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Opgenoorth, Hermann J.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7573-5165
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Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Schillings, A., Palin, L., Bower, G. E., Opgenoorth, H. J., Milan, S. E., Kauristie, K., . . . Van De Kamp, M. (2023). Signatures of wedgelets over Fennoscandia during the St Patrick s Day Storm 2015. Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, 13, Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signatures of wedgelets over Fennoscandia during the St Patrick s Day Storm 2015
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, E-ISSN 2115-7251, Vol. 13, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the long main phase of the St Patrick's Day storm on March 17, 2015, we found three separate enhancements of the westward electrojet. These enhancements are observed in the ionospheric equivalent currents computed using geomagnetic data over Fennoscandia. Using data from the IMAGE magnetometer network, we identified localised field-aligned current (FAC) systems superimposed on the pre-existing ionospheric current system. We suggest that these localised current systems are wedgelets and that they can potentially contribute to a larger-scale structure of a substorm current wedge (SCW). Each wedgelet is associated with a negative BX spike. Each spike is recorded at a higher latitude than the former one and all three are very localised over Fennoscandia. The first spike occurred at 17:34 UT and was observed at Lycksele, R rvik and Nurmij rvi, the second spike was recorded at 17:41 UT and located at Lycksele and R rvik, whereas the last spike occurred at 17:47 UT and was observed at Kevo and Abisko. Simultaneous optical auroral data and electron injections at the geosynchronous orbit indicate that one or more substorms took place in the polar ionosphere at the time of the wedgelets. This study demonstrates the occurrence of small and short-lived structures such as wedgelets at different locations over a short time scale, 15 min in this case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2023
Keywords
Ionospheric equivalent currents, St Patrick s Day storm, Substorm, Wedgelets, Westward electrojet
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212096 (URN)10.1051/swsc/2023018 (DOI)001010354000001 ()2-s2.0-85163322164 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 10077/15Swedish National Space Board, 81/17Swedish Research Council, 2018-03623
Available from: 2023-07-17 Created: 2023-07-17 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Sánchez-Cano, B., Witasse, O., Knutsen, E. W., Meggi, D., Viet, S., Lester, M., . . . Zender, J. (2023). Solar Energetic Particle Events Detected in the Housekeeping Data of the European Space Agency's Spacecraft Flotilla in the Solar System. Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, 21(8), Article ID e2023SW003540.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar Energetic Particle Events Detected in the Housekeeping Data of the European Space Agency's Spacecraft Flotilla in the Solar System
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2023 (English)In: Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, E-ISSN 1542-7390, Vol. 21, no 8, article id e2023SW003540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the growing importance of planetary Space Weather forecasting and radiation protection for science and robotic exploration and the need for accurate Space Weather monitoring and predictions, only a limited number of spacecraft have dedicated instrumentation for this purpose. However, every spacecraft (planetary or astronomical) has hundreds of housekeeping sensors distributed across the spacecraft, some of which can be useful to detect radiation hazards produced by solar particle events. In particular, energetic particles that impact detectors and subsystems on a spacecraft can be identified by certain housekeeping sensors, such as the Error Detection and Correction (EDAC) memory counters, and their effects can be assessed. These counters typically have a sudden large increase in a short time in their error counts that generally match the arrival of energetic particles to the spacecraft. We investigate these engineering datasets for scientific purposes and perform a feasibility study of solar energetic particle event detections using EDAC counters from seven European Space Agency Solar System missions: Venus Express, Mars Express, ExoMars-Trace Gas Orbiter, Rosetta, BepiColombo, Solar Orbiter, and Gaia. Six cases studies, in which the same event was observed by different missions at different locations in the inner Solar System are analyzed. The results of this study show how engineering sensors, for example, EDAC counters, can be used to infer information about the solar particle environment at each spacecraft location. Therefore, we demonstrate the potential of the various EDAC to provide a network of solar particle detections at locations where no scientific observations of this kind are available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2023
Keywords
housekeeping, SEP events, solar energetic particles, space weather
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212733 (URN)10.1029/2023SW003540 (DOI)001040723700001 ()2-s2.0-85166339476 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 871149The European Space Agency (ESA)
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
Hamrin, M., Schillings, A., Opgenoorth, H. J., Nesbit-Östman, S., Krämer, E., Araújo, J. C., . . . Barnes, R. J. (2023). Space weather disturbances in non-stormy times: occurrence of dB/dt spikes during three solar cycles. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 128(10), Article ID e2023JA031804.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Space weather disturbances in non-stormy times: occurrence of dB/dt spikes during three solar cycles
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 128, no 10, article id e2023JA031804Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatio-temporal variations of ionospheric currents cause rapid magnetic field variations at ground level and Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) that can be harmful for human infrastructure. The risk for large excursions in the magnetic field time derivative, “dB/dt spikes”, is known to be high during geomagnetic storms and substorms. However, less is known about the occurrence of spikes during non-stormy times. We use data from ground-based globally covering magnetometers (SuperMAG database) from the years 1985–2021. We investigate the spike occurrence (|dB/dt| > 100 nT/min) as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude (Mlat), and the solar cycle phases during non-stormy times (−15 nT ≤ SYM-H < 0). We sort our data into substorm (AL < 200 nT) intervals (“SUB”) and less active intervals between consecutive substorms (“nonSUB”). We find that spikes commonly occur in both SUBs and nonSUBs during non-stormy times (3–23 spikes/day), covering 18–12 MLT and 65°–80° Mlat. This also implies a risk for infrastructure damage during non-stormy times, especially when several spikes occur nearby in space and time, possibly causing infrastructure weathering. We find that spikes are more common in the declining phase of the solar cycle, and that the occurrence of SUB spikes propagates from one midnight to one morning hotspot with ∼10 min in MLT for each minute in universal time (UTC). Finally, we discuss causes for the spikes in terms of spatio-temporal variations of ionospheric currents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2023
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215270 (URN)10.1029/2023ja031804 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174460250 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 81/17Swedish National Space Board, 108/18Swedish National Space Board, 194/19Swedish National Space Board, 118/17Swedish Research Council, 2018-03623Swedish Research Council, 2021-06683
Available from: 2023-10-15 Created: 2023-10-15 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Schillings, A., Palin, L., Opgenoorth, H. J., Hamrin, M., Rosenqvist, L., Gjerloev, J., . . . Barnes, R. (2022). Distribution and Occurrence Frequency of dB/dt Spikes During Magnetic Storms 1980–2020. Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, 20(5), Article ID e2021SW002953.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and Occurrence Frequency of dB/dt Spikes During Magnetic Storms 1980–2020
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2022 (English)In: Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, E-ISSN 1542-7390, Vol. 20, no 5, article id e2021SW002953Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The physical magnetospheric cause for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are rapid time-varying magnetic fields (dB/dt), which occur mainly during magnetic substorms and storms. When, where and why exactly such rapid dB/dt may occur is insufficiently understood. We investigated all storms since 1980 and analyzed the negative and positive dB/dt spikes (>|500| nT/min) in the north and east component using a worldwide coverage (SuperMAG). Our analysis confirmed the existence of two dB/dt spikes "hotspots" located in the pre-midnight and in the morning magnetic local time sector, independently of the geographic location of the stations. The associated physical phenomena are probably substorm current wedge onsets and westward traveling surges (WTS) in the evening sector, and wave- or vortex-like current flows in the morning sector known as Omega bands. We observed a spatiotemporal evolution of the negative northern dB/dt spikes. The spikes initially occur in the pre-midnight sector, and then develop in time toward the morning sector. This spatiotemporal sequence is correlated with bursts in the AE index, and can be repeated several times throughout a storm. Finally, we investigated the peak value of Dst and AE during the storm period in comparison with the dB/dt spike occurrence frequency, we did not find any correlation. This result implies that a moderate storm with many spikes can be as (or more) dangerous for ground-based infrastructures than a major storm with fewer dB/dt spikes. Our findings regarding the physical causes and characteristics of dB/dt spikes may help to improve the GIC forecast for the affected regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
dB/dt spikes, geomagnetic storms, GICs, Omega bands, space weather, substorm current wedge
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-196128 (URN)10.1029/2021SW002953 (DOI)000798253500001 ()2-s2.0-85130605483 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 10077/15, 81/17Swedish Research Council, 2018‐03623
Available from: 2022-06-15 Created: 2022-06-15 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Sánchez-Cano, B., Lester, M., Andrews, D. J., Opgenoorth, H., Lillis, R., Leblanc, F., . . . Roman, M. T. (2022). Mars’ plasma system. Scientific potential of coordinated multipoint missions: "The next generation". Experimental astronomy, 54, 641-676
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mars’ plasma system. Scientific potential of coordinated multipoint missions: "The next generation"
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2022 (English)In: Experimental astronomy, ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 54, p. 641-676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this White Paper, submitted to ESA’s Voyage 2050 call, is to get a more holistic knowledge of the dynamics of the Martian plasma system, from its surface up to the undisturbed solar wind outside of the induced magnetosphere. This can only be achieved with coordinated multi-point observations with high temporal resolution as they have the scientific potential to track the whole dynamics of the system (from small to large scales), and they constitute the next generation of the exploration of Mars analogous to what happened at Earth a few decades ago. This White Paper discusses the key science questions that are still open at Mars and how they could be addressed with coordinated multipoint missions. The main science questions are: (i) How does solar wind driving impact the dynamics of the magnetosphere and ionosphere? (ii) What is the structure and nature of the tail of Mars’ magnetosphere at all scales? (iii) How does the lower atmosphere couple to the upper atmosphere? (iv) Why should we have a permanent in-situ Space Weather monitor at Mars? Each science question is devoted to a specific plasma region, and includes several specific scientific objectives to study in the coming decades. In addition, two mission concepts are also proposed based on coordinated multi-point science from a constellation of orbiting and ground-based platforms, which focus on understanding and solving the current science gaps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Coordinated multipoint missions, ESA-Voyage2050, Future missions, Mars, Plasma, Science gaps
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189927 (URN)10.1007/s10686-021-09790-0 (DOI)000718072900001 ()2-s2.0-85119288857 (Scopus ID)
Note

Part of a collection: Voyage 2050 – science themes for ESA’s long-term plan for the science programme: Solar Systems, ours and others (Part 2).

Available from: 2021-11-29 Created: 2021-11-29 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lester, M., Sanchez-Cano, B., Potts, D., Lillis, R., Cartacci, M., Bernardini, F., . . . Russell, A. (2022). The Impact of Energetic Particles on the Martian Ionosphere During a Full Solar Cycle of Radar Observations: Radar Blackouts. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 127(2), Article ID e2021JA029535.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Impact of Energetic Particles on the Martian Ionosphere During a Full Solar Cycle of Radar Observations: Radar Blackouts
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 127, no 2, article id e2021JA029535Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the first long-term characterization of ionization layers in the lower ionosphere of Mars (below ∼90 km), a region inaccessible to orbital in-situ observations, based on an analysis of radar echo blackouts observed on Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from 2006 to 2017. A blackout occurs when the expected surface reflection is partly or totally attenuated for portions of an observation. Enhanced ionization at altitudes of 60–90 km, below the main ionospheric electron density peak, leads to increased absorption of the radar signal, resulting in the blackouts. We find that (a) MARSIS, operating at frequencies between 1.8 and 5 MHz, suffered more blackouts than SHARAD, which has a higher carrier frequency (20 MHz), (b) there is a clear correlation of blackout occurrence with solar cycle, (c) there is no apparent relationship between blackout occurrence and crustal magnetic fields, and (d) blackouts occur during both nightside and dayside observations, although the peak occurrence is deep on the nightside. Analysis of Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Solar Energetic Particle electron counts between 20 and 200 keV demonstrates that these electrons are likely responsible for attenuating the radar signals. We investigate the minimum SEP electron fluxes required to ionize the lower atmosphere and produce measurable attenuation. When both radars experience a blackout, the SEP electron fluxes are at their highest. Based on several case studies, we find that the average SEP spectrum responsible for a blackout is particularly enhanced at its higher energy end, that is, above 70 keV.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
Mars express, Mars ionosphere, Mars reconnaissance orbiter, radio sounding, solar energetic particles, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192946 (URN)10.1029/2021JA029535 (DOI)000765721800003 ()2-s2.0-85125420305 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-08 Created: 2022-03-08 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Norenius, L., Hamrin, M., Goncharov, O., Gunell, H., Opgenoorth, H. J., Pitkänen, T., . . . Baddeley, L. (2021). Ground-Based Magnetometer Response to Impacting Magnetosheath Jets. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 126(8), Article ID e2021JA029115.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ground-Based Magnetometer Response to Impacting Magnetosheath Jets
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 126, no 8, article id e2021JA029115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Localized dynamic pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, or jets, have been a popular topic for discussion in recent decades. Studies show that they can propagate through the magnetosheath and impact the magnetopause, possibly showing up as geoeffective elements at ground level. However, questions still remain on how geoeffective they can be. Previous studies have been limited to case studies during few days and with only a handful of events. In this study we have found 65 cases of impacting jets using observations from the Multiscale Magnetospheric mission during 2015–2017. We examine their geoeffectiveness using ground-based magnetometers (GMAGs). From our statistics we find that GMAGs observe responses as fluctuations in the geomagnetic field with amplitudes of 34 nT, frequencies of 1.9 mHz, and damping times of 370 s. Further, the parallel length and the maximum dynamic pressure of the jet dictate the amplitude of the observed GMAG response. Longer and higher pressure jets inducing larger amplitude responses in GMAG horizontal components. The median time required for the signal to be detected by GMAGs is 190 s. We also examine if jets can be harmful for human infrastructure and cannot exclude that such events could exist.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
geoeffectiveness, jets, magnetosheath
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187189 (URN)10.1029/2021JA029115 (DOI)000691018000045 ()2-s2.0-85113763047 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-07 Created: 2021-09-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Lillis, R. J., Mitchell, D., Montabone, L., Heavens, N., Harrison, T., Stuurman, C., . . . Tripathi, A. (2021). MOSAIC: A satellite constellation to enable groundbreaking mars climate system science and prepare for human exploration. Planetary Science Journal, 2(5), Article ID 211.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MOSAIC: A satellite constellation to enable groundbreaking mars climate system science and prepare for human exploration
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2021 (English)In: Planetary Science Journal, E-ISSN 2632-3338, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Martian climate system has been revealed to rival the complexity of Earth's. Over the last 20 yr, a fragmented and incomplete picture has emerged of its structure and variability; we remain largely ignorant of many of the physical processes driving matter and energy flow between and within Mars' diverse climate domains. Mars Orbiters for Surface, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere Connections (MOSAIC) is a constellation of ten platforms focused on understanding these climate connections, with orbits and instruments tailored to observe the Martian climate system from three complementary perspectives. First, low-circular near-polar Sun-synchronous orbits (a large mothership and three smallsats spaced in local time) enable vertical profiling of wind, aerosols, water, and temperature, as well as mapping of surface and subsurface ice. Second, elliptical orbits sampling all of Mars' plasma regions enable multipoint measurements necessary to understand mass/energy transport and ion-driven escape, also enabling, with the polar orbiters, dense radio occultation coverage. Last, longitudinally spaced areostationary orbits enable synoptic views of the lower atmosphere necessary to understand global and mesoscale dynamics, global views of the hydrogen and oxygen exospheres, and upstream measurements of space weather conditions. MOSAIC will characterize climate system variability diurnally and seasonally, on meso-, regional, and global scales, targeting the shallow subsurface all the way out to the solar wind, making many first-of-their-kind measurements. Importantly, these measurements will also prepare for human exploration and habitation of Mars by providing water resource prospecting, operational forecasting of dust and radiation hazards, and ionospheric communication/positioning disruptions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189620 (URN)10.3847/PSJ/ac0538 (DOI)000917388200001 ()2-s2.0-85118757645 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-11-17 Created: 2021-11-17 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Engebretson, M. J., Pilipenko, V. A., Steinmetz, E. S., Moldwin, M. B., Connors, M. G., Boteler, D. H., . . . Russell, C. T. (2021). Nighttime Magnetic Perturbation Events Observed in Arctic Canada: 3. Occurrence and Amplitude as Functions of Magnetic Latitude, Local Time, and Magnetic Disturbance Indices. Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, 19(3), Article ID e2020SW002526.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nighttime Magnetic Perturbation Events Observed in Arctic Canada: 3. Occurrence and Amplitude as Functions of Magnetic Latitude, Local Time, and Magnetic Disturbance Indices
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2021 (English)In: Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Application, E-ISSN 1542-7390, Vol. 19, no 3, article id e2020SW002526Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapid changes of magnetic fields associated with nighttime magnetic perturbation events (MPEs) with amplitudes |ΔB| of hundreds of nT and 5–10 min duration can induce geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) that can harm technological systems. This study compares the occurrence and amplitude of nighttime MPEs with |dB/dt| ≥ 6 nT/s observed during 2015 and 2017 at five stations in Arctic Canada ranging from 64.7° to 75.2° in corrected geomagnetic latitude (MLAT) as functions of magnetic local time (MLT), the SME (SuperMAG version of AE) and SYM/H magnetic indices, and time delay after substorm onsets. Although most MPEs occurred within 30 min after a substorm onset, ∼10% of those observed at the four lower latitude stations occurred over two hours after the most recent onset. A broad distribution in local time appeared at all five stations between 1700 and 0100 MLT, and a narrower distribution appeared at the lower latitude stations between 0200 and 0700 MLT. There was little or no correlation between MPE amplitude and the SYM/H index; most MPEs at all stations occurred for SYM/H values between −40 and 0 nT. SME index values for MPEs observed >1 h after the most recent substorm onset fell in the lower half of the range of SME values for events during substorms, and dipolarizations in synchronous orbit at GOES 13 during these events were weaker or more often nonexistent. These observations suggest that substorms are neither necessary nor sufficient to cause MPEs, and hence predictions of GICs cannot focus solely on substorms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2021
Keywords
geomagnetically induced currents, magnetic perturbation events, magnetic storms, omega bands, substorms
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182098 (URN)10.1029/2020SW002526 (DOI)000636279600009 ()2-s2.0-85103236439 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2021-04-15 Created: 2021-04-15 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Liu, W., Blanc, M., Wang, C., Donavan, E., Foster, J., Lester, M., . . . Ren, L. (2021). Scientific challenges and instrumentation for the International Meridian Circle Program. Science China. Earth Sciences, 64(12), 2090-2097
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scientific challenges and instrumentation for the International Meridian Circle Program
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2021 (English)In: Science China. Earth Sciences, ISSN 1674-7313, E-ISSN 1869-1897, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 2090-2097Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Earth’s ecosystems and human activities are threatened by a broad spectrum of hazards of major importance for the safety of ground infrastructures, space systems and space flight: solar activity, earthquakes, atmospheric and climatic disturbances, changes in the geomagnetic field, fluctuations of the global electric circuit. Monitoring and understanding these major hazards to better predict and mitigate their effects is one of the greatest scientific and operational challenges of the 21st century. Though diverse, these hazards share one feature in common: they all leave their characteristic imprints on a critical layer of the Earth’s environment: its ionosphere, middle and upper atmosphere (IMUA). The objective of the International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP), a major international program led by the Chines Academy of Sciences (CAS), is to deploy, integrate and operate a global network of research and monitoring instruments to use the IMUA as a screen on which to detect these imprints. In this article, we first show that the geometry required for the IMCP global observation system leads to a deployment of instruments in priority along the 120°E–60°W great meridian circle, which will cover in an optimal way both the dominant geographic and geomagnetic latitude variations, possibly complemented by a second Great Circle along the 30°E–150°W meridians to capture longitude variations. Then, starting from the Chinese Meridian Project (CMP) network and using it as a template, we give a preliminary and promising description of the instruments to be integrated and deployed along the 120°E–60° W great circle running across China, Australia and the Americas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Chinese Meridian Project, International Meridian Circle Program, Ionosphere, Middle-upper atmosphere, Space weather
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-191375 (URN)10.1007/s11430-021-9841-8 (DOI)000710613400001 ()2-s2.0-85117829216 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-14 Created: 2022-01-14 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7573-5165

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