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Backman, Rainer
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Publikasjoner (10 av 78) Visa alla publikasjoner
Sandström, K., Broström, M., Eriksson, M., Wilhelmsson, B., Viggh, E. & Backman, R. (2023). Modelling chemical phase evolution in counter-current reactors: a cement kiln application. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Flame Days 2023, Trondheim, Norway, November 28 - 30, 2023.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Modelling chemical phase evolution in counter-current reactors: a cement kiln application
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2023 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Oral presentation only (Annet vitenskapelig)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217394 (URN)
Konferanse
Nordic Flame Days 2023, Trondheim, Norway, November 28 - 30, 2023
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-12-01 Laget: 2023-12-01 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Staničić, I., Backman, R., Cao, Y., Rydén, M., Aronsson, J. & Mattisson, T. (2022). Fate of trace elements in Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC) of municipal solid waste. Fuel, 311, Article ID 122551.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fate of trace elements in Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC) of municipal solid waste
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2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 311, artikkel-id 122551Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion is a novel fluidized bed concept for burning waste. This study analyzed solid samples from an industrial OCAC application using municipal solid waste and the oxygen carrier ilmenite. The presence of oxygen carriers impacts the ash chemistry, which can influence corrosion and ash characteristics. By investigating samples obtained from industrial applications, unique and highly relevant information on the solid-state chemistry and the fate of important elements can be obtained. In total, 20 bottom ashes and 17 fly ashes were sampled over a period of 38 days. In a preceding study, the surface interaction between ilmenite and Zn, Cu and Pb was investigated. In this paper, the distribution of these elements throughout the particle cross-section and the influence of residence time has been studied using XRD, SEM-EDX and XPS. The results show that Zn is incorporated in the Fe-rich ash layer over time in the form of Zn ferrites, while Cu accumulates inside the ilmenite particles with time, and Cr is enriched in the magnetically separated bottom ash. Low concentrations of Pb were detected in the bottom ashes, suggesting that a significant part is released in the gas phase. The influence of temperature, bed material and reduction potential were evaluated using multicomponent, multiphase equilibrium calculations. It is shown that an ilmenite bed is less prone to form melts in comparison to a bed of silica sand and that the addition of sulfur could decrease the volatilization of Pb.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2022
Emneord
Ilmenite, Municipal solid waste (MSW), Oxygen carrier, Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC), Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190152 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122551 (DOI)000743091500006 ()2-s2.0-85120371869 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01095Swedish Energy Agency, 46450-1
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-12-07 Laget: 2021-12-07 Sist oppdatert: 2022-03-01bibliografisk kontrollert
Staničić, I., Brorsson, J., Hellman, A., Mattisson, T. & Backman, R. (2022). Thermodynamic Analysis on the Fate of Ash Elements in Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels Iron-Based Oxygen Carriers. Energy & Fuels, 36(17), 9648-9659
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Thermodynamic Analysis on the Fate of Ash Elements in Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels Iron-Based Oxygen Carriers
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2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, nr 17, s. 9648-9659Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) enables efficient combustion of hydrocarbon fuels while also producing a gas stream with high CO2 concentrations, suitable for carbon capture and storage (CCS). CLC of biomass in combination with CCS results in efficient removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, i.e., negative emissions. However, biomass and waste-derived fuels can contain significant fractions of aggressive ash precursors, which can affect the operability and functionality of oxygen carriers. In this paper, the fate of common ash elements will be investigated thermodynamically in a system utilizing iron-based oxygen carriers: ilmenite and iron oxide. Multiphase, multicomponent equilibrium calculations were performed using databases from FACT and a user-defined database, with a specific focus on alkali (K and Na) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb). A detailed and comprehensive comparison with available literature data from experimental investigations was performed, and compounds not available in the databases were identified. Due to a lack of thermodynamic data in the literature, thermodynamic properties for four compounds, K0.85Fe0.85Ti0.15O2, K0.4Fe0.4Ti0.6O2, KTi8O16, and KTi8O16.5, were obtained from first-principles calculations. The fate of ash elements is studied for CLC of three biomass and waste-derived solid fuels under relevant CLC conditions: 950 °C in the fuel reactor and 1050 °C in the air reactor. Results show that the choice of the oxygen carriers largely influences the behavior of the ash elements. Compared to CLC with iron oxide, ilmenite is more beneficial with respect to high-temperature corrosion since less potassium is released into the gas phase since the titanium content in ilmenite immobilizes both potassium and calcium. For both oxygen carriers, the most corrosive compounds are expected to leave with the gas in the fuel reactor, keeping the air reactor free from chlorides. It was found that the compound KTi8O16 is stable in reducing conditions and low potassium concentrations. This is in conformity with previous experimental data, where this phase has been identified in the interior of ilmenite particles used in oxygen carrier aided combustion of wood chips.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198914 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c01578 (DOI)000886420000001 ()2-s2.0-85135957489 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2016-06023Swedish Research Council, 2020-03487Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)
Merknad

This article is part of the 2022 Pioneers in Energy Research: Anders Lyngfelt special issue.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-08-30 Laget: 2022-08-30 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Falk, J., Hannl, T. K., Skoglund, N., Backman, R. & Öhman, M. (2022). Thermodynamic Equilibrium Study on the Melting Tendency of the K-Ca-Mg-P-Si-O System with Relevance to Woody and Agricultural Biomass Ash Compositions. Energy & Fuels, 36(13), 7035-7051
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Thermodynamic Equilibrium Study on the Melting Tendency of the K-Ca-Mg-P-Si-O System with Relevance to Woody and Agricultural Biomass Ash Compositions
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2022 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 36, nr 13, s. 7035-7051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

A major challenge in the combustion of biomass fuels is the heterogeneity of ash-forming elements, which may cause a wide range of ash-related problems. Understanding the melting tendency of the coarse ash fractions is necessary to mitigate agglomeration and slagging. This work aims to evaluate the melting tendency of the K-Ca-Mg-Si-P-O system by use of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The formation of condensed phases were systematically assessed in a combustion atmosphere, varying temperatures, and composition. Compositional ranges were based on fuel ash data extracted from the Phyllis 2 database. The speciation and degree of polymerization of phosphates, silicates, and melts were evaluated and indicated a systematic variation in composition. The melt fraction was predicted as a function of temperature and composition. The melting tendency was modeled for three systems, i.e., a P-dominated, a Si-dominated, and a mixed Si-P system. Four ratios between K2O, CaO, MgO, SiO2, and P2O5 were found to have a large effect on the melting tendency of the ash mixtures: the ratio between network formers (SiO2, P2O5), K2O to total network modifiers, CaO to CaO + MgO, and the ratio of network formers to total ash oxides. This modeling approach showed qualitative agreement with ash-related issues seen in previous lab-scale experiments in bubbling fluidized bed and fixed bed combustion. Practical implications of the results are discussed from the perspective of fuel design with the aim of preventing ash-related problems. This study presents a novel method of applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a broad range of compositions and shows potential for predicting ash-related issues related to the melting of coarse ash fractions.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198618 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.2c00785 (DOI)000819242300001 ()2-s2.0-85135443894 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-08-24 Laget: 2022-08-24 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Viggh, E., Eriksson, M., Wilhelmsson, B. & Backman, R. (2021). Early formation of belite in cement clinker raw materials with slag. Advances in Cement Research, 33(6), 249-256
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Early formation of belite in cement clinker raw materials with slag
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 249-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Analytical methods for characterising cement raw meal during heating in different atmospheres were investigated. The effect of replacing limestone with 10 wt% slag on the formation of incipient belite and precursors of the clinker liquid in the temperature range 600–1050°C was quantified using thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and equilibrium calculations. The results showed that when calculating the lime saturation factor, slags were favoured to sand, resulting in lower amounts of quartz and C2S in the samples containing slag than the reference sample. This suggests that silicon dioxide in slag minerals did not react in this temperature range. The multi-component equilibrium results supported the phase formation sequence established. Allowing for the possible kinetic influences the potential solids solutions offered with the software was a valuable asset. The results showed that the effect of using slags to reduce the carbonate and sand content in a raw meal on potential amounts of incipient C2S was negative. At present, more detailed knowledge is needed regarding how blast-furnace slag and basic oxygen furnace slag contribute to the formation of intermediary compounds such as incipient C2S, C3A, C2F and C4AF in the solid phase at temperatures over 1050°C and affect the formation of C3S.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
ICE Publishing, 2021
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-185292 (URN)10.1680/jadcr.19.00150 (DOI)000662866700002 ()2-s2.0-85108236894 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-06-28 Laget: 2021-06-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-08-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Staničić, I., Cañete Vela, I., Backman, R., Maric, J., Cao, Y. & Mattisson, T. (2021). Fate of lead, copper, zinc and antimony during chemical looping gasification of automotive shredder residue. Fuel, 302, Article ID 121147.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Fate of lead, copper, zinc and antimony during chemical looping gasification of automotive shredder residue
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 302, artikkel-id 121147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Gasification experiments in this study were performed in a 2–4 MW indirect gasifier coupled to a semi-commercial CFB combustor at Chalmers University of Technology. Experiments were carried out during 13 days with automotive shredder residue (ASR), giving a unique opportunity to investigate the bed material under realistic conditions and with long residence times. The metal rich ash was accumulated in the bed, gaining some oxygen carrying capabilities, creating a chemical looping gasification (CLG) process. This study aims to expand the knowledge about the chemistry of zinc, copper, lead and antimony during CLG of ASR. Several experimental methods have been utilized, such as XRD, SEM-EDX and XPS along with detailed thermodynamic calculations to study chemical transformations that can occur in the system. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the reduction potential affect the phase distribution of these elements, where highly reduction conditions result in heavy metals dissolving in the slag phase. Copper and zinc ferrites, lead silicates and antimony oxides were identified at the particle surfaces in the bottom ash. The formation of an iron rich ash layer plays an important role, especially for copper and zinc speciation. The main pathways in the complex CLG system have been discussed in detail.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2021
Emneord
Ash characterization, Automotive shredder residue, Chemical looping gasification, Combustion, Fluidized bed, Trace elements
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-184904 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2021.121147 (DOI)000675737900006 ()2-s2.0-85107730135 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-06-22 Laget: 2021-06-22 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Staničić, I., Mattisson, T., Backman, R., Cao, Y. & Rydén, M. (2021). Oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) of two waste fuels: experimental and theoretical study of the interaction between ilmenite and zinc, copper and lead. Biomass and Bioenergy, 148, Article ID 106060.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC) of two waste fuels: experimental and theoretical study of the interaction between ilmenite and zinc, copper and lead
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 148, artikkel-id 106060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Zinc, copper and lead are amongst the more abundant trace metals in waste fuels such as municipal solid waste and recovered waste wood. The ashes from waste fuels could contain high contents of these metals, which could be valuable but also toxic in certain environments. Oxygen carrier aided combustion, OCAC, is a novel technology for combustion of biomass and waste. Utilizing oxygen carriers could affect the fate of these metals and have implications for stability and recycling.

The aim of this work is to study the fate of zinc, copper and lead during oxygen carrier aided combustion of two waste fuels utilizing ilmenite as an oxygen carrier. In total, four samples have been obtained from two different industrial fluidized bed boilers using ilmenite as bed material. Due to low concentrations, bulk analysis methods are not suitable for speciation, i.e. SEM/EDX and XRD. Hence, this investigation utilizes high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), coupled to detailed thermodynamic modelling, with the aim of understanding trace metal speciation, distribution and phase composition.

Characterization of the four samples show that iron at the surface of ilmenite particles interact with both copper and zinc to form ferrites, CuFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4. Lead, on the other hand, is more prone to end up in the fly ash as condensed PbCl2, but the mixed oxide PbTiO3 could be identified at the oxygen carrier surface. Thermodynamic calculations were shown to be in line with the identified compounds.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2021
Emneord
Oxygen carrier aided combustion (OCAC), Ilmenite, Oxygen carrier, Municipal solid waste (MSW), Recovered waste wood (RWW), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182384 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2021.106060 (DOI)000694863700003 ()2-s2.0-85103732780 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-04-23 Laget: 2021-04-23 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-05bibliografisk kontrollert
Thyrel, M., Backman, R., Boström, D., Skyllberg, U. & Lestander, T. A. (2021). Phase transitions involving Ca - The most abundant ash forming element - In thermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Fuel, 285, Article ID 119054.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phase transitions involving Ca - The most abundant ash forming element - In thermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass
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2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 285, artikkel-id 119054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Torrefaction, pyrolysis and gasification are of interest to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. These techniques involve thermal treatment at low partial pressures of oxygen. However, little is known about the transformation of ash elements during these processes. The phase transition of the major ash element calcium (Ca) was therefore studied with powder from pine as biomass model treated at temperatures 300-800 degrees C under atmospheres of 100% N-2, 3% O-2 and 6% O-2 and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling. For evaluation, Xray powder diffraction and synchrotron Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy in combination with linear combination fitting and reference compounds was used. The results indicated that the most abundant Ca-containing species in the untreated material was thermally unstable Ca oxalate (CaC2O4) primarily decomposing into Ca phases dominated by carbonates at temperatures up to 600 degrees C. Double carbonates of calcium and potassium were observed in the form of fairchildiite/butscheliite (K2Ca(CO3)(2)), and these phases were stable over the low temperature range studied. Hydroxyapatite (Ca-5(PO4)(3)OH) was expected to be present and thermally stable over the entire temperature interval and was found in untreated material. At temperatures above 600 degrees C calcium oxide (CaO) was formed. The amount of oxygen had little effect on the phase transitions. The results of thermodynamic modeling were in agreement with XANES showing that this is a versatile technique that can be applied to systems as complex as Ca phase transitions in thermally treated lignocellulosic biomass at low partial pressures of oxygen.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2021
Emneord
Pyrolysis, Calcium phases, Equilibrium modelling, XANES, XRD
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-179061 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119054 (DOI)000588132400026 ()2-s2.0-85090129992 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-01-29 Laget: 2021-01-29 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Stanicic, I., Hanning, M., Deniz, R., Mattisson, T., Backman, R. & Leion, H. (2020). Interaction of oxygen carriers with common biomass ash components. Fuel processing technology, 200, Article ID 106313.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Interaction of oxygen carriers with common biomass ash components
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2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 200, artikkel-id 106313Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been proposed as a bridging technology between the current energy production and a future renewable energy system. One promising carbon capture technology is chemical-looping combustion (CLC). In CLC the reactors are filled with metal oxide bed material called oxygen carriers. The interaction between oxygen carriers and biomass ashes is a poorly explored field. To make CLC a viable process, and thereby creating carbon emission reductions, more knowledge about the interactions between biomass ashes and oxygen carriers is needed. This study investigated solid-state reactions of three promising oxygen carriers, hematite, hausmannite and synthesised ilmenite with different biomass ash components. Oxygen carriers were exposed with the ash components: calcium carbonate, silica and potassium carbonate at 900 degrees C and at different reducing potentials. Crystalline phases of the exposed samples were determined using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the oxygen carriers hausmannite and hematite interact to a higher extent compared to synthesised ilmenite regarding both physical characteristics and detectable phases. Synthesised ilmenite formed new phases only in systems including potassium. Thermodynamic calculations were performed on the multicomponent system and compared with experimental results. The results suggest that optimisation of systems involving manganese and potassium should be performed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2020
Emneord
Oxygen carrier, Biomass ash, Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC), Ilmenite
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168790 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2019.106313 (DOI)000514024600004 ()2-s2.0-85076281926 (Scopus ID)
Prosjekter
Bio4Energy
Forskningsfinansiär
Bio4Energy
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-03-10 Laget: 2020-03-10 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Holmgren, P., Skoglund, N., Broström, M. & Backman, R. (2020). Slag Formation during Entrained Flow Gasification: Calcium-Rich Bark Fuel with KHCO3 Additive. Paper presented at International Symposium on Clean Energy and Advanced Carbon Materials (CEAM), SEP 26-29, 2019, Busan, SOUTH KOREA. Energy & Fuels, 34(6), 7112-7120
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Slag Formation during Entrained Flow Gasification: Calcium-Rich Bark Fuel with KHCO3 Additive
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 7112-7120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Slag property management is of utmost importance for successful operation of entrained flow gasifiers. The present study investigates the influence of potassium introduced as KHCO3 on the ash and slag formation of softwood bark, a calcium-rich fuel, during entrained flow gasification. The bark contained only minor mineral inclusions causing the ash composition to be dominated by calcium and potassium. Wood bark with and without KHCO3 additive was gasified between 850 and 1400 degrees C at O-2 stoichiometric ratio (lambda) 0.6. The ash particles collided with a flat impact probe inside the hot reactor at particle impact angles set to 90 degrees, 60 degrees, and 30 degrees. The reactor and probe allowed long-distance microscope data collection close to the probe surface. Particle deposition was optically monitored and resulting deposits were analyzed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Thermodynamic equilibrium and viscosity calculations were used to assist interpretation of experimental results. The predicted temperature window for liquid carbonate formation was experimentally verified, but the melt fraction of the deposit was too low to cause efficient flow and removal of ash from the probe under the prevailing experimental conditions. At higher temperatures, spherical particles indicated lower ash melting temperatures than expected from the bulk ash composition, and a detailed mechanism was proposed.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-174023 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c00753 (DOI)000552662200046 ()2-s2.0-85091430381 (Scopus ID)
Konferanse
International Symposium on Clean Energy and Advanced Carbon Materials (CEAM), SEP 26-29, 2019, Busan, SOUTH KOREA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-08-18 Laget: 2020-08-18 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Prosjekter
Optimering av processer vid cementklinker- och kalktillverkning [2014-04073_Vinnova]; Umeå universitet
Organisasjoner