age of eighteen years” (the Swedish Education Act 2010:800, Chap.1 §10). Additionally, the student is also defined as “whomsoever participates in education under this act, with the exception of children attending preschool” (the Swedish Education Act 2010:800, Chap.1 §10).

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