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Thornell, Lars-Eric
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Skoglund, E., Stål, P., Lundberg, T. R., Gustafsson, T., Tesch, P. A. & Thornell, L.-E. (2023). Skeletal muscle morphology, satellite cells, and oxidative profile in relation to physical function and lifelong endurance training in very old men. Journal of applied physiology, 134(2), 264-275
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Skeletal muscle morphology, satellite cells, and oxidative profile in relation to physical function and lifelong endurance training in very old men
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 134, nr 2, s. 264-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In the current study, we compared muscle morphology in three advanced aging cohorts that differed in physical function, includ-ing a unique cohort of lifelong endurance athletes. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle of seven lifelong endurance athletes (EAs) aged 82-92 yr, and 19 subjects from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) aged 87-91 yr were analyzed. ULSAM subjects were divided into high-(n = 9, HF) and low-(n = 10, LF) function groups based on strength and physical function tests. The analysis included general morphology, fiber type and cross-sectional area, capillarization, deficient cytochrome c oxi-dase (COX) activity, number of myonuclei and satellite cells, and markers of regeneration and denervation. Fibers with central nuclei and/or nuclear clumps were observed in all groups. EA differed from LF and HF by having a higher proportion of type I fibers, 52% more capillaries in relation to fiber area, fewer COX-negative fibers, and less variation in fiber sizes (all P < 0.05). There were no differences between the groups in the number of myonuclei and satellite cells per fiber, and no significant differ-ences between LF and HF (P > 0.05). In conclusion, signs of aging were evident in the muscle morphology of all groups, but neither endurance training status nor physical function influenced signs of regeneration and denervation processes. Lifelong en-durance training, but not higher physical function, was associated with higher muscle oxidative capacity, even beyond the age of 80.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Here we show that lifelong endurance training, but not physical function, is associated with higher mus-cle oxidative capacity, even beyond the age of 80 yr. Neither endurance training status nor physical function was significantly associated with satellite cells or markers of regeneration and denervation in muscle biopsies from these very old men.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Physiological Society, 2023
Nyckelord
endurance exercise, healthy aging, skeletal muscle, skeletal muscle morphology
Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap Fysiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218938 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00343.2022 (DOI)000936555000005 ()36548511 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Magnus Bergvalls StiftelseVetenskapsrådet, 2015- 02338Marianne och Marcus Wallenbergs Stiftelse
Tillgänglig från: 2024-01-03 Skapad: 2024-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-01-03Bibliografiskt granskad
Rönnblom, A., Thornell, L.-E., Shah, F., Tano, K. & Stål, P. (2023). Unique fiber phenotype composition and metabolic properties of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the human middle ear. Journal of Anatomy, 243(1), 39-50
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Unique fiber phenotype composition and metabolic properties of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the human middle ear
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2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 243, nr 1, s. 39-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The middle ear muscles have vital roles, yet their precise function in hearing and protection remains unclear. To better understand the function of these muscles in humans, the morphology, fiber composition, and metabolic properties of nine tensor tympani and eight stapedius muscles were analyzed with immunohistochemical, enzyme-histochemical, biochemical, and morphometric techniques. Human orofacial, jaw, extraocular, and limb muscles were used as references. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles were markedly dominated by fibers expressing fast contracting myosin heavy chain MyHC-2A and MyHC-2X (79 ± 6% vs. 86 ± 9%, respectively, p = 0.04). In fact, the middle ear muscles had one of the highest proportions of MyHC-2 fibers ever reported for human muscles. Interestingly, the biochemical analysis revealed a MyHC isoform of unknown identity in both the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles. Muscle fibers containing two or more MyHC isoforms were relatively frequently observed in both muscles. A proportion of these hybrid fibers expressed a developmental MyHC isoform that is normally absent in adult human limb muscles. The middle ear muscles differed from orofacial, jaw, and limb muscles by having significantly smaller fibers (220 vs. 360 μm2, respectively) and significantly higher variability in fiber size, capillarization per fiber area, mitochondrial oxidative activity, and density of nerve fascicles. Muscle spindles were observed in the tensor tympani muscle but not in the stapedius muscle. We conclude that the middle ear muscles have a highly specialized muscle morphology, fiber composition, and metabolic properties that generally showed more similarities to orofacial than jaw and limb muscles. Although the muscle fiber characteristics in the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles suggest a capacity for fast, fine-tuned, and sustainable contractions, their difference in proprioceptive control reflects different functions in hearing and protection of the inner ear.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Nyckelord
capillaries, fiber type, middle ear, mitochondria, myosin heavy chain
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysiologi Oto-rino-laryngologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206354 (URN)10.1111/joa.13861 (DOI)000947787000001 ()36914412 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85150637645 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Region Norrbotten, NLL-968473
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-26 Skapad: 2023-04-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-04-17Bibliografiskt granskad
Skoglund, E., Gronholdt-Klein, M., Rullman, E., Thornell, L.-E., Strömberg, A., Hedman, A., . . . Gustafsson, T. (2020). Longitudinal Muscle and Myocellular Changes in Community-Dwelling Men Over Two Decades of Successful Aging: The ULSAM Cohort Revisited. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 75(4), 654-663
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Longitudinal Muscle and Myocellular Changes in Community-Dwelling Men Over Two Decades of Successful Aging: The ULSAM Cohort Revisited
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2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 75, nr 4, s. 654-663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Participants of the population-based Uppsala longitudinal study of adult men (ULSAM) cohort reaching more than 88 years of age (survivors, S) were investigated at age 70, 82, and 88-90 and compared at 70 years with non-survivors (NS) not reaching 82 years. Body composition, muscle mass and muscle histology were remarkably stable over 18 years of advanced aging in S. Analysis of genes involved in muscle remodeling showed that S had higher mRNA levels of myogenic differentiation factors (Myogenin, MyoD), embryonic myosin (eMyHC), enzymes involved in regulated breakdown of myofibrillar proteins (Smad2, Trim32, MuRF1,) and NCAM compared with healthy adult men (n = 8). S also had higher mRNA levels of eMyHC, Smad 2, MuRF1 compared with NS. At 88 years, S expressed decreased levels of Myogenin, MyoD, eMyHC, NCAM and Smad2 towards those seen in NS at 70 years. The gene expression pattern of S at 70 years was likely beneficial since they maintained muscle fiber histology and appendicular lean body mass until advanced age. The expression pattern at 88 years may indicate a diminished muscle remodeling coherent with a decline of reinnervation capacity and/or plasticity at advanced age.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Oxford University Press, 2020
Nyckelord
E3 ligases, Healthy aging, Skeletal muscle, Sarcopenia, Gene expression
Nationell ämneskategori
Geriatrik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173838 (URN)10.1093/gerona/glz068 (DOI)000536490100006 ()31002330 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081539643 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-08-03 Skapad: 2020-08-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Thornell, L.-E., Carlsson, L., Eriksson, P.-O., Liu, J.-X., Österlund, C., Stål, P. & Pedrosa-Domellöf, F. (2015). Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres. Journal of Anatomy, 227(2), 136-156
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres
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2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 227, nr 2, s. 136-156Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150years ago. It took, however, another 100years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umea University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Nyckelord
cytoskeleton, M-band, M-protein, muscle spindle, myomesin, nuclear bag, nuclear chain, titin
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan biologi Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106768 (URN)10.1111/joa.12338 (DOI)000357951900004 ()26179023 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937019487 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, K2012-63x-20399-06-3Magnus Bergvalls Stiftelse
Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-20 Skapad: 2015-08-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Österlund, C., Liu, J.-X., Thornell, L.-E. & Eriksson, P.-O. (2013). Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 139(6), 895-907
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, nr 6, s. 895-907Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Abstract [en]

Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2013
Nyckelord
Jaw, Limb, Human, Muscle spindles, Intrafusal fibres, Myosin heavy chain, Immuno-histochemistry
Nationell ämneskategori
Odontologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46771 (URN)10.1007/s00418-012-1072-7 (DOI)000319167800008 ()23306907 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84878242137 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-13 Skapad: 2011-09-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-07-02Bibliografiskt granskad
Yu, J.-G., Liu, J.-X., Carlsson, L., Thornell, L.-E. & Stål, P. S. (2013). Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise. PLOS ONE, 8(4), Article ID e62056.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise
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2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikel-id e62056Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2-3 days and 7-8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days post exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2-3 days to 7-8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days; p<0.05). Thus, the increased fibre size at 7-8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise), we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS.

Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-68821 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0062056 (DOI)000317563300048 ()23614012 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84876173486 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2013-04-25 Skapad: 2013-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-03-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Thornell, L.-E., Gustafsson, T., Cederholm, T. & Ulfhake, B. (2012). Commentaries on Viewpoint: Muscle atrophy is not always sarcopenia: "Sarcopenia" has earned its living [Letter to the editor]. Journal of applied physiology, 113(4), 683-684
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Commentaries on Viewpoint: Muscle atrophy is not always sarcopenia: "Sarcopenia" has earned its living
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 113, nr 4, s. 683-684Artikel i tidskrift, Letter (Refereegranskat) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Physiological Society, 2012
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicinska och farmaceutiska grundvetenskaper
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-191764 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00667.2012 (DOI)22896680 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84865142533 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2022-01-24 Skapad: 2022-01-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-07-31Bibliografiskt granskad
Österlund, C., Lindström, M., Thornell, L.-E. & Eriksson, P.-O. (2012). Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 138(4), 669-682
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, nr 4, s. 669-682Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

Nationell ämneskategori
Odontologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46738 (URN)10.1007/s00418-012-0985-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-84867331395 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-13 Skapad: 2011-09-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-07-02Bibliografiskt granskad
Thornell, L.-E., Gustafsson, T., Cederholm, T. & Ulfhake, B. (2012). "Sarcopenia" has earned its living [Letter to the editor]. Journal of applied physiology, 113(4), 683-684
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>"Sarcopenia" has earned its living
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 113, nr 4, s. 683-684Artikel i tidskrift, Letter (Refereegranskat) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
American Physiological Society, 2012
Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap Fysiologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60340 (URN)000308000800029 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2013-01-03 Skapad: 2012-10-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Österlund, C., Thornell, L.-E. & Eriksson, P.-O. (2011). Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern. Anatomical Record, 294(7), 1158-1169
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, nr 7, s. 1158-1169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The human jaw system is different from those of other primates, carnivores, ruminants, and rodents in temporomandibular joint and muscle anatomy. In adults, jaw muscles also differ markedly from limb and trunk muscles in composition and distribution of fibre types. It can be assumed that age-related changes between young age to adulthood in terms of craniofacial growth, teeth eruption, and improvement of jaw functions are paralleled by alterations also in composition and distribution of jaw muscle fibre types. To address this question, we have examined the fibre type composition of the human masseter, a jaw closing muscle, at young age. For comparison, the young biceps brachii was examined. The results were compared with previous data for adult masseter and biceps muscles. Young masseter and biceps were similar in that type I fibres outnumbered other fibre types and were of the same diameter. However, they differed in composition of other fibre types. Young masseter contained fibre types I, IM, IIC, IIAB, IIB, and scarce IIA, with regional differences, whereas young biceps showed types I, IIA, IIAB, and few IIB. Young masseter differed from young biceps also by smaller type II fibre diameter and by containing fetal MyHC. In addition, the masseter and biceps differed in age-related changes of composition and distribution of fibre types between young age and adulthood. We conclude that the human masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern, in concordance with being a separate allotype of muscle.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Wiley-Liss, Inc., 2011
Nyckelord
enzyme- and immuno-histochemistry, fibre types, jaw, limb, morphology, myosin heavy chain
Nationell ämneskategori
Odontologi
Forskningsämne
anatomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-46418 (URN)10.1002/ar.21272 (DOI)2-s2.0-79959240817 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-01 Skapad: 2011-09-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-07-02Bibliografiskt granskad
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