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Popova, Dina
Publikasjoner (9 av 9) Visa alla publikasjoner
Popova, D., Karlsson, J. & Jacobsson, S. O. P. (2017). Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity. BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, 18, Article ID 42.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, E-ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional studies on animals. In this study, neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) were compared with human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells for their ability to detect toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), okadaic acid and acrylamide. Methods: Retinoic acid-treated P19 and SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells, allowed to differentiate for 6 days, were exposed to MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide for 48 h. Cell survival and neurite outgrowth were assessed with the calcein-AM assay and fluorescence detection of antibodies against the cytoskeletal neuron-specific protein beta III-tubulin, respectively. The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the potent inhibitor of GSH synthesis buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the MeHg induced-toxicity were assessed using the PrestoBlue (TM) cell viability assay and the TMRE mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Results: Differentiated P19 cells developed the most extensive neuronal network among the three cell models and were the most sensitive neuronal model to detect neurotoxic effects of the test compounds. MeHg produced a concentration-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, with statistically significant effects at concentrations from 0.1 mu M in the P19 neurons and 1 mu M in the SH-SY5Y cells. MeHg induced a decrease in the cellular metabolic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) in the differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, that were attenuated by GSH. Okadaic acid and acrylamide also showed statistically significant toxicity in the P19 neurons, but not in the SH-SY5Y cells or the P12 cells. Conclusions: P19 neurons are more sensitive to detect cytotoxicity of MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide than retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. P19 neurons are at least as sensitive as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to detect the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential produced by MeHg and the protective effects of extracellular GSH on MeHg toxicity. P19 neurons may be a useful model to study neurotoxic effects of chemicals.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2017
Emneord
In vitro cytotoxicity, Neuronal cell cultures, Retinoic acid-treated P19 cells, Retinoic acid-treated SH-
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-137043 (URN)10.1186/s40360-017-0151-8 (DOI)000402970800002 ()28583171 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020229477 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-06-28 Laget: 2017-06-28 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Popova, D. (2017). In vitro cellular models for neurotoxicity studies: neurons derived from P19 cells. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>In vitro cellular models for neurotoxicity studies: neurons derived from P19 cells
2017 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals including environmental pollutants, cosmetics, food preservatives and drugs. Some of these substances might be harmful to the human body. Traditional toxicological and behavioural investigations performed in animal models are not suitable for the screening of a large number of compounds for potential toxic effects. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models that allow high-throughput toxicity testing of chemicals, as well as investigation of specific mechanisms of cytotoxicity. The overall aim of the thesis has been to evaluate neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) as a model for such testing. The model has been compared to other cellular models used for neurotoxicity assessment: retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The chemicals assessed in the studies included the neurotoxicants methylmercury, okadaic acid and acrylamide, the drug of abuse MDMA (“ecstasy”) and a group of piperazine derivatives known as “party pills”. Effects of the chemicals on cell survival, neurite outgrowth and mitochondrial function have been assessed.

In Paper I, we describe a fluorescence-based microplate method to detect chemical-induced effects on neurite outgrowth in P19 neurons immunostained against the neuron-specific cytoskeletal protein βIII-tubulin. In Paper II, we show that P19 neurons are more sensitive than differentiated SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells for detection of cytotoxic effects of methylmercury, okadaic acid and acrylamide. Additionally, in P19 neurons and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, we could demonstrate that toxicity of methylmercury was attenuated by the antioxidant glutathione. In Paper III, we show a time- and temperature-dependent toxicity produced by MDMA in P19 neurons. The mechanisms of MDMA toxicity did not involve inhibition of the serotonin re-uptake transporter or monoamine oxidase, stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors, oxidative stress or loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In Paper IV, the piperazine derivatives are evaluated for cytotoxicity in P19 neurons and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. The most toxic compound in both cell models was TFMPP. In P19 neurons, the mechanism of action of TFMPP included loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, P19 neurons are a robust cellular model that may be useful in conjunction with other models for the assessment of chemical-induced neurotoxicity.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2017. s. 67
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1877
Emneord
Neurotoxicity, Neuronal cell culture, P19 cells, SH-SY5Y cells, βIII-tubulin, Methylmercury, Okadaic acid, Acrylamide, MDMA, Piperazine-derived designer drugs.
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133030 (URN)978-91-7601-659-6 (ISBN)
Disputas
2017-04-28, Hörsal D, Unod T9, byggnad 1D, NUS, Umeå, 09:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-04-06 Laget: 2017-03-29 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19bibliografisk kontrollert
Popova, D., Forsblad, A., Hashemian, S. & Jacobsson, S. O. P. (2016). Non-Serotonergic Neurotoxicity by MDMA (Ecstasy) in Neurons Derived from Mouse P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells. PLOS ONE, 11(11), Article ID e0166750.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Non-Serotonergic Neurotoxicity by MDMA (Ecstasy) in Neurons Derived from Mouse P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Cells
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id e0166750Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) is a commonly abused recreational drug that causes neurotoxic effects in both humans and animals. The mechanism behind MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is suggested to be species-dependent and needs to be further investigated on the cellular level. In this study, the effects of MDMA in neuronally differentiated P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells have been examined. MDMA produces a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons, as measured by intracellular MTT reduction and extracellular LDH activity assays. The P19-derived neurons express both the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), that is functionally active, and the serotonin metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). The involvement of these proteins in the MDMA-induced toxicity was investigated by a pharmacological approach. The MAO inhibitors clorgyline and deprenyl, and the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine, per se or in combination, were not able to mimic the toxic effects of MDMA in the P19-derived neurons or block the MDMA-induced cell toxicity. Oxidative stress has been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but pre-treatment with the antioxidants α-tocopherol or N-acetylcysteine did not reveal any protective effects in the P19 neurons. Involvement of mitochondria in the MDMA-induced cytotoxicity was also examined, but MDMA did not alter the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in the P19 neurons. We conclude that MDMA produce a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent neurotoxicity and our results suggest that the mechanism behind MDMA-induced toxicity in mouse-derived neurons do not involve the serotonergic system, oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
toxikologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128533 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0166750 (DOI)000388350300099 ()27861613 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84995911753 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-12-06 Laget: 2016-12-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Popova, D. & Jacobsson, S. O. P. (2014). A fluorescence microplate screen assay for the detection of neurite outgrowth and neurotoxicity using an antibody against βIII-tubulin. Toxicology in Vitro, 28(3), 411-418
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A fluorescence microplate screen assay for the detection of neurite outgrowth and neurotoxicity using an antibody against βIII-tubulin
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Toxicology in Vitro, ISSN 0887-2333, E-ISSN 1879-3177, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 411-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The majority of environmental and commercial chemicals have not been evaluated for their potential to cause neurotoxicity. We have investigated if neuron specific anti-βIII-tubulin antibodies are useful in a microplate assay of neurite outgrowth of retinoic acid-induced neurons from mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. By incubating the P19-derived neurons with the primary anti-βIII-tubulin antibody and a secondary Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated antibody, followed by measuring the fluorescence in a microplate reader, a time-dependent increase in anti-βIII-tubulin immunofluorescence was observed. The relative fluorescence units increased by 4.3-fold from 2 to 10 days in culture. The results corresponded well with those obtained by semi-automatic tracing of neurites in fluorescence microscopy images of βIII-tubulin-labeled neurons. The sensitivity of the neurite outgrowth assay using a microplate reader to detect neurotoxicity produced by nocodazole, methyl mercury chloride and okadaic acid was significantly higher than for a cell viability assay measuring intracellular fluorescence of calcein-AM. The microplate-based method to measure toxicity targeting neurites using anti-βIII-tubulin antibodies is however less sensitive than the extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity assay to detect general cytotoxicity produced by high concentrations of clomipramine, or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In conclusion, the fluorescence microplate assay for the detection of neurite outgrowth by measuring changes in βIII-tubulin immunoreactivity is a rapid and sensitive method to assess chemical- or toxin-induced neurite toxicity.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2014
Emneord
neurotoxicity, cell culture, βIII-tubulin, beta III-tubulin, calcein-AM, fluorescence, microplate assay
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87628 (URN)10.1016/j.tiv.2013.12.009 (DOI)000332053800010 ()2-s2.0-84892491604 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-04-10 Laget: 2014-04-07 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Gustafsson, S., Wallenius, A., Zackrisson, H., Popova, D., Plym Forshell, L. & Jacobsson, S. O. (2013). Effects of cannabinoids and related fatty acids upon the viability of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Archives of Toxicology, 87(11), 1939-1951
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Effects of cannabinoids and related fatty acids upon the viability of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells
Vise andre…
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 87, nr 11, s. 1939-1951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Compounds acting on the cannabinoid (CB) receptors are involved in the control of cell fate, and there is an emerging consensus that CBs have anticancer effects. However, the CB-mediated effects are contradictory since some studies suggest stimulatory effects on cancer cell proliferation, and CBs have been shown to stimulate both proliferation and differentiation of other mitotic cells such as stem and progenitor cells. In this study, the concentration-dependent effects of synthetic and endogenous CBs on the viability of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have been examined by using fluorescence assays of cell membrane integrity, cell proliferation, oxidative stress, and detection of apoptosis and necrosis. All compounds examined produced a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability in the micromolar range, with the potent CB receptor agonist HU 210 and the enantiomer HU 211(with no CB receptor activity) being the most potent compounds examined with apparent IC50 values of 1 µM and 0.6 µM, respectively. The endogenous CB anandamide showed similar potency and efficacy as structurally related polyunsaturated fatty acids with no reported activity at the CB receptors. The rapid (within hours) decrease in cell viability induced by the examined CBs suggests cytocidal rather than antiproliferative effects, and is dependent on the plating cell population density with the highest toxicity around 100 cells/mm2. The CB-induced cytotoxicity, that appears to involve CB receptors and the sphingomyelin-ceramide pathway, is a mixture of both apoptosis and necrosis that can be blocked by the antioxidants α-tocopherol and N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, both synthetic and endogenous CBs, produce seemingly unspecific cytotoxic effects in the P19 EC cells.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Emneord
cannabinoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, embryonal carcinoma cells, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
biokemisk farmakologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51550 (URN)10.1007/s00204-013-1051-3 (DOI)000325700300005 ()2-s2.0-84885950944 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-31 Laget: 2012-01-26 Sist oppdatert: 2023-03-24bibliografisk kontrollert
Popova, D., Forsblad, A. N. P. & Jacobsson, S. O. P. (2013). In vitro studies on the neurotoxic effects of piperazine-derived designer drugs and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"). Paper presented at 49th Congress of the European-Societies-of-Toxicology (EUROTOX), SEP 01-04, 2013, Interlaken, SWITZERLAND. Toxicology Letters, 221(Suppl. S), S151-S151
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>In vitro studies on the neurotoxic effects of piperazine-derived designer drugs and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy")
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 221, nr Suppl. S, s. S151-S151Artikkel i tidsskrift, Meeting abstract (Annet vitenskapelig) Published
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-81008 (URN)10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.05.310 (DOI)000323865800463 ()
Konferanse
49th Congress of the European-Societies-of-Toxicology (EUROTOX), SEP 01-04, 2013, Interlaken, SWITZERLAND
Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-10-01 Laget: 2013-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-08bibliografisk kontrollert
Popova, D., Karlsson, J. & Stig O.P., J.Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Comparison of neurons derived from mouse P19, rat PC12 and human SH-SY5Y cells in the assessment of chemical- and toxin-induced neurotoxicity
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to chemicals might be toxic to the developing brain. There is a need for simple and robust in vitro cellular models for evaluation of chemical-induced neurotoxicity as a complement to traditional studies on animals. In this study, neuronally differentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells (P19 neurons) were compared with human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells for their ability to detect toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), okadaic acid and acrylamide.

Methods: Retinoic acid-treated P19 and SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells, allowed to differentiate for six days, were exposed to MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide for 48 h. Cell survival and neurite outgrowth were assessed with the calcein-AM assay and fluorescence detection of antibodies against the cytoskeletal neuron-specific protein βIII-tubulin, respectively. The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the potent inhibitor of GSH synthesis buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the MeHg induced-toxicity were assessed using the PrestoBlue™ cell viability assay and the TMRE mitochondrial membrane potential assay.

Results: Differentiated P19 cells developed the most extensive neuronal network among the three cell models and were the most sensitive neuronal model to detect neurotoxic effects of the test compounds. MeHg produced a concentration-dependent toxicity in differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, with statistically significant effects at concentrations from 0.1 µM in the P19 neurons and 1 µM in the SH-SY5Y cells. MeHg induced a decrease in the cellular metabolic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in the differentiated P19 cells and SH-SY5Y cells, that were attenuated by GSH. Okadaic acid and acrylamide also showed statistically significant toxicity in the P19 neurons, but not in the SH-SY5Y cells or the P12 cells.

Conclusions: P19 neurons are more sensitive to detect cytotoxicity of MeHg, okadaic acid and acrylamide than retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. P19 neurons are at least as sensitive as differentiated SH-SY5Y cells to detect the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential produced by MeHg and the protective effects of extracellular GSH on MeHg toxicity. P19 neurons may be a useful model to study neurotoxic effects of chemicals.

Emneord
neuronal cell cultures, neurotoxicity, methyl mercury, okadaic acid, acrylamide
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
toxikologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133027 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-03-29 Laget: 2017-03-29 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19
Popova, D. & Stig O.P., J.In vitro toxicity of piperazine-derived designer drugs in differentiated neural cell lines.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>In vitro toxicity of piperazine-derived designer drugs in differentiated neural cell lines
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Piperazine derivatives are common ingredients in recreational “party pills” which are used to provide a stimulant, euphoric effect akin to that of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”). There is a potential for significant toxicity associated with the use of these compounds, and the aim of the present study was to investigate if the common piperazine derivatives N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) and 1-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazine (pFPP), were toxic to retinoic acid-treated neuronally differentiated mouse P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cells and differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Immunofluorescence of the neuron-specific protein βIII-tubulin, fluorescence of intracellular calcein, assays of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm), MTT reduction and extracellular levels of LDH were used to estimate concentration-dependent cell toxicity of the piperazine derivatives and MDMA. All piperazine derivatives were toxic to the P19 neurons, but TFMPP was the most potent cytotoxic compound, producing a major decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular MTT reduction and fluorescence of calcein and βIII-tubulin, with a simultaneous increase in LDH release. The toxicity of piperazine derivatives is not restricted to differentiated P19 cells, since BZP and TFMPP were also cytotoxic in SH-SY5Y cells and human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells.

Emneord
piperazine derivatives, MDMA, neuronal cell cultures, neurotoxicity
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
toxikologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-133028 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-03-29 Laget: 2017-03-29 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19
Gustafsson, S., Ghasimi, S., Popova, D., Krzemien, J., Wallenius, A. & Jacobsson, S. O.The effects of cannabinoids on the viability and differentiation of neurons derived from retinoic acid-induced  P19 embryonal carcinoma cells.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The effects of cannabinoids on the viability and differentiation of neurons derived from retinoic acid-induced  P19 embryonal carcinoma cells
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors play an important role in development and differentiation of the nervous system, but the mechanisms behind that role have not been fully elucidated. We have examined the effects of synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids and related polyunsaturated fatty acids upon mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 stem cell viability - before, during and after retinoic acid (RA)-induced neural differentiation. Experiments were also performed to investigate whether the cannabinoids affect the differentiation of P19-derived neurons by measuring the development and growth of neurites and intracellular acetylcholinesterase activity.

Both synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids as well as related fatty acids produced a concentration-dependent decrease in undifferentiated P19 cell viability, but induction of the neural pathway reduced the sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects, and in differentiated neurons anandamide and related fatty acids showed no cytotoxicity. However, synthetic cannabinoids such as HU 210, HU 211 and WIN 55,212-2 produced cytotoxicity in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, but there was a right-shifted concentration-effect curve in RA-induced cells and differentiated neurons compared with the undifferentiated cells.

HU 210 produced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell number, percentage of cells expressing neurites, number of neurites per cell and neurite length. Statistically significant inhibition was seen at a concentration of 1 µM to 3 µM, and this was confirmed by the measurement of intracellular acetylcholinesterase activity, an enzyme that is dramatically increased during the differentiation process, where HU 210 significantly decreased the activity after six and nine days of exposure. However, these effects of HU 210 could only be observed in the same concentration range as those affecting neuronal viability. Anandamide, on the other hand, had modest effect on measured markers of neuronal differentiation but decreased the fraction of neurite expressing cells and neurite length after nine days of exposure at a concentration ≥ 10 µM. No effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity was observed.

It is concluded that cannabinoids and related fatty acids have cytotoxic effects in undifferentiated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, but induction of the neuronal pathway reduces the sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects. The synthetic cannabinoids are more potent than the endogenous cannabinoids and fatty acids in causing cytotoxicity in differentiated neurons, but the CB-induced decrease in neurite formation and acetylcholinesterase activity in RA-induced P19-derived neurons occurs only at concentrations that cause measurable neuronal cell death. 

Emneord
Cannabinoids, P19 EC cells, cell viability, neuronal differentiation, neurite formation, acetylcholinesterase activity
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
biokemisk farmakologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51555 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-31 Laget: 2012-01-26 Sist oppdatert: 2018-06-08bibliografisk kontrollert
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