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Rudberg, D., Schenk, J., Pajala, G., Sawakuchi, H., Sieczko, A., Sundgren, I., . . . Bastviken, D. (2024). Contribution of gas concentration and transfer velocity to CO2 flux variability in northern lakes. Limnology and Oceanography, 69(4), 818-833
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of gas concentration and transfer velocity to CO2 flux variability in northern lakes
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2024 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 818-833Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The CO2 flux (FCO2) from lakes to the atmosphere is a large component of the global carbon cycle and depends on the air–water CO2 concentration gradient (ΔCO2) and the gas transfer velocity (k). Both ΔCO2 and k can vary on multiple timescales and understanding their contributions to FCO2 is important for explaining variability in fluxes and developing optimal sampling designs. We measured FCO2 and ΔCO2 and derived k for one full ice-free period in 18 lakes using floating chambers and estimated the contributions of ΔCO2 and k to FCO2 variability. Generally, k contributed more than ΔCO2 to short-term (1–9 d) FCO2 variability. With increased temporal period, the contribution of k to FCO2 variability decreased, and in some lakes resulted in ΔCO2 contributing more than k to FCO2 variability over the full ice-free period. Increased contribution of ΔCO2 to FCO2 variability over time occurred across all lakes but was most apparent in large-volume southern-boreal lakes and in deeper (> 2 m) parts of lakes, whereas k was linked to FCO2 variability in shallow waters. Accordingly, knowing the variability of both k and ΔCO2 over time and space is needed for accurate modeling of FCO2 from these variables. We conclude that priority in FCO2 assessments should be given to direct measurements of FCO2 at multiple sites when possible, or otherwise from spatially distributed measurements of ΔCO2 combined with k-models that incorporate spatial variability of lake thermal structure and meteorology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
National Category
Ecology Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221779 (URN)10.1002/lno.12528 (DOI)001163039500001 ()2-s2.0-85185669928 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0083EU, Horizon 2020, 725546Swedish Research Council, 2016-04829Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01794
Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-06-19Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, J., Verheijen, H., Seekell, D. A., Vachon, D. & Klaus, M. (2024). Ice-melt period dominates annual carbon dioxide evasion from clear-water Arctic lakes. Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 9(2), 112-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ice-melt period dominates annual carbon dioxide evasion from clear-water Arctic lakes
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2024 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion from Arctic lakes are highly uncertain because few studies integrate seasonal variability, specifically evasion during spring ice-melt. We quantified annual CO2 evasion for 14 clear-water Arctic lakes in Northern Sweden through mass balance (ice-melt period) and high-frequency loggers (open-water period). On average, 80% (SD: ± 18) of annual CO2 evasion occurred within 10 d following ice-melt. The contribution of the ice-melt period to annual CO2 evasion was high compared to earlier studies of Arctic lakes (47% ± 32%). Across all lakes, the proportion of ice-melt : annual CO2 evasion was negatively related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration and positively related to the mean depth of the lakes. The results emphasize the need for measurements of CO2 exchange at ice-melt to accurately quantify CO2 evasion from Arctic lakes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
National Category
Physical Geography Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198781 (URN)10.1002/lol2.10369 (DOI)001126709300001 ()2-s2.0-85179921180 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0083Swedish Research Council, 2016-05275
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2022-08-24 Created: 2022-08-24 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
Puts, I. C., Ask, J., Deininger, A., Jonsson, A., Karlsson, J. & Bergström, A.-K. (2023). Browning affects pelagic productivity in northern lakes by surface water warming and carbon fertilization. Global Change Biology, 29(2), 375-390
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Browning affects pelagic productivity in northern lakes by surface water warming and carbon fertilization
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2023 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global change impacts important environmental drivers for pelagic gross primary production (GPP) in northern lakes, such as temperature, light, nutrient, and inorganic carbon availability. Separate and/or synergistic impacts of these environmental drivers on pelagic GPP remain largely unresolved. Here, we assess key drivers of pelagic GPP by combining detailed depth profiles of summer pelagic GPP with environmental and climatic data across 45 small and shallow lakes across northern Sweden (20 boreal, 6 subarctic, and 19 arctic lakes). We found that across lakes summer pelagic GPP was strongest associated with lake water temperatures, lake carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations impacted by lake water pH, and further moderated by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations influencing light and nutrient conditions. We further used this dataset to assess the extent of additional DOC-induced warming of epilimnia (here named internal warming), which was especially pronounced in shallow lakes (decreasing 0.96°C for every decreasing m in average lake depth) and increased with higher concentrations of DOC. Additionally, the total pools and relative proportion of dissolved inorganic carbon and DOC, further influenced pelagic GPP with drivers differing slightly among the boreal, subarctic and Arctic biomes. Our study provides novel insights in that global change affects pelagic GPP in northern lakes not only by modifying the organic carbon cycle and light and nutrient conditions, but also through modifications of inorganic carbon supply and temperature. Considering the large-scale impacts and similarities of global warming, browning and recovery from acidification of lakes at higher latitudes throughout the northern hemisphere, these changes are likely to operate on a global scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
acidification, bicarbonate system, DOC, inorganic carbon, primary production, stoichiometry, supersaturation, temperature
National Category
Physical Geography Ecology Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201183 (URN)10.1111/gcb.16469 (DOI)000869699400001 ()36197126 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85140013427 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0083Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00486Ecosystem dynamics in the Baltic Sea in a changing climate perspective - ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2022-11-23 Created: 2022-11-23 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Vachon, D., Sponseller, R. A., Rosvall, M. & Karlsson, J. (2023). Controls on terrestrial carbon fluxes in simulated networks of connected streams and lakes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 37(3), Article ID e2022GB007597.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controls on terrestrial carbon fluxes in simulated networks of connected streams and lakes
2023 (English)In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 37, no 3, article id e2022GB007597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inland waters play a critical role in the carbon cycle by emitting significant amounts of land-exported carbon to the atmosphere. While carbon gas emissions from individual aquatic systems have been extensively studied, how networks of connected streams and lakes regulate integrated fluxes of organic and inorganic forms remain poorly understood. Here, we develop a process-based model to simulate the fate of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in artificial inland water networks with variable topology, hydrology, and DOC reactivity. While the role of lakes is highly dependent on DOC reactivity, we find that the mineralization of terrestrial DOC is more efficient in lake-rich networks. Regardless of typology and hydrology, terrestrial CO2 is emitted almost entirely within the network boundary. Consequently, the proportion of exported terrestrial carbon emitted from inland water networks increases with the CO2 versus DOC export ratio. Overall, our results suggest that CO2 emissions from inland waters are governed by interactions between the relative amount and reactivity of terrestrial DOC and CO2 inputs and the network configuration of recipient lakes and streams.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
aquatic network, carbon cycle, CO2 emission, DOC mineralization, modeling
National Category
Ecology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206457 (URN)10.1029/2022GB007597 (DOI)000973568600001 ()2-s2.0-85151084699 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations, 2016.0083Swedish Research Council, 2020-04445
Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Golub, M., Koupaei-Abyazani, N., Vesala, T., Mammarella, I., Ojala, A., Bohrer, G., . . . Desai, A. R. (2023). Diel, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in carbon dioxide effluxes from lakes and reservoirs. Environmental Research Letters, 18(3), Article ID 034046.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diel, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in carbon dioxide effluxes from lakes and reservoirs
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 18, no 3, article id 034046Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accounting for temporal changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) effluxes from freshwaters remains a challenge for global and regional carbon budgets. Here, we synthesize 171 site-months of flux measurements of CO2 based on the eddy covariance method from 13 lakes and reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere, and quantify dynamics at multiple temporal scales. We found pronounced sub-annual variability in CO2 flux at all sites. By accounting for diel variation, only 11% of site-months were net daily sinks of CO2. Annual CO2 emissions had an average of 25% (range 3%-58%) interannual variation. Similar to studies on streams, nighttime emissions regularly exceeded daytime emissions. Biophysical regulations of CO2 flux variability were delineated through mutual information analysis. Sample analysis of CO2 fluxes indicate the importance of continuous measurements. Better characterization of short- and long-term variability is necessary to understand and improve detection of temporal changes of CO2 fluxes in response to natural and anthropogenic drivers. Our results indicate that existing global lake carbon budgets relying primarily on daytime measurements yield underestimates of net emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing, 2023
Keywords
carbon flux, eddy covariance, freshwater systems, lakes, reservoirs, synthesis
National Category
Climate Research Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205919 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/acb834 (DOI)000953683700001 ()2-s2.0-85150029537 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon Europe, 101056921EU, Horizon Europe, 312571EU, Horizon Europe, 282842Swedish Research Council, 2016-04153Swedish Research Council, 2020-03222
Available from: 2023-03-27 Created: 2023-03-27 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Krickov, I. V., Lim, A. G., Shirokova, L. S., Korets, M. А., Karlsson, J. & Pokrovsky, O. S. (2023). Environmental controllers for carbon emission and concentration patterns in Siberian rivers during different seasons. Science of the Total Environment, 859, Article ID 160202.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental controllers for carbon emission and concentration patterns in Siberian rivers during different seasons
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2023 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 859, article id 160202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the importance of small and medium size rivers of Siberian boreal zone in greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, major knowledge gaps exist regarding its temporal variability and controlling mechanisms. Here we sampled 11 pristine rivers of the southern taiga biome (western Siberia Lowland, WSL), ranging in watershed area from 0.8 to 119,000 km2, to reveal temporal pattern and examine main environmental controllers of GHG emissions from the river water surfaces. Floating chamber measurements demonstrated that CO2 emissions from water surface decreased by 2 to 4-folds from spring to summer and autumn, were independent of the size of the watershed and stream order and did not exhibit sizable (>30 %, regardless of season) variations between day and night. The CH4 concentrations and fluxes increased in the order “spring ≤ summer < autumn” and ranged from 1 to 15 μmol L−1 and 5 to 100 mmol m−2 d−1, respectively. The CO2 concentrations and fluxes (range from 100 to 400 μmol L−1 and 1 to 4 g C m−2 d−1, respectively) were positively correlated with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, total nitrogen and bacterial number of the water column. The CH4 concentrations and fluxes were positively correlated with phosphate and ammonia concentrations. Of the landscape parameters, positive correlations were detected between riparian vegetation biomass and CO2 and CH4 concentrations. Over the six-month open-water period, areal emissions of C (>99.5 % CO2; <0.5 % CH4) from the watersheds of 11 rivers were equal to the total downstream C export in this part of the WSL. Based on correlations between environmental controllers (watershed land cover and the water column parameters), we hypothesize that the fluxes are largely driven by riverine mineralization of terrestrial dissolved and particulate OC, coupled with respiration at the river bottom and riparian sediments. It follows that, under climate warming scenario, most significant changes in GHG regimes of western Siberian rivers located in permafrost-free zone may occur due to changes in the riparian zone vegetation and water coverage of the floodplains.

Keywords
Boreal, CH4, CO2, Emission, Landscape, Organic carbon, River
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201370 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160202 (DOI)000898641100013 ()36395838 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85142295491 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-30 Created: 2022-11-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Koizumi, S., Hamdan, M., Callisto Puts, I., Bergström, A.-K., Karlsson, J. & Byström, P. (2023). Experimental warming and browning influence autumnal pelagic and benthic invertebrate biomass and community structure. Freshwater Biology, 68(7), 1224-1237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental warming and browning influence autumnal pelagic and benthic invertebrate biomass and community structure
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2023 (English)In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 1224-1237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]
  1. Globally, lakes are warming and browning with ongoing climate change. These changes significantly impact a lake's biogeochemical properties and all organisms, including invertebrate consumers. The effects of these changes are essential to understand, especially during critical periods after and before the growing season, that is, autumn and spring, which can determine the composition of the invertebrate consumer community.
  2. In this study, we used a large-scale experimental pond system to test the combined effect of warming (+3°C) and increased input of terrestrial and coloured dissolved organic carbon (gradient of 1.6–8.8 mg/L in the ambient and 1.6–9.3 mg/L in the warm)—which causes browning—on zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate biomass and composition during the autumn and the following spring.
  3. Total zooplankton biomass decreased with warming and increased with browning, while total zoobenthos did not respond to either treatment. Warming and browning throughout the autumn had no overall interactive effects on zooplankton or zoobenthos. Autumnal warming decreased total pelagic consumer biomass, caused by a decrease in both Rotifera and Copepoda. In contrast, there was no effect on overall benthic consumer biomass, with only Asellus sp. biomass showing a negative response to warming. An autumnal increase in dissolved organic carbon led to increased total pelagic consumer biomass, which was related to increases in Daphnia sp. biomass but did not affect zoobenthos biomass. While we expected zooplankton and zoobenthos biomass to follow responses in primary and bacterial production to treatments, we did not find any relationship between consumer groups and these estimates of resource production.
  4. Our results suggest that consumer responses to warming and browning during autumn may lead to less overarching general changes in consumer biomass, and responses are mostly taxon-specific.
  5. This study gives novel insights into the effects of warming and browning on consumer biomass during autumn and spring and increases the understanding of the effects of climate change on invertebrate community biomass in the different habitats.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208043 (URN)10.1111/fwb.14099 (DOI)000973390200001 ()2-s2.0-85153245317 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0083
Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-10-16Bibliographically approved
Pajala, G., Rudberg, D., Gålfalk, M., Melack, J. M., Macintyre, S., Karlsson, J., . . . Bastviken, D. (2023). Higher apparent gas transfer velocities for CO2 compared to CH4 in small lakes. Environmental Science and Technology, 57(23), 8578-8587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Higher apparent gas transfer velocities for CO2 compared to CH4 in small lakes
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2023 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 23, p. 8578-8587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large greenhouse gas emissions occur via the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the surface layer of lakes. Such emissions are modeled from the air-water gas concentration gradient and the gas transfer velocity (k). The links between k and the physical properties of the gas and water have led to the development of methods to convert k between gases through Schmidt number normalization. However, recent observations have found that such normalization of apparent k estimates from field measurements can yield different results for CH4 and CO2. We estimated k for CO2 and CH4 from measurements of concentration gradients and fluxes in four contrasting lakes and found consistently higher (on an average 1.7 times) normalized apparent k values for CO2 than CH4. From these results, we infer that several gas-specific factors, including chemical and biological processes within the water surface microlayer, can influence apparent k estimates. We highlight the importance of accurately measuring relevant air-water gas concentration gradients and considering gas-specific processes when estimating k.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023
Keywords
carbon dioxide, gas transfer, greenhouse gas, lake, methane, piston velocity
National Category
Ecology Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212016 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.2c09230 (DOI)001010431600001 ()37253265 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163261934 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 725546Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2016.0083Swedish Research Council, 2016-04829Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01794
Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-07-13Bibliographically approved
Casas-Ruiz, J. P., Bodmer, P., Bona, K. A., Butman, D., Couturier, M., Emilson, E. J. S., . . . del Giorgio, P. A. (2023). Integrating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to constrain estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Nature Communications, 14(1), Article ID 1571.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to constrain estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange
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2023 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this Perspective, we put forward an integrative framework to improve estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange based on the accumulation of carbon in the landscape as constrained by its lateral export through rivers. The framework uses the watershed as the fundamental spatial unit and integrates all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as their hydrologic carbon exchanges. Application of the framework should help bridge the existing gap between land and atmosphere-based approaches and offers a platform to increase communication and synergy among the terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric research communities that is paramount to advance landscape carbon budget assessments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2023
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206363 (URN)10.1038/s41467-023-37232-2 (DOI)36944700 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85150668116 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-26 Created: 2023-04-26 Last updated: 2023-04-26Bibliographically approved
Berggren, M., Ye, L., Sponseller, R. A., Bergström, A.-K., Karlsson, J., Verheijen, H. & Hensgens, G. (2023). Nutrient limitation masks the dissolved organic matter composition effects on bacterial metabolism in unproductive freshwaters. Limnology and Oceanography, 68(9), 2059-2069
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutrient limitation masks the dissolved organic matter composition effects on bacterial metabolism in unproductive freshwaters
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2023 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2059-2069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aquatic microbial responses to changes in the amount and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are of fundamental ecological and biogeochemical importance. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis of excitation–emission fluorescence spectra is a common tool to characterize DOC, yet its ability to predict bacterial production (BP), bacterial respiration (BR), and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) vary widely, potentially because inorganic nutrient limitation decouples microbial processes from their dependence on DOC composition. We used 28-d bioassays with water from 19 lakes, streams, and rivers in northern Sweden to test how much the links between bacterial metabolism and fluorescence PARAFAC components depend on experimental additions of inorganic nutrients. We found a significant interaction effect between nutrient addition and fluorescence on carbon-specific BP, and weak evidence for influence on BGE by the same interaction (p = 0.1), but no corresponding interaction effect on BR. A practical implication of this interaction was that fluorescence components could explain more than twice as much of the variability in carbon-specific BP (R2 = 0.90) and BGE (R2 = 0.70) after nitrogen and phosphorus addition, compared with control incubations. Our results suggest that an increased supply of labile DOC relative to ambient phosphorus and nitrogen induces gradually larger degrees of nutrient limitation of BP, which in turn decouple BP and BGE from fluorescence signals. Thus, while fluorescence does contain precise information about the degree to which DOC can support microbial processes, this information may be hidden in field studies due to nutrient limitation of bacterial metabolism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212480 (URN)10.1002/lno.12406 (DOI)001031950300001 ()2-s2.0-85165443438 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2023-08-03 Created: 2023-08-03 Last updated: 2024-01-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
Greenhouse gas emission from lakes in northern permafrost areas:quantitative importance and climate impacts [2008-04390_VR]; Umeå UniversityControl of lake productivity: effects of light, terrestrial organic matter and food web structure [2011-03908_VR]; Umeå UniversityEffects of forestry on greenhouse gas emissions from boreal inland waters [2012-1461_Formas]; Umeå UniversitySvenskt deltagande i JPI Climate Arctic and Boreal system.Projekt nr. 70765 [2014-06898_VR]; Umeå UniversityThe invisible carbon-an early indicator of ecosystem change! [2014-970_Formas]; Umeå UniversityMonitoring and management of Arctic lakes in a changing climate [2015-723_Formas]; Umeå UniversityClimate impact on sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in high-latitude lakes [2016-05275_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5730-0694

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