Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
123456 1 - 50 of 296
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Bergner, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    Genlund, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    Lärarens förutsättningar för att undervisa elever med födoämnesallergi: En kvalitativstudie med lärare i hem- och konsumentkunskap2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to science, food allergy is a growing health problem. In home- and consumer studies (HCS), food and meals are central parts. According to the Education Act, teachers must be given professional development to create a safe environment for students.

     

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers in home economics and consumer studies experienced the conditions for teaching students with food allergies. The focus was on the classroom, routines, allocated budget, and professional development.

     

    Qualitative method was used. Nine qualified home economics teachers were interviewed based on a semi-structured question guide. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis.

     

    The results showed that the classroom and the economic conditions limited the teaching. The teachers felt confident in their current knowledge but were positive about continuing education. Routine improvements regarding information management and action plan are desired.  

     

    The study showed that the classroom was important for the teaching and that the few students with food allergies did not affect the budget in general. Routines around these students should be reconsidered. Basic education needs to be strengthened and teachers need to be given the opportunity for further training. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Gustafsson, Milton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Offentlig Tjänstemotivation: En kvalitativ studie av kommunala enhetschefer2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigates which factors influence public service motivation among managers in the Swedish public sector. Specifically, it examens the impact of organizational, societal, and political factors on public service motivation. Conducted within a local authority facility, the study employs a thematic analysis of interviews with managers to derive its results. The findings indicate that organizational, societal, and political factors do influence public service motivation at the managerial level, although the extent of influence varies among individuals. Additionally, the study identifies various intrinsic motivation factors contributing to the experienced level of public service motivation. In conclusion, while this study sheds light in the manifestation of public service motivation among managers, it suggests further exploration through deeper studies to enhance the understanding in this area.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Elenius, Ebba
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Råbom, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Hur känslor berör: En jämförande multimodal kritisk diskursanalys av kampanjerna Det är inte för sent och Jag lovar, det är inte värt det.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How emotions resonate: A comparative multimodal critical discourse analysis of the campaigns Det är inte för sent and Jag lovar, det är inte värt det. This study aims to identify communication strategies in campaigns against children in gang violence, which is relevant as the challenge shows an increasing tendency in Sweden. This is done by using a multimodal critical discourse analysis on the Det är inte för sent campaign from 2023 by the Swedish non-profit association Bris and Jag lovar, det är inte värt det from 2023 by the Swedish Police. The empirical data has been analyzed through a theoretical framework and chosen analytical tools such as modality, connotation and interaction.Based on the multimodal critical discourse analysis, it has been possible to identify different communication strategies in the campaigns. The result from the analysis shows that there are both similarities and differences between the campaigns. Both campaigns feature accounts from people who have experienced the consequences of gang violence, evoking emotions such as sadness and empathy in the viewer. The main difference between the campaigns is based on its framing. In Det är inte för sent, the message is framed around the idea that young people are affected by gang crime and are not considered perpetrators, while Jag lovar, det är inte värt det.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Palomaa, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Berggren, Lukas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Generativ AI & kommunikatörer: En kvalitativ analys: om ny teknologi och hur förutsättningar förändras2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how new technologies, particularly generative artificial intelligence (AI), have become an innovative tool for communicators and how it affects their productivity and creativity. Through a combination of literature review, theoretical frameworks, and empirical research, we analyze how communicators integrate generative AI into their work process and how this affects their workflow and conditions. The study is based on the following questions: How are software-based text chat robots used by communicators in their professional role; To what extent do communicators perceive that there is an impact on creativity and productivity when co-writing between human and machine; What opportunities and challenges do communicators imagine that software-based text chat robots can contribute to? The findings indicate that generative AI has the potential to transform the communications industry by increasing efficiency and freeing up time for more strategic thinking and creativity. Communicators report increased productivity and that generative AI has the ability to help communicators manage large text bases in an agile way. At the same time, the study also identifies challenges and potential risks with the use of generative AI. Among these challenges are issues related to ethics, quality assurance and the need to maintain human control and creative input in the creation process. Communicators are aware of these challenges and emphasize the importance of balancing automation with human skills and insight. Finally, the study highlights the opportunities and challenges of the use of generative AI for communicators and identifies areas for future research and development. By understanding the potential benefits and limitations of this technology, communicators can develop strategies to maximize its positive effects and manage its challenges effectively.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Winqvist, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Bergh, Ebba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Att hantera det digitala samtalet: det kommunala modereringsarbetet på sociala plattformar2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing digital conversations: Municipal moderation on social platforms

    The aim of this study is to examine how Swedish municipalities relate to moderation practices on social media. The study is based on qualitative interviews with ten communicators within nine Swedish municipalities, which varied in size and in geographical location. The empiricism has then been coded, themed and analyzed through a thematic analysis. The analysis is supported by a theoretical framework that consists of theories relating to the municipal sector, the communicative conditions of the municipality and the municipality on social media. 

    The result shows that all municipalities use manual moderation, and in two cases a technical moderation tool has also been implemented. The moderation practices are affected by resources and by how the social media work is prioritized compared to other work tasks. The study also shows that the municipalities rely on similar guidelines in their moderation work, where comments that violate these guidelines can be deleted or hidden. However, in some cases the moderation is based on former experiences and “gut feeling” in what should be moderated. It also became clear that the municipalities mostly focuses on answering questions and reminding the commenters of keeping a good tone before applying strategies such as deleting or hiding comments. They emphasize the importance of not censoring criticism directed towards the municipality. Regarding the external and internal communication about the moderation practices, it is expressed how the internal communication consists of coordination between the communicators and other departments. This was shown in the bigger municipalities, where the responsibility for the moderation is divided. The external communication varies, in some cases the guidelines and the fact that the comment section has been moderated is communicated towards the citizens. However, in some cases it is not communicated. Further it also became clear that there are tensions between encouraging a dialogue with citizens and at the same time having control over it. In order to keep the control, the municipalities in the majority of cases adjust their social media content to precede eventual moderation. The adjustments are made according to time of publishing, tonality, place and the content in posts. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Bendrik, Klara
    ”RUN, DON’T WALK TO NORMAL”: En multimodal analys av användargenererat innehåll på TikTok2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to analyze how user-generated content contributes to the representation ofcompanies in the context of digital trends. Digital marketing has become a norm forbusinesses in all fields and is a constantly changing phenomenon. Due to the overwhelminguse of influencer-marketing, trust in influencers has decreased. This has contributed to agrowing demand for authentic and relatable material on social platforms. Because of this,user-generated content is on the rise, especially on platforms like TikTok, which has becomean arena for digital marketing. This study examines how the brand Normal is portrayedthrough user-generated content through the TikTok-trend “Run, don’t walk to”. Normal is acompany that has become successful through user-generated content and electronic Word ofMouth (eWOM) on Tiktok, especially via the TikTok-trend “Run, don’t walk to”.We have used a qualitative multimodal analysis to study how the company Normal isportrayed in the trend “Run, don’t walk to”. The analysis examines several semioticresources: linguistic, auditory, visual and gestural and the interaction of the semioticresources. To understand the trend, the way users participate and interact is also studied. Wediscovered that Normal is portrayed in a positive way through user-generated content onTikTok. This is due to users' ambitious and authentic videos that load the brand withfavorable value and attributes. Users participate and interact primarily through archivingpurposes that include liking and archiving. Users' participation in the trend manifests itself ina similar way across all videos. The result is consistent with Dallas Smythe's theory ofaudience commodity, as users do not perceive the production of videos as a burden eventhough they contribute to the free marketing of the brand Normal. Users' participation in thetrend and the calls for consumption can be seen as a transaction and payment for an entry intothe consumer society.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Lundgren, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Hoff, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Kraften i kommunikativa strategier: En multimodal analys av MSB:s riskkommunikation till allmänheten2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The Power of Communicative Strategies - A Multimodal Analysis of MSB´s Risk Communication to the Public

    In an era marked by increasing uncertainties and risks, effective communication from authorities has become crucial. This study examines the risk communication on Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskaps (MSB) official website through a multimodal analysis method. By focusing on both textual and visual elements on the website, the study aims to critically examine how risks are constructed, communication is formulated, and recipients are portrayed. 

    The analysis of the MSB´s website reveals significant use of logically structured communication, appealing to individuals with an avoidant approach to risk communication. However, emotional elements also emerge in the communication to serve those requiring a more reality-based understanding of risks. This balance between logical and emotional communication suggests a presumption by MSB that recipients may be alarmed and thus prone to irrational action. Furthermore, the study shows that MSB assumes a pedagogical role in its communication, indicating an authoritarian relationship between the agency and the public. This authoritarian tone, coupled with a lack of interactivity, implies a transmission view of communication, where the agency is regarded as an expert conveying facts to a passive recipient. Lastly, regarding the construction of risks, the term "risk" is downplayed to avoid alarming, while an emotional message reinforces the sense of reality and possibly fear. This communication strategy challenges the agency's assumptions about recipients and emphasizes the need to adapt communication to appeal to a heterogeneous audience.

    By clarifying and analyzing these aspects of MSB's risk communication, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the complex dynamics between authorities and the public in a digital age characterized by ever-increasing uncertainties and risks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Hunesjö, Saga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Paulsson, Alice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Den komiska ungdomspolitiken: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ analys av politiska ungdomsförbunds kommunikation på TikTok2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of political party organizations' digital communication by investigating what and how Swedish political youth associations communicate on TikTok. The purpose is realized through a case study of two youth associations, Moderata Ungdomsförbundet (MUF) and Sveriges Socialdemokratiska ungdomsförbund (SSU). The material is collected from a three-month period (November 1, 2023 - January 31, 2024) and the method of the thesis is a combination of quantitative multimodal content analysis and thematic analysis. The theoretical framework provides an understanding of the youth associations' conditions and expectations as an organization, as well as the media logics and norms that they need to adhere to in their communication. In the result it became clear that what the youth associations communicate differs. The most frequently communicated content from SSU consisted of entertainment content, closely followed by political content. MUF mostly focused on political content, but entertainment was also seen. Like previous research, only a small part of the material consisted of personal content. In terms of how the youth associations communicate, there was a similarity in that both associations used a comic style frequently, something that is typical for the platform and thus becomes a way for the youth associations to adopt the current style on TikTok. Similar to previous research, however, there was a lack of interactive tendencies on the part of MUF, which the platform invites. SSU appeared to use the interactive style in about half of the material. Similar to previous studies, we found that both SSU and MUF were diligent users of affordances such as music, audio, text, hashtag and location features. Tendencies we could see in how the youth associations communicated were also that they use platform trends and vernaculars frequently, which differs from previous research. We could thus state that both youth associations showed an adaptation to the platform dynamics. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Eriksson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Välj.
    Grape, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Generativ AI i kommunikatörsyrket: En kvalitativ studie av hur integreringen av generativ artificiell intelligens påverkar kommunikatörens yrkesroll2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how communication specialists perceive the integration of generative artificial intelligence (AI) within their profession and how these changes affect their professional role. The purpose of the study was achieved by conducting qualitative interviews with eight communication professionals regarding their view on the integration of generative AI within their profession. Particularly, we found it interesting to examine how the communication specialists use generative AI within their professional role, what risks and/or opportunities they identify concerning the use of generative AI tools within the communication profession and what factors they deem as crucial for successfully and effectively integrating AI tools within their professional roles. The theoretical framework of the study consists of diffusion theory, actor-network theory, risk society and reflexive modernity. 

    The results of the study indicate that communication specialists see several opportunities in integrating generative AI tools into their work. Key opportunities identified included using generative AI for inspiration and automating repetitive tasks, thereby allowing communication professionals to allocate more time to the strategic aspects of their work. There was no expressed concern that generative AI could currently replace the communication specialist’s professional role. Thus, the risks identified did not seem to revolve around the job security of the communication specialists but rather around the uncertainty about how generative AI functions, its capabilities, and how it handles the input data. Therefore, the establishment of clearer guidelines and policies on AI usage was something that the communication specialists in this study expressed a great need for. Additional factors identified by communication specialists as crucial for successful AI integration included individual characteristics such as curiosity, a willingness to learn, and openness to change. Thus, the results of the study indicate that achieving successful and effective integration of generative AI is perceived to be a shared responsibility at both organizational and individual levels.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Selvi-xazal, Sekersöz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mohamed Abdi, Ifrah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ungdomars droganvändning: En intervjustudie på socialarbetares perspektiv av ungdomars droganvändning2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie fokuserar på att undersöka socialarbetares perspektiv angående orsakerna till ungdomars riskfyllda droganvändning samt deras strategier för att arbeta med dessa ungdomar. Genom att tillämpa en kvalitativ forskningsansats och använda ett målstyrt urval av socialarbetare inom socialtjänsten och öppenvården som deltagare, syftar studien till att få en djupare förståelse för de komplexa faktorer som ligger bakom ungas droganvändning. Metoden för dataanalys bestod av tematisk analys, där flera centrala teman identifierades. Dessa inkluderade neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar och psykisk ohälsa, ungdomars sociala sammanhang, familjens ekonomiska situation, föräldrars droganvändning, föräldrars roll i ungdomars drogavvänjning samt nya samhällsfenomen. Genom att fokusera på dessa teman kunde studien belysa olika aspekter av ungdomars droganvändning och dess komplexitet. Ett av de framträdande resultaten från studien var socialarbetarnas uppfattning om sambandet mellan bristande föräldraroll och ungdomars droganvändning. Detta indikerar att familjens dynamik och föräldrarnas engagemang spelar en avgörande roll för att förebygga och hantera riskfylld droganvändning bland ungdomar. Dessutom framkom ytterligare aspekter som påverkar ungdomars relation till droger, såsom sociala interaktioner med jämnåriga, skolans roll och nya samhällsfenomen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Karlsson, Herman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Tellström, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Är bojkott den nya marabousmaken?: En kvalitativ studie om hur krishantering och nyhetsrapportering samspelar2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis examines the phenomenon of consumer boycotts and its correlation between strategies in crisis communication and news framing in written media. When the Swedish chocolate brand Marabou was targeted by news media in late May of 2023 as consumers started to boycott the brand, its parent company Mondelez International faced a challenge trying to repair its brand. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, data were collected through three major written news sources, as well as the affected product’s owner company’s press releases, with two relevant debate articles. The findings suggest a possible correlation between how organizations manage crisis communication with how media outlets frame stories. However, the extent of this impact may vary across different boycotts, as this thesis only analyzes a single event. Furthermore, while this study analyzes a correlation between crisis communication and news framing from written media channels, new technology, such as social media, facilitates new forms of participation, which have not been analyzed in this case. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the evolving relationship between crisis communication and news framing from media channels.

    Download full text (pdf)
    boycott_marabou_fulltext
  • Correia, Filipa
    et al.
    Iti, Larsys, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Neto, Isabel
    INESC-ID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Paulo, Soraia
    Iti, Larsys, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Piedade, Patricia
    Iti, Larsys, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Erel, Hadas
    Media Innovation Lab, Reichman University, Israel.
    Paiva, Ana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. INESC-ID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nicolau, Hugo
    Iti, Larsys, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    The effects of observing robotic ostracism on children's prosociality and basic needs2024In: HRI '24: Proceedings of the 2024 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2024, p. 157-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on robotic ostracism is still scarce and has only explored its effects on adult populations. Although the results revealed important carryover effects of robotic exclusion, there is no evidence yet that those results occur in child-robot interactions. This paper provides the first exploration of robotic ostracism with children. We conducted a study using the Robotic Cyberball Paradigm in a third-person perspective with a sample of 52 children aged between five to ten years old. The experimental study had two conditions: Exclusion and Inclusion. In the Exclusion condition, children observed a peer being excluded by two robots; while in the Inclusion condition, the observed peer interacted equally with the robots. Notably, even 5-year-old children could discern when robots excluded another child. Children who observed exclusion reported lower levels of belonging and control, and exhibited higher prosocial behaviour than those witnessing inclusion. However, no differences were found in children's meaningful existence, self-esteem, and physical proximity across conditions. Our user study provides important methodological considerations for applying the Robotic Cyberball Paradigm with children. The results extend previous literature on both robotic ostracism with adults and interpersonal ostracism with children. We finish discussing the broader implications of children observing ostracism in human-robot interactions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Svensson, Michael B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Lovric, Alen
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, and Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellsten, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Haas, Tara
    Faculty of Health, School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Canada.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, and Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rullman, Eric
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, and Unit of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Discordant gene expression in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues in response to exercise training2024In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e15995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise has different effects on different tissues in the body, the sum of which may determine the response to exercise and the health benefits. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether physical training regulates transcriptional network communites common to both skeletal muscle (SM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Eight such shared transcriptional communities were found in both tissues. Eighteen young overweight adults voluntarily participated in 7 weeks of combined strength and endurance training (five training sessions per week). Biopsies were taken from SM and SAT before and after training. Five of the network communities were regulated by training in SM but showed no change in SAT. One community involved in insulin- AMPK signaling and glucose utilization was upregulated in SM but downregulated in SAT. This diverging exercise regulation was confirmed in two independent studies and was also associated with BMI and diabetes in an independent cohort. Thus, the current finding is consistent with the differential responses of different tissues and suggests that body composition may influence the observed individual whole-body metabolic response to exercise training and help explain the observed attenuated whole-body insulin sensitivity after exercise training, even if it has significant effects on the exercising muscle.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Özçetin, Seda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design. DCODE Network.
    Özçetin, Şeyda
    Hamide Design Studio.
    Making a case for mapping a ToSsphere2023In: Systemic design unmapped: news & notes, Systemic Design Association , 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Terms of Service agreements now govern the ongoing relations between users and digital technologies. However, with their text-based medium preferring complex and lengthy technical and legal jargon, they have demonstrated to be failing in obtaining informed consent. While they have been approached from a perspective of usability in human-computer interaction, in this exhibit, we attempt to introduce a different scale. We start by reading a Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. Then, we translate our repetitive readings into a relational mapping, which we later transpose into a spatial mapping. These mappings not only make visible actors and relations that constitute the complex policy ecosystems that we call ToSspheres, but also serve as entry points to understanding and intervening into these policy ecosystems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Presentation
  • Kleczkowski, Leszek A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Igamberdiev, Abir U.
    Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, NL, St. John’s, Canada.
    Multiple roles of glycerate kinase—from photorespiration to gluconeogenesis, C4 metabolism, and plant immunity2024In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 25, no 6, article id 3258Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant glycerate kinase (GK) was previously considered an exclusively chloroplastic enzyme of the glycolate pathway (photorespiration), and its sole predicted role was to return most of the glycolate-derived carbon (as glycerate) to the Calvin cycle. However, recent discovery of cytosolic GK revealed metabolic links for glycerate to other processes. Although GK was initially proposed as being solely regulated by substrate availability, subsequent discoveries of its redox regulation and the light involvement in the production of chloroplastic and cytosolic GK isoforms have indicated a more refined regulation of the pathways of glycerate conversion. Here, we re-evaluate the importance of GK and emphasize its multifaceted role in plants. Thus, GK can be a major player in several branches of primary metabolism, including the glycolate pathway, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, and C4 metabolism. In addition, recently, the chloroplastic (but not cytosolic) GK isoform was implicated as part of a light-dependent plant immune response to pathogen attack. The origins of glycerate are also discussed here; it is produced in several cell compartments and undergoes huge fluctuations depending on light/dark conditions. The recent discovery of the vacuolar glycerate transporter adds yet another layer to our understanding of glycerate transport/metabolism and that of other two- and three-carbon metabolites.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Tasselius, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vergara, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Karamat, Fazeelat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Imran, Qari Muhammad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Strand, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Björklund, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pseudomonas syringae infectivity correlates to altered transcript and metabolite levels of Arabidopsis mediator mutants2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 6771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid metabolic responses to pathogens are essential for plant survival and depend on numerous transcription factors. Mediator is the major transcriptional co-regulator for integration and transmission of signals from transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II. Using four Arabidopsis Mediator mutants, med16, med18, med25 and cdk8, we studied how differences in regulation of their transcript and metabolite levels correlate to their responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection. We found that med16 and cdk8 were susceptible, while med25 showed increased resistance. Glucosinolate, phytoalexin and carbohydrate levels were reduced already before infection in med16 and cdk8, but increased in med25, which also displayed increased benzenoids levels. Early after infection, wild type plants showed reduced glucosinolate and nucleoside levels, but increases in amino acids, benzenoids, oxylipins and the phytoalexin camalexin. The Mediator mutants showed altered levels of these metabolites and in regulation of genes encoding key enzymes for their metabolism. At later stage, mutants displayed defective levels of specific amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and jasmonates which correlated to their infection response phenotypes. Our results reveal that MED16, MED25 and CDK8 are required for a proper, coordinated transcriptional response of genes which encode enzymes involved in important metabolic pathways for Arabidopsis responses to Pseudomonas syringae infections.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Tuiskunen-Bäck, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Flygare, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Acute myocarditis caused by Francisella tularensis: a case report2023In: SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2523-8973, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 105Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium with either focal or diffuse involvement and usually gives rise to chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, and fatigue. In severe cases, arrythmias, syncope, and cardiogenic shock may occur. Acute myocarditis is most commonly caused by a variety of viruses with cardiotropic properties. Rare causes of myocarditis include bacterial infections. We, herein, describe a case of acute myocarditis caused by the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. A young and previously healthy male in Northern Sweden was referred to the emergency department due to intense upper-chest pain and dyspnea. ECG exhibited minimal ST-segment elevations and laboratory parameters revealed pathological levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein. Radiological imaging showed increased metabolism in enlarged lymph nodes in the chest and signs that could be compatible with increased metabolism in the left ventricular of the heart. The combination of acute myocarditis and enlarged lymph nodes was believed to be caused by the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis, endemic in the Northern Sweden, and was verified with positive serology. The patient showed full recovery after antimicrobial treatment. As this is the fifth published case of myocarditis associated with Francisella tularensis, we suggest considering tularemia in acute myocarditis in tularemia-endemic area.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Rosenbaum, William
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Bovinder Ylitalo, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention.
    Castel, Guillaume
    CBGP, INRAE, CIRAD, Institut Agro, IRD, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
    Sjödin, Andreas
    CBRN Security and Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency - FOI, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Wigren Byström, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Pettersson, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Tuiskunen-Bäck, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing of new and old world Orthohantavirus strains and wild-type Puumala isolates from humans and bank voles2024In: Journal of Clinical Virology, ISSN 1386-6532, E-ISSN 1873-5967, Vol. 172, article id 105672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Orthohantaviruses, transmitted primarily by rodents, cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas. These viruses, with documented human-to-human transmission, exhibit a wide case-fatality rate, 0.5–40 %, depending on the virus species, and no vaccine or effective treatment for severe Orthohantavirus infections exists. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV), carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus, causes a milder form of HFRS. Despite the reliance on serology and PCR for diagnosis, the three genomic segments of Swedish wild-type PUUV have yet to be completely sequenced.

    We have developed a targeted hybrid-capture method aimed at comprehensive genomic sequencing of wild-type PUUV isolates and the identification of other Orthohantaviruses. Our custom-designed panel includes >11,200 probes covering the entire Orthohantavirus genus. Using this panel, we sequenced complete viral genomes from bank vole lung tissue, human plasma samples, and cell-cultured reference strains. Analysis revealed that Swedish PUUV isolates belong to the Northern Scandinavian lineage, with nucleotide diversity ranging from 2.8 % to 3.7 % among them. Notably, no significant genotypic differences were observed between the viral sequences from reservoirs and human cases except in the nonstructural protein.

    Despite the high endemicity of PUUV in Northern Sweden, these are the first complete Swedish wild-type PUUV genomes and substantially increase our understanding of PUUV evolution and epidemiology. The panel's sensitivity enables genomic sequencing of human samples with viral RNA levels reflecting the natural progression of infection and underscores our panel's diagnostic value, and could help to uncover novel Orthohantavirus transmission routes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Pitkänen, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, China.
    Kullen, Anita
    Space and Plasma Physics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chong, Ghai Siung
    Airline Solutions, Digital & IT, Scandinavian Airlines, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Importance of the dusk-dawn interplanetary magnetic field component (IMF By) to magnetospheric convection in Earth’s magnetotail plasma sheet2024In: Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, E-ISSN 2296-987X, Vol. 11, article id 1373249Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar wind and its embedded magnetic field, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) together with magnetic reconnection power the large-scale plasma and magnetic flux circulation in the Earth’s magnetosphere-ionosphere system. This circulation is termed as convection and its strength is controlled by the north-south IMF component (IMF Bz). In recent years, an interest has arisen to investigate the lesser-known role of the dusk-dawn component (IMF By) in convection. It has been previously known though that prevailing nonzero IMF By can cause plasma flow asymmetries in the high-latitude ionosphere, but how the magnetospheric flows, for instance, in the magnetotail plasma sheet are affected, remains to be investigated. In this article, we introduce the recent progress and the latest achievements in the research of the influence of IMF By on tail plasma sheet convection. The research progress has been rapid and it has revealed that both fast and slow convection are affected in a manner that is in accordance with the asymmetries observed in the ionospheric convection. The results indicate the significance of the IMF By component on magnetospheric convection and they represent a major advance in the field of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Wennberg, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Klassifikationsstrukturer, kunskapssystem och världsbilder.: En studie i kunskapsorganisation av Indigenous knowledge.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations as well as the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions highlight the value and the need for appropriate knowledge organization of Indigenous knowledge in memory institutions. This paper seeks to contribute to research in the field of Indigenous librarianship. The purpose of the study is to investigate the need for Indigenous knowledge organization and information retrieval with the help of the following research questions: In what way are Indigenous knowledge systems affected by Western knowledge organization and classification structures? What tools and processes are required in order to implement Indigenous librarianship? Data collection includes semi-structured interviews in addition to literature and audiovisual review. The theoretical framework combines the themes of language revitalization, collaboration and relationality with discussions of indigenization and decolonization. The two cases studied are Indigenous librarianship in Aotearoa-New Zealand and Sweden. The results show that while the Western classification systems have shortcomings related to categorizing of Indigenous knowledge the thesaurus is a tool to work around this problem. The conclusion is that language-revitalization together with national and international collaboration is necessary to assure a deep understanding of Indigenous worldviews and knowledge organization.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Backman, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Sawalha, Sami
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Vanfleteren, Lowie E. G. W.
    COPD Center, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nwaru, Bright I.
    Krefting Research Center, Institution of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    All-cause and cause-specific mortality by spirometric pattern and sex: a population-based cohort study2024In: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, ISSN 1753-4658, E-ISSN 1753-4666, Vol. 18, no January-DecemberArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic airway obstruction (CAO) and restrictive spirometry pattern (RSP) are associated with mortality, but sex-specific patterns of all-cause and specific causes of death have hardly been evaluated.

    Objectives: To study the possible sex-dependent differences of all-cause mortality and patterns of cause-specific mortality among men and women with CAO and RSP, respectively, to that of normal lung function (NLF).

    Design: Population-based prospective cohort study.

    Methods: Individuals with CAO [FEV1/vital capacity (VC) < 0.70], RSP [FEV1/VC ⩾ 0.70 and forced vital capacity (FVC) < 80% predicted] and NLF (FEV1/VC ⩾ 0.70 and FVC ⩾ 80% predicted) were identified within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies in 2002–2004. Mortality data were collected through April 2016, totally covering 19,000 patient-years. Cox regression and Fine–Gray regression accounting for competing risks were utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, smoking habits and pack-years.

    Results: The adjusted hazard for all-cause mortality was higher in CAO and RSP than in NLF (HR, 95% CI; 1.69, 1.31–2.02 and 1.24, 1.06–1.71), and the higher hazards were driven by males. CAO had a higher hazard of respiratory and cardiovascular death than NLF (2.68, 1.05–6.82 and 1.40, 1.04–1.90). The hazard of respiratory death was significant in women (3.41, 1.05–11.07) while the hazard of cardiovascular death was significant in men (1.49, 1.01–2.22). In RSP, the higher hazard for respiratory death remained after adjustment (2.68, 1.05–6.82) but not for cardiovascular death (1.11, 0.74–1.66), with a similar pattern in both sexes.

    Conclusion: The higher hazard for all-cause mortality in CAO and RSP than in NLF was male driven. CAO was associated with respiratory death in women and cardiovascular death in men, while RSP is associated with respiratory death, similarly in both sexes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Lundell, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Harrison, Samantha L.
    Teesside University, School of Health and Life Sciences, Centuria Building, Middlesbrough, UK.
    Hajdarevic, Senada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Swedish translation and psychometric testing of the self-conscious emotions in COPD questionnaire2024In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 226, article id 107624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of self-conscious emotions is important to develop tailored interventions for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous instruments have largely been developed for mental health populations. The Self-Conscious Emotions in COPD Questionnaire was the first instrument to assess self-conscious emotions in people with COPD, but it was only available in English.

    The aim was to translate the Self-Conscious Emotions in COPD Questionnaire into Swedish and to evaluate its psychometric properties and internal structure in a Swedish context.

    The translation process included forward and backward translation, a multidisciplinary meeting, assessment of content validity, and cognitive interviews. The translated instrument was tested in a sample of 173 people with COPD between September 2021 and September 2022. Parallel analysis (PA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and test-retest reliability was performed.

    The content validity index (CVI) for the instrument was 0.88. Based on the PA, an EFA with a two-factor solution was conducted, with a high Cronbach's alpha (0.786-0.821), and one item about self-blame was excluded. The two factors were labelled: The burden of living with a disability and The desire to hide vulnerability. Test-retest reliability showed no difference between scale scores on factor or item level, except for one item.

    The Swedish Self-Conscious Emotions in COPD showed good validity and reliability. One item was excluded from the two subscales, indicating that the instrument needs to be further developed to cover the concept of self-blame. The instrument is expected to be a valuable tool for assessing self-conscious emotions in people with COPD.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Takeuchi, Hajime
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Social Welfare, Bukkyo University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Satoh, Yoichi
    Wakayama Seikyo Hospital, Wakayama, Japan.
    Raman, Shanti
    Department of Community Paediatrics, South Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Liverpool, Australia.
    Spencer, Nick
    Division of Mental Health and Wellbeing, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Did inequalities in mothers’ and children’s health and well-being in Japan increase through the pandemic?: evidence from nationwide surveys and routinely collected data2024In: Children, E-ISSN 2227-9067, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marginalised families faced significant challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores inequalities in Japanese mothers’ and children’s health and well-being and family economic stability before and during the pandemic. Data sources were as follows: nationwide surveys in 2019 and 2021 of families with children using medical institutions across Japan; infant mortality and adolescent suicide rates between 2018 and 2021 from publicly available sources. Outcomes by poor and non-poor families were compared for 2019 and 2021 using simple descriptive statistics. Poor mothers’ part-time working increased from 41% to 61% and regular employment was reduced by two thirds. The well-being of poor mothers worsened from 39% to 55%. Employment opportunities and well-being did not change for non-poor mothers. School subsidies among poor families increased from 23% to 55%. The infant mortality rate (IMR) among unemployed families increased significantly from 12.9/1000 to 18.2/1000 between 2018 and 2021 compared with a decreasing overall IMR from 1.9/1000 to 1.7/1000. Suicide rates in 10–19-year-olds increased over the same period although no socio-economic indicators were available. Inequalities in mothers’ and children’s health and well-being indicators and family economics increased between 2019 to 2021 in Japan. This study cannot attribute causes but suggests a possible role of the pandemic.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Anticona, Cynthia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hansson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Cariology.
    Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Exploring the possible impact of oral nutritional supplements on children’s oral health: an in vitro investigation2024In: Dentistry Journal, E-ISSN 2304-6767, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight pediatric oral nutritional supplements (ONSs) and 0.5% fat bovine milk were examined in vitro regarding their effect on the adhesion of three caries-related bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (strain CCUG 11877T), Lactobacillus gasseri (strain CCUG 31451), and Scardovia wiggsiae (strain CCUG 58090), to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, as well as their pH and capacity to withstand pH changes. Bacteria were cultivated and radiolabeled. The adhesion assays used synthetic hydroxyapatite coated with whole or parotid saliva. Measurements of pH and titration of the products with HCl and NaOH were conducted in triplicate. Three ONSs promoted the S. mutans adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (increase from 35% to >200%), supporting caries risk enhancement. S. wigssiae and L. gasseri adhered only to one and no ONS, respectively. Most supplements had limited buffering capacity to counteract acidification changes, suggesting their low capacity to neutralize acids, and one ONS showed a significant capacity to counteract basic changes, suggesting a high erosive potential. S. mutans adhesion was influenced by the ONS pH and volume NaOH added to reach pH 10. L. gasseri and S. wiggsiae adhesion was influenced by the ONSs’ carbohydrate and fat content. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to increase awareness and prevent the possible negative impact of ONSs on children’s oral health.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Gipperth, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Manka, Michel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mellan ambition och implementering: En kvalitativ studie om kompetensutveckling inom IT- konsultföretag2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the backdrop of a fiercely competitive IT labor market marked by escalating demands on individual competence and heightened client expectations, IT consulting firms confront an uncertain future, necessitating proactive measures to ensure survival. This study aimed to scrutinize competence development methods and strategies within the IT consulting sector, probing how firms address challenges and cater to evolving needs. Employing qualitative methodology, detailed interviews with eleven employees across eight IT consulting companies were conducted and thematically analyzed. Insights gleaned from informants underscored a strategic learning paradigm encompassing both individual initiative and organizational support. Emphasizing the 70-20-10 model, the study highlighted the significance of practice, interaction, and formal education in fostering talent retention and growth. Flexible strategies were identified to tackle challenges like time constraints, enabling continuous personal and professional development. Informal skills enhancement emerged as pivotal, fostering a culture of perpetual learning and knowledge exchange. Notably, follow-up mechanisms and certifications were underscored as essential for effective development initiatives, while the future outlook pointed towards a heightened focus on adapting to emerging technologies like AI and honing soft skills. In essence, the research underscores skills development as a linchpin for the long-term competitiveness and success of IT consulting firms, necessitating ongoing adaptation and innovation in the face of an evolving industry.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Gkekas, Ioannis
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Novotny, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Kaprio, Tuomas
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Beilmann-Lehtonen, Ines
    Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fabian, Pavel
    Department of Oncological Pathology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tavelin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Böckelman, Camilla
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Edin, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Strigård, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Svoboda, Tomas
    Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Faculty Hospital Pilsen, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Hagström, Jaana
    Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Oral Pathology and Radiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Barsova, Lucie
    Department of Clinical Oncology, Comprehensive Oncology Center, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    Jirasek, Tomas
    Department of Pathology, Regional Hospital of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    Haglund, Caj
    Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Gunnarsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sporadic deficient mismatch repair in colorectal cancer increases the risk for non-colorectal malignancy: a European multicenter cohort study2024In: Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0022-4790, E-ISSN 1096-9098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: Disparities between tumors arising via different sporadic carcinogenetic pathways have not been studied systematically. This retrospective multicenter cohort study evaluated the differences in the risk for non-colorectal malignancy between sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from different DNA mismatch repair status.

    Methods: A retrospective European multicenter cohort study including in total of 1706 CRC patients treated between 1996 and 2019 in three different countries. The proficiency (pMMR) or deficiency (dMMR) of mismatch repair was determined by immunohistochemistry. Cases were analyzed for tumor BRAFV600E mutation, and BRAF mutated tumors were further analyzed for hypermethylation status in the promoter region of MLH1 to distinguish between sporadic and hereditary cases. Swedish and Finish patients were matched with their respective National Cancer Registries. For the Czech cohort, thorough scrutiny of medical files was performed to identify any non-colorectal malignancy within 20 years before or after the diagnosis of CRC. Poisson regression analysis was performed to identify the incidence rates of non-colorectal malignancies. For validation purposes, standardized incidence ratios were calculated for the Swedish cases adjusted for age, year, and sex.

    Results: Of the 1706 CRC patients included in the analysis, 819 were female [48%], median age at surgery was 67 years [interquartile range: 60–75], and sporadic dMMR was found in 188 patients (11%). Patients with sporadic dMMR CRC had a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR) for non-colorectal malignancy before and after diagnosis compared to patients with a pMMR tumor, in both uni- (IRR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.89–3.31, p = 0.003) and multivariable analysis (IRR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.67–3.01, p = 0.004). This association applied whether or not the non-colorectal tumor developed before or after the diagnosis of CRC in both uni- (IRR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.28–2.98, p = 0.004), (IRR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.72–3.49, p = 0.004) and multivariable analysis (IRR = 1.67,95% CI = 1.05–2.65, p = 0.029), (IRR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.63–3.42, p = 0.005), respectively.

    Conclusion: In this retrospective European multicenter cohort study, patients with sporadic dMMR CRC had a higher risk for non-colorectal malignancy than those with pMMR CRC. These findings indicate the need for further studies to establish the need for and design of surveillance strategies for patients with dMMR CRC.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Van Damme, Philip
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Neuroscience KU Leuven, Center for Brain & Disease Research VIB, Leuven, Belgium.
    Al-Chalabi, Ammar
    Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Andersen, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Chiò, Adriano
    Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Turin, Italy; Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy.
    Couratier, Philippe
    Centre SLA, CHU Limoges, Limoges, France.
    De Carvalho, Mamede
    Faculdade de Medicina, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Centro Académico de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Hardiman, Orla
    Academic Unit of Neurology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Kuźma-Kozakiewicz, Magdalena
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Ludolph, Albert
    Department of Neurology, Ulm University, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Ulm, Germany.
    McDermott, Christopher J.
    Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Mora, Jesus S.
    ALS Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario San Rafael, Madrid, Spain.
    Petri, Susanne
    Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    Probyn, Katrin
    Cochrane Response, London, United Kingdom.
    Reviers, Evy
    EUpALS (European Organization for Professionals and Patients with ALS) and ALS Liga België, Leuven, Belgium.
    Salachas, François
    Neurology Department, Paris ALS Center, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    Silani, Vincenzo
    Department of Neuroscience and Laboratory of Neuroscience, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy; Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Dino Ferrari Center, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn
    Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    van den Berg, Leonard H.
    Department of Neurology, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Villanueva, Gemma
    Cochrane Response, London, United Kingdom.
    Weber, Markus
    Neuromuscular Diseases Unit/ALS Clinic, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    European academy of neurology (EAN) guideline on the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in collaboration with European reference network for neuromuscular diseases (ERN EURO-NMD)2024In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This update of the guideline on the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was commissioned by the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and prepared in collaboration with the European Reference Network for Neuromuscular Diseases (ERN EURO-NMD) and the support of the European Network for the Cure ALS (ENCALS) and the European Organization for Professionals and Patients with ALS (EUpALS).

    Methods: Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to assess the effectiveness of interventions for ALS. Two systematic reviewers from Cochrane Response supported the guideline panel. The working group identified a total of 26 research questions, performed systematic reviews, assessed the quality of the available evidence, and made specific recommendations. Expert consensus statements were provided where insufficient evidence was available.

    Results: A guideline mapping effort revealed only one other ALS guideline that used GRADE methodology (a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] guideline). The available evidence was scarce for many research questions. Of the 26 research questions evaluated, the NICE recommendations could be adapted for 8 questions. Other recommendations required updates of existing systematic reviews or de novo reviews. Recommendations were made on currently available disease-modifying treatments, multidisciplinary care, nutritional and respiratory support, communication aids, psychological support, treatments for common ALS symptoms (e.g., muscle cramps, spasticity, pseudobulbar affect, thick mucus, sialorrhea, pain), and end-of-life management.

    Conclusions: This update of the guideline using GRADE methodology provides a framework for the management of ALS. The treatment landscape is changing rapidly, and further updates will be prepared when additional evidence becomes available.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Eckardt, Matthias
    et al.
    Chair of Statistics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Moradi, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Rejoinder on ‘marked spatial point processes: current state and extensions to point processes on linear networks’2024In: Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics, ISSN 1085-7117, E-ISSN 1537-2693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are grateful to all discussants for their invaluable comments, suggestions, questions, and contributions to our article. We have attentively reviewed all discussions with keen interest. In this rejoinder, our objective is to address and engage with all points raised by the discussants in a comprehensive and considerate manner. Consistently, we identify the discussants, in alphabetical order, as follows: CJK for Cronie, Jansson, and Konstantinou, DS for Stoyan, GP for Grabarnik and Pommerening, MRS for Myllymäki, Rajala, and Särkkä, and MCvL for van Lieshout throughout this rejoinder.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Nöjd, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    Menscykeln och premenstruella symtom: Livsmedelsval och deras association till upplevd grad av symtom2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Menstrual health is a crucial aspect of the quality of life for girls, women and individuals with a uterus and should be a part of the work for gender equality. Food choices and dietary interventions have been shown to influence the expression of the menstrual cycle and individuals’ experience of premenstrual symptoms.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate potential associations between different types of food choices and other lifestyle factors with the degree of perceived premenstrual symptoms.

    Method: A quantitative online survey was conducted. Survey responses were collected from menstruating individuals aged 15 to 40 years through recruitment via posts in Facebook groups and posters placed on the Umeå University campus between September 13 and September 21, 2023. In total, 105 survey responses were analyzed. The severity of symptoms in different symptom groups and dysmenorrhea were analyzed in relation to categories of food intake (“none”, “low”, and “high”) to explore differences and potential correlations. The analytical techniques utilized included the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

    Results: Higher consumption of “Energy drinks”, “Plant-based dairy”, “Plant-based meat”, “Sweet snacks”, “Coffee”, and “Dairy” was associated with a higher degree of symptoms in one or more symptom groups. Individuals with higher consumption of “Fatty fish” and “White meat” experienced a lower degree of dysmenorrhea.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a strong interconnection between food choicesand individuals’ experiences of their menstrual cycles and symptoms. However, it is important to emphasize that these findings do not imply causation between food choices and symptom severity. This study’s findings are consistent with some prior research and provide additional support for the necessity of further observational and intervention studies to uncover the potential impact of food choices and nutrition on the perceived symptoms of girls, women, and individuals with a uterus, which in turn can influence their overall quality of life. How and to what extent to which dietary modifications could be employed as a treatment option for premenstrual symptoms remains largely unexplored, presenting an opportunity for dietitians to expand their professional scope of practice.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Gustafsson, Felicia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    Tillman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    VUXNA INDIVIDERS INSTÄLLNING TILL KOLHYDRATER: - en kvantitativ enkätundersökning2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Carbohydrates can provide energy to all the cells in the body as well as various nutrients that humans need. Diets, social media, education level, age and gender can all be factors that influence the choice to eat or avoid carbohydrates, or partially exclude them. The dietitian may need to be more accessible in society on behalf of the individual.Objective The aim of this study is to investigate adults’ attitudes towards carbohydrates. Method A quantitative method, using a web survey, has been employed to collect data. The survey was distributed on the authors' own Facebook pages. Data has been analyzed by Chi2 tests and Fischer’s Exact tests. Results The analysis showed that there were no differences between men and women regarding their attitudes towards carbohydrates. Information acquisition differed to some extent depending on education. Younger women experienced to be more affected by social media than other groups examined in this study. Conclusion Age and gender play a role in how messages in social media affect the individual. Understanding how science works and that scientific results often are skewed in the media should be taught.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Lindenius, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sturk, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Edlund, Ann-Catrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    SKRIVUM Delrapport 2022 — vt 20242024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2021 avsatte Umeå universitets rektor medel till Insatser för att stärka studenters språkförmåga samt stöd i studenters akademiska skrivande. Tidigare samma år hade Lärarhögskolan satsat medel på Språkstöd inom området skrivandei lärarutbildningen. Båda satsningarna placerades organisatoriskt vid Institutionen för språkstudier. Där slogs de sedermera ihop till ett projekt under namnet SKRIVUM. Medlen sträcker sig till slutet av 2024 för Lärarhögskolan och till ochmed vårterminen 2025 för Umeå universitet.

    I denna rapport, som riktar sig till båda anslagsgivarna, presenteras SKRIVUM-projektetsbakgrund, struktur och övergripande utfall från hittillsvarande verkstäder samt avslutas med ett förslag till hur projektet framgent bäst kan förvaltas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Lundmark, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kohkoinen, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    "Det ska vara gynnsamt att stanna kvar": En kvalitativ studie om behov och åtgärder för ett hållbart förlängt arbetsliv för undersköterskor2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige står välfärdens kompetensförsörjning i centrum som en av vår tids viktigaste samhällsfrågor. På grund av demografiska förändringar råder det ett ökat behov av arbetskraft, då andelen äldre ökar och andelen arbetsföra minskar. En lösning på detta problem är att förlänga arbetslivet. Detta behov återfinns speciellt inom hälso- och sjukvården, där yrkesgruppen undersköterskor är särskilt efterfrågade. Syftet med denna studie var således att undersöka vad seniora undersköterskor i åldrarna 55-62 år har för inställning till ett förlängt arbetsliv, samt vilka faktorer i arbetet som stödjer men även förhindrar ett förlängt arbetsliv. Vidare ämnade studien att presentera konkreta åtgärder för att främja en längre hållbar anställning av seniora undersköterskor. Studiens metod var av kvalitativ karaktär, bestående av fem semistrukturerade intervjuer med seniora undersköterskor. Resultatet visade att undersköterskornas inställning till pensionen till stor del är påverkningsbar och att ett strategiskt arbete således är nödvändigt. Vidare identifierades faktorer såsom uppskattning och kompetensutveckling som främjande, medan arbetsbelastning och hälsoproblem framstod som hinder för ett längre arbetsliv. Avslutningsvis presenterade studien även flera konkreta åtgärder, däribland olika förmåner samt möjligheter till att påverka sin arbetssituation. Sammantaget visar denna studie att det finns potential för att förlänga arbetslivet hos seniora undersköterskor. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Vestin, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Vasara-Hammare, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Preboardingprocesser inom kommunal verksamhet: Metoder, konsekvenser och kandidatupplevelse2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker preboardingprocesser inom kommunal verksamhet. Kompetensförsörjning har blivit ett allt viktigare område i takt med att arbetsmarknaden förändras. Preboarding är ett relativt nytt och outforskat område samtidigt som det visar sig att processen har stor betydelse för kandidaters upplevelse av organisationen och organisationers förmåga att behålla kompetent personal. Studien genomfördes med kvalitativa intervjuer av semistrukturerad karaktär. Urvalet gjordes utifrån studiens syfte, därför kontaktades HR-personal på åtta kommuner runt om i Sverige. Resultatet visade att kommunerna i studien jobbar med preboarding av olika anledningar och med olika tillvägagångssätt. I alla kommuner skickas övergripande information ut digitalt innan den nyanställdas första dag, resten av processen skiljer sig markant mellan kommunerna. De allra flesta kommuner i studien menade att de fortfarande är i startgroparna av sitt preboardingarbete. Fyra av kommunerna mäter på något sätt hur deras preboardigprocess upplevs. Respondenterna menade att en stor del av ansvaret för pre- och onboardingen ligger på den rekryterande chefen. De flesta kommuner vill digitalisera processen för att minska arbetsbördan. Preboardingprocessen är en stor del av en nyanställds initiala upplevelse av arbetsgivaren och kan påverka den nyanställdas produktivitet samt organisationens arbetsgivarvarumärke. Sammanfattningsvis kan man säga att preboarding lägger en bra grund för nyanställdas upplevelse av sin nya arbetsgivare och deras fortsatta produktivitet, men att processen måste vara välplanerad för att ge de önskade resultaten.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Filippou, Kalypso
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Plamper, Raakel
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Conditions for a meaningful writing retreat: time, space, community and transition2022In: Journal of Praxis in Higher Education, E-ISSN 2003-3605, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 56-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates a five-day residential retreat for seven women from one academic institution and examines writing retreats through the analysis of texts written by the participants. The aims of this paper are 1) to develop more knowledge about the experiences of what constitutes good conditions for writing in a writing retreat context, and 2) to identify elements of a meaningful writing retreat. The experiences and reflections of the participants are examined and concludes to four conditions that shaped the meaningfulness of the retreat: transition, space, time, and community.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Jonsson, Ronja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hänfridsson, Fanny Susanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Som ny är det svårt att säga till om man har för mycket" - En kvalitativ studie om nyutexaminerade socialsekreterares arbete inom barn och unga2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of and gain insight into what influences the daily work of newly graduated social workers in the field of children and youth. Based on this purpose, we have sought answers through the following research questions: What organizational factors affect the ability of newly graduated social workers to perform what they consider good social work? What strategies do newly graduated social workers use to address challenges in their daily social work? What are the organizational and personal conditions for applying courage in practical social work? We conducted semi-structured interviews with five newly graduated social workers working in different parts of the country. The material was then analyzed using two coping-based theories, Hirschman's (1970) theory of exit, voice and loyalty, as well as Astvik and Melin's (2016) theory of survival strategies. The results showed that inadequate introduction and support, high workload and high staff turnover negatively affect the opportunities to do a good job. A high level of trust in management and the work group, as well as good opportunities for collegial support, positively affects the opportunities to perform good work. The action strategies we found that the social workers used were working overtime or skipping breaks to catch up, shutting down emotionally to cope with the workload, shifting responsibility to someone else and distancing them-selves from colleagues to cope with the high staff turnover. The opportunities to apply courage in practical social work are affected by organizational factors such as the composition of the group, trust in management and patterns in leadership behavior. Personal conditions that can affect the use of courage are previous experiences and what personal qualities the social worker possesses

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Jokila, Suvi
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Filippou, Kalypso
    Department of Teacher Education, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scaling through the pandemic: an analysis of international students’ experiences2023In: Policy Futures in Education, E-ISSN 1478-2103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In educational research, scales are often presented as the ontological reality of a study. This study problematises this starting point and suggests approaching scales as experienced and epistemically used. Thus, this study asks how international students studying at Finnish universities during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic negotiated their experiences using scales and scaling. The analysis was based on the responses (n = 84) to an open-ended question in an online survey. The survey was distributed in the spring of 2020 to international students studying in universities across Finland. We conducted an abductive analysis of how the international students employed scales in their reflections on their lives during the pandemic. Theoretically, we draw from the conceptualisation of scales, which we suggest provides an analytical lens for understanding subjective experiences, and rescaling, which students used in making sense of their experiences. We argue that international students made sense of their everyday lives during the pandemic through scales and rescaling, contributing to their sense of belonging and sense of (in)equality.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Alammar, Tarek
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O Box 400, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
    Mudring, Anja-Verena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Department of Biological & Chemical Engineering, Intelligent Advanced Materials, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Synthesis and exploration of Barium Stannate-Zirconate BaSn1-xZrxO3 (0 ≤ X ≤ 1) solid solutions as photocatalysts2024In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 63, no 14, p. 6132-6140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing ionic liquid-assisted microwave synthesis and moderate heat treatment allows for the preparation of otherwise difficult-to-obtain perovskite-type BaSn1-xZrxO3 solid solutions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). The impact of substituting Sn for the crystal structure, crystallinity, morphology, and photocatalytic performance was investigated. The obtained materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Raman and IR spectroscopy. SEM images show that the morphology of the samples varies from rods for x = 0, 0.2 to spherical for x = 0.5, 0.8, 1. Upon Zr for Sn substitution, the band gap changes from 3.1 to 5.0 eV as the valence and conduction bands move to lower and higher energies. The photocatalytic activities of the BaSn1-xZrxO3 samples in the hydroxylation of terephthalic acid (TA) follow the order BaSn0.5Zr0.5O3> BaSn0.8Zr0.2O3> BaSnO3> BaSn0.2Zr0.8O3> BaZrO3. The superior photocatalytic activity of BaSn0.5Zr0.5O3 can be attributed to the synergistically favorable combination of a suitable band structure, band gap size, and increased surface area-to-volume ratio, resulting in a diminished crystalline particle size unattainable from samples prepared via traditional synthetic routes or without ionic liquid.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Brycke, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Memory Disorders and Geriatrics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Bråndal, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Brogårdh, Christina
    Department of Neurology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Memory Disorders and Geriatrics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Implementation of evidence-based interventions according to the Swedish national guidelines for strokecare: a nationwide survey among physiotherapists2024In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 56, article id jrm18444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate (i) to what extent physiotherapists (PTs) working in stroke rehabilitation in various parts of the stroke care chain have implemented interventions according to the national guidelines for stroke (NGS), (ii) facilita-ting and hindering factors for the implementation, and (iii) differences between various care settings.

    Design: A cross-sectional study.

    Subjects: 148 PTs working in stroke rehabilitation in various parts of the care chain in Sweden.

    Methods: Data were collected by a web-based survey.

    Results: Task-specific training for walking (80–98%), impaired motor function (64–100%) and fall prevention (73–92%) were most implemented. Factors that facilitated implementation were: important to comply with the NGS, that PTs had confidence to per-form the interventions, and that interventions were clearly described. Limited time, lack of resources, no clear goals or routines at the workplace hindered the implementation. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the settings existed. Municipal and primary care reported most challenges in implementing the NGS and providing evidence-based interventions.

    Conclusion: Most interventions, with high priority according to NGS, are provided by PTs working in stroke rehabilitation, although differences in various parts of the care chain exist. Knowledge, time, education and supportive management are important factors when implementing evidence-based interventions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Bjurström, Oliver
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Karling, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    The association between drugs and repeated treatment with budesonide in patients with microscopic colitis: a retrospective observational study2024In: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, ISSN 1756-283X, E-ISSN 1756-2848, Vol. 17, no January-DecemberArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Smoking and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and statins have been associated with microscopic colitis (MC).

    Objectives: We investigated whether these factors were associated with repeated budesonide treatments in patients diagnosed with MC.

    Design: Retrospective observational study.

    Methods: All patients with a histologically verified diagnosis of MC at our clinic between the years 2006 and 2022 were identified. Baseline factors and drugs prescribed before and after diagnosis were registered. The influence of risk factors on the odds of having a prescription of oral budesonide and the odds of having a second course of budesonide was studied.

    Results: Patients with MC (n = 183) with a mean age of 62.3 years [standard deviation (SD): 13.3 years] were followed for a median of 5 years (25th–75th percentile 4–10 years) after diagnosis. In all, 138 patients (75%) had at least one prescription of budesonide after diagnosis, and 90 patients (49%) had at least one clinical relapse treated with budesonide. Patients who had been prescribed NSAIDs within 1 year before clinical relapse had higher odds for clinical relapse [odds ratio (OR): 3.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–12.9] but there was no increased risk for clinical relapse for the use of ASA (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.39–2.90), PPIs (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.45–2.63), SSRI (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.82–2.44), or statins (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.35–1.99). No association was seen between being a smoker and/or being prescribed NSAID, ASA, PPI, SSRI, and statins at baseline and the odds of having a prescription of oral budesonide within 1 year after diagnosis.

    Conclusion: The risk of being prescribed a second course of budesonide is associated with receiving a prescription of NSAIDs but not with the use of ASA, PPIs, SSRIs, and statins.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Canu Blot, Romain
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Wieser, Martin
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Upper limit of the solar wind protons backscattering efficiency from Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2024In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 683, article id A245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Solar wind ions backscattering is a fundamental plasma-surface interaction process that may occur on all celestial bodies exposed to the solar wind and lacking a significant atmosphere or magnetosphere. Yet, observations have been limited to the regolith-covered Moon and Phobos, one of the Martian moons.

    Aims. We aim to expand our knowledge of the process to include comets by investigating the backscattering of solar wind protons from the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

    Methods. We used one of the ion spectrometers on board ESA s Rosetta spacecraft to search for evidence of backscattered solar wind protons from the cometary surface. The signal of interest was expected to be very weak and several statistical treatments of the data were essential to eliminate any influence from background noise and instrumental effects. Due to limited knowledge of the signal location within the observed parameter space, we conducted a statistical analysis to identify the most probable conditions for detecting the signal.

    Results. No significant solar wind backscattered protons were ever observed by the instrument. The statement applies to the large spectrum of observation conditions. An upper limit of the backscattered proton flux is given, as well as an upper limit of the backscattering efficiency of 9 A 104.

    Conclusions. The surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko distinguishes itself as a notably weak reflector of solar wind protons, with its backscattering efficiency, at most, as large as the lowest observed backscattering efficiency from the lunar regolith.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Ballo, Anduena
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Varis, Sotiria
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mathies, Charles
    Old Dominion University, United States; University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Filippou, Kalypso
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. University of Turku, Finland.
    International master’s degree students’ experiences of support at a Finnish university2024In: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education, ISSN 2535-4051, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This phenomenographic study explores international master’s degree students’ ways of experiencing support in Finnish higher education. The study draws on Schlossberg’s Transition Model and the Culturally Engaging Campus Environments Model as a conceptual framework. The phenomenographic analysis of 17 interviews with international master’s degree students identified four ways of experiencing support as: (a) study system adjustment, (b) learning enhancement, (c) personal growth, and (d) autonomy development. The findings identified participants’ experiencing support in relationships, use of information, communication, services, the flexibility of studies, learning and study environments. The presence of two indicators, Humanizing Educational Environments and Availability of Holistic Support suggested that the campus environment was culturally responsive to academic and personal support of international degree students. The findings contribute to the understanding of support for international degree students in higher education and may be used to develop services to support international degree students’ social, cultural, and career integration into host communities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Alonso-Magdalena, Lucía
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, Skåne University Hospital and Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Carmona i Codina, Olga
    Department of Neurology, Fundacio Salut Emporda, Figueres and Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Girona University, Spain.
    Zia, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sundström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène
    Department of Rehabilitation medicine, Skåne University Hospital and Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Prevalence and disease disability in immigrants with multiple sclerosis in Malmö, southern Sweden2024In: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery, ISSN 0303-8467, E-ISSN 1872-6968, Vol. 240, article id 108255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the major non-traumatic cause of permanent disability in young adults. Several migration studies have been performed over the years suggesting a pattern of higher disease disability in certain ethnic groups. To our knowledge, differences in disease progression in immigrants have not been studied in Sweden before. Thus, the aims of our study were to estimate the prevalence of multiple sclerosis among first-generation immigrants in the City of Malmö and to compare differences in disease severity with the native population.

    Methods: All persons with multiple sclerosis living in Malmö on prevalence day 31 Dec 2010 were included. Cases were classified according to the country of birth into Scandinavians, Western and non-Western.

    Results: The crude prevalence was 100/100,000 (95% CI, 80–124) among first-generation immigrants, 154/100,000 (95% CI, 137–173) among individuals with Scandinavian background, 123/100,000 (95% CI, 94–162) in the Western group and 76/100,000 (95% CI, 53–108) in the non-Western group. The mean Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) value among Scandinavians was 4.2 (SD 3.5), whereas the figures in the immigrant group were 4.6 (SD 3.3) and 5.2 (SD 3.7) among Westerns respectively non-Westerns, which differences were not statistically significant. When adjusting for gender, age at onset and initial disease course, the mean MSSS difference between the non-Western and the Scandinavian individuals was 1.7 (95% CI 0.18–3.3, p = 0.030). There were no differences on time to diagnosis or the time from diagnosis to treatment initiation between the three groups.

    Conclusions: We found a lower prevalence among Western and non-Western first-generation immigrants compared to the Scandinavian population and a more severe disease in non-Western immigrants than in Scandinavians.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Asaba, Eric
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Unit for Research, Education, Development, and Innovation, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden; Research Group in Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mondaca, Margarita
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Josephsson, Staffan
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Everyday influence – democracy when health and social care are part of everyday life2021In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 2229-2238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to ongoing discussions about frailty and vulnerability in critical gerontology by asserting that possibilities to engage and enact influence in everyday life situations is a crucial dimension of democracy in later life. We discuss how democracy in this sense can be threatened for older persons for whom health and social care services are needed, following from the labelling practices of frailty and the non-recognition of the social processes that set capabilities in motion. We utilise three examples grounded in research with older persons in their home environment in a Swedish context. The examples show how older people use creative, emotional, practical and social resources to integrate activities in a manner that address their needs and capabilities, and influence the situations in direction towards how and when to be engaged in everyday activities. Based on a discussion of the examples, we argue that health and social care services that provide and build social infrastructures need to recognise the potential concurrency of interdependency, vulnerability and agency within older persons’ local everyday practices. This to address capabilities and enable concrete expression of democracy in everyday situations. Overall, we suggest that conceptual and methodological shifts in research, as well as policy and practice, are needed to bring democratic processes forward through the relational and situated aspects of resources, agency and influence.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Adamopoulou, Eirini
    et al.
    School of Education, Department of Primary Education, Νational and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece .
    Scheer, Sarah
    IB University of Applied Health and Social Sciences, Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mondaca, Margarita
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Creating brave spaces in higher education: a short interprofessional education exchange to support refugees’ psychosocial needs2022In: International Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 1927-6044, E-ISSN 1927-6052, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 73-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential traumatic experiences, prior, during and after migration, are the most common risk factors consistently associated with higher rates of mental disorders among refugees. The complex nature of refugee social and health challenges requires a holistic and comprehensive approach to achieve health equity. That is why, interprofessional education and collaboration among health and psychosocial care professionals is becoming increasingly crucial to build strong foundations for socially relevant work for refugees. Academic institutions can provide learning activities to advance students’ interprofessional knowledge and competences before they enter the workforce. This study explored higher education students’ experiences and reflections on a short-term interprofessional exchange that aimed to promote mental health and psychosocial support for refugees. Participants were higher education students from Germany, Greece, Sweden, and Spain representing the fields of psychology, occupational therapy, social work, pedagogy, medicine, and nursing. A qualitative study compromising two focus groups carried out at the end and 18 months after the interprofessional exchanges. Thematic analysis resulted in four themes: a) from curiosity to responsible action, b) my cultural humility journey, c) companion stories, and d) brave spaces and a sense of hope. Interprofessional collaboration emerged as a key strategy in protecting human rights and providing equal opportunities in psychosocial support of refugees. Findings highlight the value of short-term interprofessional exchanges for preparing higher education students in health and social care to move and be responsive in intercultural societies and contexts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Hultman, Lill
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Family Medicine and Primary Healthcare, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Asaba, Eric
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Unit for Research, Education, Development, and Innovation, Stockholms Sjukhem, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Riedel, Dorothee
    Spinalis Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abdu, Sara
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Afe, Helen
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Atafnu, Rahel
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Ejigu, Lili
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Bolling, Jamie
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Negussie, Mahelet
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Ntobua, Julius
    Disabled Refugees Welcome, Independent Living Institute, Farsta, Sweden.
    Mondaca, Margarita
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Migration and disability narratives from an intersectional perspective: a photovoice study2023In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore everyday life experiences of migration and disability from an intersectional perspective drawing on issues such as gender, class, and ethnicity. This is relevant because when focus is on either migration or disability, unique challenges faced by disabled migrants are neglected, leading to fragmented support and a lack of accurate knowledge. The analysis is based on retrospective data from photovoice sessions conducted within the context of a community-based project, Disabled Refugees Welcome (DRW). A secondary analysis has involved eight of the members from the original photovoice sessions as well as academics. The results are presented in a narrative thematic analysis. The findings show how the combined effects of liminality, structural violence (lack of accessible and adapted housing, lack of access to knowledge about societal resources), and multiple discrimination risks can result in permanent exclusion.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Majoros, Erika
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Linking the first- and second-phase IEA studies on mathematics and science2023In: Large-scale assessments in education, E-ISSN 2196-0739, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Majoros, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Christiansen, Andrés
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Cuellar, Edwin
    Cito, The Netherlands.
    Motivation towards mathematics from 1980 to 2015: exploring the feasibility of trend scaling2022In: Studies in Educational Evaluation, ISSN 0191-491X, E-ISSN 1879-2529, Vol. 74, article id 101174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been assessing students' attitudes every fourth year since 1995. The trend scaling of these constructs started in 2011, fueling interest in exploring how different education systems perform regarding affective outcomes of education. This study explored the feasibility of establishing long-term motivational scales extended with the Second International Mathematics Study administered between 1976 and 1982. We investigated whether cross-cultural comparability holds and how different methodological approaches influence the long-term scaling of motivation towards mathematics. We used grade eight data from five educational systems that have participated in every time point up to 2015. We followed three alternatives: an item response theory-, a confirmatory factor analysis-, and a market-basket approach. Our results show that the three methods provide similar trends at the country level and high correlations at the student level. We discuss methodological implications in the context of international large-scale assessments.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Majoros, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosén, Monica
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Measures of long-term trends in mathematics: linking large-scale assessments over 50 years2021In: Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, ISSN 1874-8597, E-ISSN 1874-8600, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 71-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International comparative assessments of student achievement are constructed to assess country-level differences and change over time. A coherent understanding of the international trends in educational outcomes is strongly needed as suggested by numerous previous studies. Investigating these trends requires long-term analysis, as substantial changes on the system level are rarely observed regarding student outcomes in short periods (i.e., between adjacent international assessment cycles). The present study aims to link recent and older studies conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) onto a common scale to study long-term trends within and across countries. It explores the comparability of the achievement tests of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study and previous IEA studies on mathematics in grade eight. Employing item response theory, we perform a concurrent calibration of item parameters to link the eight studies onto a common scale spanning the period from 1964 to 2015 using data from England, Israel, Japan, and the USA.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Svenmarker, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Claesson Lingehall, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Malmqvist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Appelblad, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Plasma hyperosmolality during cardiopulmonary bypass is a risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury: results from double blind randomised controlled trial2024In: Perfusion, ISSN 0267-6591, E-ISSN 1477-111XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study objective was to investigate whether a Ringer’s acetate based priming solution with addition of Mannitol and sodium concentrate increases the risk of cardiac surgery associated kidney injury (CSA-AKI).

    Methods: This is a double blind, prospective randomized controlled trial from a single tertiary teaching hospital in Sweden including patients aged ≥65 years (n = 195) admitted for routine cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients in the study group received Ringer’s acetate 1000 mL + 400 mL Mannitol (60 g) + sodium chloride 40 mL (160 mmol) and heparin 2 mL (10 000 IU) 966 mOsmol (n = 98), while patients in the control group received Ringer’s acetate 1400 mL + heparin 2 mL (10 000 IU), 388 mOsmol (n = 97) as pump prime. Acute kidney injury was analysed based on the Kidney Disease Improving Outcomes (KDIGO 1-3) definition.

    Results: The overall incidence of CSA-AKI (KDIGO stage 1) was 2.6% on day 1 in the ICU and 5.6% on day 3, postoperatively. The serum creatinine level did not show any postoperative intergroup differences, when compared to baseline preoperative values. Six patients in the Ringer and five patients in the Mannitol group developed CSA-AKI (KDIGO 1-3), all with glomerular filtration rates <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. These patients showed significantly higher plasma osmolality levels compared to preoperative values. Hyperosmolality together with patient age and the duration of the surgery were independent risk factors for postoperative acute kidney injury (KDIGO 1-3).

    Conclusions: The use of a hyperosmolar prime solution did not increase the incidence of postoperative CSA-AKI in this study, while high plasma osmolality alone increased the associated risk by 30%. The data suggests further examination of plasma hyperosmolality as a relative risk factor of CSA-AKI.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Matovu, A.
    et al.
    Mubende Regional Referral Hospital, Plot 6, Kakumiro Road, Mubende, Uganda; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfgren, J.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wladis, A.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nordin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sandblom, G.
    Department of Surgery, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, H.J.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incidence of groin hernia repairs in women and parity: a population-based cohort study among women born in Sweden between 1956 and 19832024In: Hernia, ISSN 1265-4906, E-ISSN 1248-9204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between parity and the incidence rate of groin hernia repair in women.

    Method: This study was based on two Swedish national registers, the Medical Birth Register (MBR), and the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR). The cohort constituted of women born between 1956 and 1983. Data on vaginal and cesarean deliveries were retrieved from the MBR. The birth and hernia registers were cross matched to identify hernia repairs carried out after deliveries.

    Results: A total of 1,535,379 women were born between 1956 and 1983. Among these, 1,417,237 (92.3%) were registered for at least one birth. The incidence rate for Inguinal Hernia Repair (IHR) and Femoral Hernia Repair (FHR) was 10.7 per 100,000 person-year and 2.6 per 100,000 person-year, respectively. Compared with women registered for one delivery, the incidence rate ratio for IHR was 1.31 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.23–1.40) among women registered for two deliveries, 1.70 (1.58–1.82) among women registered for ≥ 3 deliveries. Additionally, the incidence rate ratios were higher 1.30 (1.14–1.49) and 1.70 (1.49–1.95) for FHR among women with two and ≥ 3 registered deliveries, respectively.

    Conclusion: In the present cohort, higher parity was associated with a higher incidence of inguinal as well as FHRs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext