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Higueras-Fresnillo, S., Herraiz-Adillo, Á., Ahlqvist, V. H., Öberg, R., Lenander, C., Wennberg, P., . . . Henriksson, P. (2024). Associations of psychological factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health in middle-age: the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage study (SCAPIS). BMC Public Health, 24(1), Article ID 1455.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Associations of psychological factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular health in middle-age: the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage study (SCAPIS)
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2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 24, nr 1, artikel-id 1455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health issue, primarily caused by atherosclerosis. Psychological factors may play a role in the development and progression of CVD. However, the relationship between psychological factors and atherosclerosis is complex and poorly understood. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the association of psychological factors with (i) coronary and carotid atherosclerosis and (ii) cardiovascular health according to Life’s Essential 8, in a large Swedish cohort.

Methods: This study utilized data from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), a large population-based project including individuals aged 50 to 65 years. Several psychological factors were analysed: general stress, stress at work, financial stress, major adverse life events, locus of control, feeling depressed, and depression. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed as the degree of stenosis by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores. Carotid atherosclerosis was examined using ultrasound. In addition, cardiovascular health was examined using the Life’s Essential 8 concept created by the American Heart Association, which includes four health behaviors and four health factors. Associations were examined through binomial logistic regression (atherosclerosis variables) and linear regression (Life’s Essential 8).

Results: A total of 25,658 participants were included in the study. The presence of financial stress, higher locus of control, and depression was weakly associated with increased odds of CCTA stenosis, CAC ≥ 1 and the presence of carotid plaques (all odds ratios: 1.10–1.21, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32) after adjusting for sex, age, and study site. However, these associations were attenuated and not statistically significant after additional adjustments for socioeconomic factors and health behaviors. Conversely, we observed inverse associations between the worst category for all psychological factors and cardiovascular health according to Life’s Essential 8 score (all standardized β-Coefficient ≤-0.033, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: While there were no strong and consistent associations between psychological factors and atherosclerosis, the consistent associations of psychological factors with cardiovascular health by Life’s Essential 8 may have relevance for future CVD risk. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the long-term effects of psychological factors on atherosclerosis development and cardiovascular health.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
BioMed Central (BMC), 2024
Nyckelord
Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Coronary artery calcification, Coronary computed tomography angiography, Life’s Essential 8, Middle-aged, Psychological factors, SCAPIS
Nationell ämneskategori
Kardiologi Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-225954 (URN)10.1186/s12889-024-18924-w (DOI)001236172000004 ()38816713 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85195013299 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Hjärt-LungfondenKnut och Alice Wallenbergs StiftelseVetenskapsrådetVinnovaGöteborgs universitetKarolinska InstitutetRegion StockholmLinköpings universitetLunds universitetUmeå universitetUppsala universitet
Tillgänglig från: 2024-06-12 Skapad: 2024-06-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-06-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Waagaard, L., Herraiz-Adillo, Á., Ahlqvist, V. H., Higueras-Fresnillo, S., Berglind, D., Wennberg, P., . . . Henriksson, P. (2024). Body mass index and weight gain in pregnancy and cardiovascular health in middle age: A cohort study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(8), 1136-1145
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Body mass index and weight gain in pregnancy and cardiovascular health in middle age: A cohort study
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2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 131, nr 8, s. 1136-1145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To examine associations between body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG) with cardiovascular health in middle age using the ‘Life's Essential 8’ (LE8) concept of the American Heart Association (AHA).

Design: Population-based cohort study.

Setting: Swedish CardioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS).

Population: A total of 8871 women from SCAPIS were included.

Methods: Information on cardiovascular health in middle age was collected from SCAPIS and linked to pregnancy weight data obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, with an average follow-up time of 24.5 years. An LE8 score between 0 and 100 was determined, where a score under 60 points was defined as poor cardiovascular health. Binary logistic regression and restricted cubic splines were used.

Main outcome measures: Cardiovascular health according to LE8 in middle age.

Results: The odds of having poor cardiovascular health in middle age were significantly higher in women who had overweight (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 3.30, 95% CI 2.82–3.88) or obesity (aOR 7.63, 95% CI 5.86–9.94), compared with women classified as being of normal weight in pregnancy. Higher odds were also found for excessive GWG (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09–1.57), compared with women who gained weight within the recommendations.

Conclusions: A high BMI in early pregnancy and excessive GWG were associated with greater odds of poor cardiovascular health in middle age. Although further studies are needed, our results highlight pregnancy as an important period to support long-term cardiovascular health.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Nyckelord
body mass index, gestational weight gain, Life's Essential 8, pregnancy, pregnancy as a window for future health
Nationell ämneskategori
Reproduktionsmedicin och gynekologi Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-219064 (URN)10.1111/1471-0528.17740 (DOI)001132907500001 ()38149523 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85180848848 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Hjärt-LungfondenKnut och Alice Wallenbergs StiftelseVetenskapsrådetVinnovaGöteborgs universitetKarolinska InstitutetRegion StockholmLinköpings universitetLunds universitetUmeå universitetUppsala universitet
Tillgänglig från: 2024-01-11 Skapad: 2024-01-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-06-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Herraiz-Adillo, Á., Ahlqvist, V. H., Daka, B., Wångdahl, J., Wennberg, P., Carlsson, J., . . . Henriksson, P. (2024). Life’s Essential 8 in relation to self-rated health and health-related quality of life in a large population-based sample: the SCAPIS project. Quality of Life Research, 33, 1003-1014
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Life’s Essential 8 in relation to self-rated health and health-related quality of life in a large population-based sample: the SCAPIS project
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2024 (Engelska)Ingår i: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 33, s. 1003-1014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To monitor cardiovascular health, in 2022, the American Heart Association (AHA) updated the construct “Life’s Simple 7” (LS7) to “Life’s Essential 8” (LE8). This study aims to analyze the associations and capacity of discrimination of LE8 and LS7 in relation to self-rated health (SRH) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Methods: This study from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) included 28 731 Swedish participants, aged 50–64 years. Three different scores were derived from the SF-12 questionnaire: 1-item question SRH (“In general, would you say your health is …?”), mental-HRQoL and physical-HRQoL. Logistic regression, restricted cubic splines, and ROC analysis were used to study the associations between the AHA scores in relation to SRH and HRQoL.

Results: Compared to those with a LE8 score of 80, participants with a LE8 score of 40 were 14.8 times more likely to report poor SRH (OR: 14.8, 95% CI: 13.0–17.0), after adjustments. Moreover, they were more likely to report a poor mental-HRQoL (OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 4.2–5.6) and a poor physical-HRQoL (OR: 8.0, 95% CI: 7.0–9.3). Area under curves for discriminating poor SRH were 0.696 (95% CI: 0.687–0.704), 0.666 (95% CI: 0.657–0.674), and 0.643 (95% CI: 0.634–0.651) for LE8, LS7 (0–14), and LS7 (0–7), respectively, all p values < 0.001 in the DeLong’s tests.

Conclusion: LE8 and LS7 had strong and inverse associations with SRH, mental-HRQoL, and physical-HRQoL, though LE8 had a somewhat higher capacity of discrimination than LS7. The novel LE8, a construct initially conceived to monitor cardiovascular health, also conveys SRH and HRQoL.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer Nature, 2024
Nyckelord
Health-related quality of life, Ideal cardiovascular health, Life's Essential 8, Quality of life, Self-rated health
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220324 (URN)10.1007/s11136-023-03580-1 (DOI)001149863400001 ()38270740 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85183002617 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Hjärt-LungfondenKnut och Alice Wallenbergs StiftelseVinnovaGöteborgs universitetKarolinska InstitutetRegion StockholmLinköpings universitetUmeå universitetUppsala universitet
Tillgänglig från: 2024-02-12 Skapad: 2024-02-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-05-06Bibliografiskt granskad
Ekblom-Bak, E., Börjesson, M., Ekblom, Ö., Angerås, O., Bergman, F., Berntsson, C., . . . Jernberg, T. (2023). Accelerometer derived physical activity and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis: cross-sectional analyses in 22 703 middle-aged men and women in the SCAPIS study. BMJ Open, 13(11), Article ID e073380.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Accelerometer derived physical activity and subclinical coronary and carotid atherosclerosis: cross-sectional analyses in 22 703 middle-aged men and women in the SCAPIS study
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, nr 11, artikel-id e073380Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The aim included investigation of the associations between sedentary (SED), low-intensity physical activity (LIPA), moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in both coronaries and carotids and the estimated difference in prevalence by theoretical reallocation of time in different PA behaviours.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Multisite study at university hospitals.

Participants: A total of 22 670 participants without cardiovascular disease (51% women, 57.4 years, SD 4.3) from the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage study were included. SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed by hip-worn accelerometer.

Primary and secondary outcomes: Any and significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (CA), Coronary Artery Calcium Score (CACS) and carotid atherosclerosis (CarA) were derived from imaging data from coronary CT angiography and carotid ultrasound.

Results: High daily SED (>70% ≈10.5 hours/day) associated with a higher OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.91), for significant CA, and with lower OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.95), for significant CarA. High LIPA (>55% ≈8 hours/day) associated with lower OR for significant CA 0.70 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.96), and CACS, 0.71 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.97), but with higher OR for CarA 1.41 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.76). MVPA above reference level, >2% ≈20 min/day, associated with lower OR for significant CA (OR range 0.61-0.67), CACS (OR range 0.71-0.75) and CarA (OR range 0.72-0.79). Theoretical replacement of 30 min of SED into an equal amount of MVPA associated with lower OR for significant CA, especially in participants with high SED 0.84 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.96) or low MVPA 0.51 (0.36 to 0.73).

Conclusions: MVPA was associated with a lower risk for significant atherosclerosis in both coronaries and carotids, while the association varied in strength and direction for SED and LIPA, respectively. If causal, clinical implications include avoiding high levels of daily SED and low levels of MVPA to reduce the risk of developing significant subclinical atherosclerosis.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2023
Nyckelord
cardiovascular imaging, epidemiology, public health
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217547 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2023-073380 (DOI)37996228 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85177801853 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Hjärt-LungfondenKnut och Alice Wallenbergs StiftelseVetenskapsrådetVinnovaGöteborgs universitetKarolinska InstitutetRegion StockholmLinköpings universitetLunds universitetUmeå universitetUppsala universitetVästra Götalandsregionen, ALFGBG- 720691Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20180379
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-11 Skapad: 2023-12-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Byhamre, M. L., Eliasson, M., Söderberg, S., Wennberg, P. & Oskarsson, V. (2023). Association between snus use and lipid status in Swedish men. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 83(4), 241-250
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Association between snus use and lipid status in Swedish men
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 83, nr 4, s. 241-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Snus is a common tobacco product in Sweden, but the cardiovascular risk profile for snus users is less known than for cigarette smokers. We examined the association of snus use with lipid status, particularly in comparison to non-tobacco use and cigarette smoking, using data from 5930 men in the Northern Sweden MONICA study. Tobacco use was self-reported in 1986 to 2014 (24.4% used snus) and blood samples were collected at the same time. Harmonized analyses on non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were conducted in 2016 to 2018. Three hundred eighty-one snus users had also been examined more than once, allowing us to study the effect of discontinued use (achieved by 21.0%). In multivariable linear regression models, snus use was associated with higher HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to non-tobacco use (p values ≤ 0.04), and it was associated with higher HDL cholesterol concentrations and lower triglyceride concentrations compared to cigarette smoking (p values ≤ 0.02). Snus use was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, irrespective of the comparison group (p values ≥ 0.07). There was no indication that higher intensity of snus use led to a worse lipid profile, given that high-consumers had higher HDL cholesterol concentrations than low-consumers (p value = 0.02), or that discontinuation of snus use led to a better lipid profile, given that continued users had lower triglyceride concentrations than discontinued users (p value = 0.03). Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Nyckelord
apolipoproteins, cholesterol, cigarettes, lipids, smokeless tobacco, snus, Tobacco, triglycerides
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Kardiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209125 (URN)10.1080/00365513.2023.2209915 (DOI)000986159300001 ()2-s2.0-85159146553 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region NorrbottenRegion VästerbottenRegion VästernorrlandUmeå universitet
Tillgänglig från: 2023-06-07 Skapad: 2023-06-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Nordin, S., Norberg, M., Braf, I., Johansson, H., Lindahl, B., Lindvall, K., . . . Näslund, U. (2023). Associations between emotional support and cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-age. Psychology and Health
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Associations between emotional support and cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-age
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objective: To test the hypothesis of low emotional support being associated with lifestyle and biomedical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, estimated risk of CVD morbidity and mortality, and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged healthy adults.

Methods and measures: Cross-sectional data were obtained from participants aged 40–60 years who had one or more conventional CVD risk factor. They underwent assessment based on questionnaires, clinical examination, blood sampling, and carotid ultrasound of plaque formation and carotid intima-media wall thickness (cIMT). Based on the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction, the participants were categorised as either low in emotional support (n = 884) or as a referent (n = 2570). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the associations.

Results: Logistic regression analyses showed that low emotional support was significantly associated with smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity (OR = 1.53 − 1.94), estimated risk of CVD morbidity and mortality (OR = 1.56 − 1.68), and plaque formation (OR = 1.39). No significant associations were found regarding biomedical CVD risk factors or cIMT.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that low social support is associated with lifestyle CVD risk factors, estimated risk of CVD morbidity and mortality, and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged healthy adults, encouraging causal evaluation with longitudinal data investigating an impact of emotional support on mechanisms underlying CVD.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Routledge, 2023
Nyckelord
Cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk score, carotid artery plaque, carotid vascular ultrasound, social support
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Kardiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217344 (URN)10.1080/08870446.2023.2286296 (DOI)37994844 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85177567916 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-01 Skapad: 2023-12-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-01
Kyaw, T. L., Ng, N., Theocharaki, M., Wennberg, P. & Sahlen, K.-G. (2023). Cost-effectiveness of digital tools for behavior change interventions among people with chronic diseases: systematic review. Interactive Journal of Medical Research, 12, Article ID e42396.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cost-effectiveness of digital tools for behavior change interventions among people with chronic diseases: systematic review
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Interactive Journal of Medical Research, E-ISSN 1929-073X, Vol. 12, artikel-id e42396Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cerebrovascular diseases, contribute to the most significant disease burden worldwide, negatively impacting patients and their family members. People with chronic diseases have common modifiable behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol overconsumption, and unhealthy diets. Digital-based interventions for promoting and sustaining behavioral changes have flourished in recent years, although evidence of the cost-effectiveness of such interventions remains inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions for behavioral changes among people with chronic diseases.

METHODS: This systematic review evaluated published studies focused on the economic evaluation of digital tools for behavioral change among adults with chronic diseases. We followed the Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcomes framework to retrieve relevant publications from 4 databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute's criteria for economic evaluation and randomized controlled trials to assess the risk of bias in the studies. Two researchers independently screened, assessed the quality, and extracted data from the studies selected for the review.

RESULTS: In total, 20 studies published between 2003 and 2021 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. All the studies were conducted in high-income countries. These studies used telephones, SMS text messaging, mobile health apps, and websites as digital tools for behavior change communication. Most digital tools for interventions focused on diet and nutrition (17/20, 85%) and physical activity (16/20, 80%), and a few focused on smoking and tobacco control (8/20, 40%), alcohol reduction (6/20, 30%), and reduction of salt intake (3/20, 15%). Most studies (17/20, 85%) used the health care payer perspective for economic analysis, and only 15% (3/20) used the societal perspective. Only 45% (9/20) of studies conducted a full economic evaluation. Most studies (7/20, 35%) based on full economic evaluation and 30% (6/20) of studies based on partial economic evaluation found digital health interventions to be cost-effective and cost-saving. Most studies had short follow-ups and failed to include proper indicators for economic evaluation, such as quality-adjusted life-years, disability-adjusted life-years, lack of discounting, and sensitivity analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Digital health interventions for behavioral change among people with chronic diseases are cost-effective in high-income settings and can therefore be scaled up. Similar evidence from low- and middle-income countries based on properly designed studies for cost-effectiveness evaluation is urgently required. A full economic evaluation is needed to provide robust evidence for the cost-effectiveness of digital health interventions and their potential for scaling up in a wider population. Future studies should follow the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommendations to take a societal perspective, apply discounting, address parameter uncertainty, and apply a lifelong time horizon.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
JMIR Publications, 2023
Nyckelord
behavior, chronic diseases, cost-effectiveness, digital tools, lifestyle, mobile phone, systematic review
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi Hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisation, hälsopolitik och hälsoekonomi
Forskningsämne
folkhälsa
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205443 (URN)10.2196/42396 (DOI)000976564200003 ()36795470 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Forte, Forskningsrådet för hälsa, arbetsliv och välfärd, 2018-01461
Tillgänglig från: 2023-03-06 Skapad: 2023-03-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Berglund, F., Törmä, J., Wennberg, M., Wennberg, P. & Oskarsson, V. (2023). Dietary habits among snus users: a population-based cross-sectional study. Food & Nutrition Research, 67, Article ID 9537.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dietary habits among snus users: a population-based cross-sectional study
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 67, artikel-id 9537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The dietary habits among snus users are largely unknown and have not been accounted for in observational studies on the health effects of snus use.

Aim: To examine whether snus users eat unhealthier than never tobacco users.

Methods: A total of 3,397 male participants, examined between 1994 and 2014 in the Northern Sweden Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study, were included. Snus use and dietary habits were self-reported using questionnaires, from which intakes of different food groups, macronutrients, and a healthy diet score (HDS) were calculated (the latter as a proxy for overall diet quality). The association between snus use and dietary habits was examined by quantile regression models.

Results: In the multivariable-adjusted model, current snus users had a lower HDS (median difference: −0.86 [95% confidence interval: −1.32, −0.40]) than never tobacco users. Snus users also consumed fewer weekly servings of fruits and berries (median difference: −1.03 [−1.65, −0.40]), and their estimated percentage of energy intake con-sisted of less carbohydrates (median difference: −1.43 [−2.12, −0.74]) and of more total fat (median difference: 0.99 [0.30, 1.67]), saturated fat (median difference: 0.67 [0.29, 1.05]), monounsaturated fat (median difference: 0.44 [0.20, 0.68]), trans fat (median difference: 0.03 [0.01, 0.06]), and alcohol (median difference: 0.21 [0.02, 0.40]).

Conclusion: We observed that snus users had an unhealthier diet than never tobacco users. Future studies on the association between snus use and health outcomes should, therefore, consider diet as a potential confounder.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Swedish Nutrition Foundation, 2023
Nyckelord
beverages, diet, food, smokeless tobacco, snus, tobacco
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214061 (URN)10.29219/fnr.v67.9537 (DOI)2-s2.0-85168989019 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Norrbotten
Tillgänglig från: 2023-09-06 Skapad: 2023-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-09-06Bibliografiskt granskad
Fortuin-de Smidt, M., Bergman, F., Grönlund, C., Hult, A., Norberg, M., Wennberg, M. & Wennberg, P. (2023). Early adulthood exercise capacity, but not muscle strength, associates with subclinical atherosclerosis 40 years later in Swedish men. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 30(5), 407-415
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Early adulthood exercise capacity, but not muscle strength, associates with subclinical atherosclerosis 40 years later in Swedish men
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 407-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS: Poor exercise capacity and muscle strength in early adulthood are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unclear how these factors relate to subclinical atherosclerosis due to a lack of longitudinal studies. This study investigated whether early adulthood exercise capacity and muscle strength associated with later adulthood subclinical atherosclerosis.

METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included Swedish men (n = 797) who were eligible for military conscription (at ∼18-years of age) and who participated in the baseline assessment of the visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention trial between 2013 and 2016 (at 60 years of age). At conscription, isometric muscle strength (dynamometer) and maximum exercise capacity (maximal load cycle ergometer test) were measured. During later adulthood (at 60 years old), the presence of carotid plaques and intima media thickness were measured by using high-resolution ultrasound. At follow-up, plaques were present in 62% (n = 493) of men. Exercise capacity in early adulthood associated with 19% lower odds of plaques [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.96], independent of muscle strength. This association was not mediated by any single CVD risk factor. However, the total indirect effect of later, but not early, adulthood CVD risk factors was significant, while the direct effect was non-significant (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.02). Associations between muscle strength and subclinical atherosclerosis were non-significant.

CONCLUSION: Higher exercise capacity during early adulthood, but not muscle strength, may protect against carotid plaque development during adulthood mediated by the combination rather than a single later adulthood CVD risk factors.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Oxford University Press, 2023
Nyckelord
Carotid intima media thickness, Carotid plaques, Exercise capacity, Longitudinal study, Muscle strength
Nationell ämneskategori
Kardiologi Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206445 (URN)10.1093/eurjpc/zwad007 (DOI)000913889800001 ()36631734 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151044376 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Västerbotten, ALFVLL-298001Region Västerbotten, ALFVLL-643391Vetenskapsrådet, 521-2013-2708Vetenskapsrådet, 2016-01891Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20150369Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20170481Svenska läkaresällskapetSTROKE-RiksförbundetAFA FörsäkringVisare Norr
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-13 Skapad: 2023-04-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-04-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Andersson, E. M., Lindvall, K., Wennberg, P., Johansson, H. & Nordin, S. (2023). From risk communication about asymptomatic atherosclerosis to cognitive and emotional reactions and lifestyle modification. BMC Psychology, 12(1), Article ID 47.
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Non-adherence in the general population to preventive guidelines on cardiovascular disease calls for an interdisciplinary approach acknowledging psychological factors of relevance for risk communication and lifestyle modification. Evidence is building up regarding the advantage of sharing arterial imaging evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis with asymptomatic individuals, but there is limited understanding of how this relates to mechanisms of importance for behavioural change. Longitudinal studies on associations between patients’ reactions and lifestyle modification are missing. The population-based randomized controlled trial VIPVIZA investigates the impact of pictorial information about subclinical atherosclerosis, added to traditional risk factor-based communication. The intervention includes a personalized, colour-coded and age-related risk communication strategy and a motivational conversation, and has been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. 

Methods: In the present study we assessed cognitive and emotional reactions to the intervention, and how these reactions are associated to lifestyle modification. The participants’ evaluation of the risk communication was assessed in the intervention group (n=1749). Lifestyle modification was assessed with a lifestyle index based on physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption at baseline and after 3 years. Associations between cognitive and emotional response and lifestyle modification were tested with analyses of covariance in a subset of participants (n=714-857).

Results: The intervention increased understanding of personal CVD risk, the possibility to influence the risk, and how to influence the risk. Severity of atherosclerosis was associated with emotional reactions, but emotions of strong negative valence were uncommon. Cognitive response and emotional arousal evoked by the intervention were positively associated with lifestyle modification, whereas negative emotions in isolation were not. High level of cognitive response in combination with high level of emotional arousal was found to be most beneficial for lifestyle modification.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential of communicating asymptomatic atherosclerosis with a pictorial, colour-coded and age-related strategy, also including a motivational conversation. Furthermore, the results show the importance of CVD risk communication evoking engagement, and that an interaction between cognitive and emotional reactions might be central for sustained lifestyle modification. Our results also indicate that, in an asymptomatic population, atherosclerosis screening may strengthen disease prevention and health promotion.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023
Nyckelord
Atherosclerosis, Lifestyle, Health behaviour, Prevention, Health promotion, Decision making, Cognition, Emotion 
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Kardiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218585 (URN)10.1186/s40359-023-01467-x (DOI)001148313000002 ()38268015 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85182977469 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Västerbotten, Central ALFRegion Västerbotten, ALFVLL-298001Region Västerbotten, ALFVLL- 643391Vetenskapsrådet, 521–2013-2708Vetenskapsrådet, 2016- 01891Vetenskapsrådet, 2017–02246Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20150369Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20170481STROKE-RiksförbundetSvenska FörsäkringsföreningenVisare Norr
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-21 Skapad: 2023-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-02-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1617-6102

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