Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Markowska, MagdalenaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6186-0659
Publications (10 of 51) Show all publications
Markowska, M., Ahl, H. & Naldi, L. (2023). Fix the structures, not the women: the case for norm critical entrepreneurship education. In: Andrew C. Corbett; Louis D. Marino; Gry A. Alsos (Ed.), The age of entrepreneurship education research: evolution and future (pp. 51-63). Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fix the structures, not the women: the case for norm critical entrepreneurship education
2023 (English)In: The age of entrepreneurship education research: evolution and future / [ed] Andrew C. Corbett; Louis D. Marino; Gry A. Alsos, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023, p. 51-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, the authors argue that entrepreneurship education (EE) as currently conceived, does little to eradicate gender inequality – rather, its focus on the individual and its neglect of structural impediments and measures tend to reinforce this inequality. The authors discuss why this happens and suggest ways forward. The authors believe the most positive action would be to employ legislation and public policy to change gendered structures and practices which would lead to changes in gendered norms. However, the relationship between norms and structures is mutual. Structural change can only be achieved if existing norms are questioned and this should be the first step toward changing discriminatory structures. The authors argue that in this context EE must include norm critical education. The authors provide some practical examples related to the context of EE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023
Series
Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, ISSN 1074-7540
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206608 (URN)10.1108/S1074-754020230000023004 (DOI)978-1-83753-057-1 (ISBN)978-1-83753-056-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-04-12 Created: 2023-04-12 Last updated: 2023-04-13Bibliographically approved
Markowska, M. (2023). Omvandlingen från småbarnsmamma till företagare: utformningen av välfärdssystem har konsekvenser för social stratifiering och för kvinnors livsbanor. Organisation & Samhälle (1), 42-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Omvandlingen från småbarnsmamma till företagare: utformningen av välfärdssystem har konsekvenser för social stratifiering och för kvinnors livsbanor
2023 (Swedish)In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, E-ISSN 2002-0287, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Organisation & Samhälle, 2023
Keywords
moderskap, företagare, småbarnsmamma, normer
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214717 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01678
Available from: 2023-09-27 Created: 2023-09-27 Last updated: 2024-05-14Bibliographically approved
Markowska, M., Ahl, H. & Naldi, L. (2023). Timeout: the role of family-friendly policies in business start-up among mothers. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 47(4), 1169-1199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timeout: the role of family-friendly policies in business start-up among mothers
2023 (English)In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 1169-1199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores why an increasing number of Swedish mothers are becoming entrepreneurs; this choice appears counterintuitive given the prevailing social welfare system prioritizes the rights of employed women. Using an interpretative stance, we analyzed the life stories of 18 Swedish mothers who created new ventures while caring for young children. The value of the time afforded by parental leave policies was identified as vital to the business creation process. Hence, we argue that time is a critical entrepreneurship-relevant resource; this is illustrated by the positive effect of the Swedish welfare system upon entrepreneurship entry and the timing of this decision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
women entrepreneurs, family-friendly policies, time, mothers, timing
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204286 (URN)10.1177/10422587221126493 (DOI)000864893500001 ()2-s2.0-85139480506 (Scopus ID)HOA;;837799 (Local ID)HOA;;837799 (Archive number)HOA;;837799 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-01678
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2024-07-10Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S., Naldi, L. & Markowska, M. (2023). Towards the good life: entrepreneurship following divorce. In: : . Paper presented at EGOS 2023, 39th EGOS Colloquium, European Group for Organizational Studies; "Organizing for the good life: Between legacy and imagination", Cagliari, Italy, July 6-8, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the good life: entrepreneurship following divorce
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214787 (URN)
Conference
EGOS 2023, 39th EGOS Colloquium, European Group for Organizational Studies; "Organizing for the good life: Between legacy and imagination", Cagliari, Italy, July 6-8, 2023
Available from: 2023-09-28 Created: 2023-09-28 Last updated: 2023-09-29Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S. & Markowska, M. (2021). Entrepreneurial activity as a source of meaning in life. In: Academy of Management Proceedings: . Paper presented at 81st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Virtual, July 29 - August 4, 2021. Academy of Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial activity as a source of meaning in life
2021 (English)In: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2021Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this research, we ask why and how some women start or grow a business after initiating divorce, while others will not. Grounded on an in-depth study of 24 women who experienced divorce in a patriarchal society, we develop a framework that identifies two pathways. The first pathway is followed by those women who felt trapped in their marriage and engaged in entrepreneurial activities as part of an overall process of self-discovery and self-development that enabled them to search for and find new sources of meanings, while the second pathway is followed by those women who felt discontent with their marriage, remarried but did not engage in entrepreneurship. Our emergent theoretical framework explains the importance of entrepreneurship to attain eudaimonic well-being following an adversity, thereby expanding the scope of entrepreneurship research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academy of Management, 2021
Series
Academy of Management Proceedings, ISSN 0065-0668, E-ISSN 2151-6561 ; 2021:1
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204258 (URN)10.5465/AMBPP.2021.15186abstract (DOI)
Conference
81st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Virtual, July 29 - August 4, 2021
Available from: 2023-02-01 Created: 2023-02-01 Last updated: 2023-02-02Bibliographically approved
Naldi, L., Baù, M., Ahl, H. & Markowska, M. (2021). Gender (in)equality within the household and business start-up among mothers. Small Business Economics, 56, 903-918
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender (in)equality within the household and business start-up among mothers
2021 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 56, p. 903-918Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we explore which factors are associated with entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant is positively associated with business start-up by mothers; however, our findings show that what matters more is the paternity leave taken by the mothers’ partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden, gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Entrepreneurship, Family supportive policies, Gender inequality, Work-family balance
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204302 (URN)10.1007/s11187-019-00275-1 (DOI)000495210000002 ()2-s2.0-85074479068 (Scopus ID)HOA;;1380443 (Local ID)HOA;;1380443 (Archive number)HOA;;1380443 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Hashim, S., Naldi, L. & Markowska, M. (2021). “The royal award goes to…”: Legitimacy processes for female-led family ventures. The Journal of Family Business Strategy, 12(3), Article ID 100358.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>“The royal award goes to…”: Legitimacy processes for female-led family ventures
2021 (English)In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 100358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A notable phenomenon in the Gulf States, and in Bahrain in particular, is the increasing number of female-led family ventures. This phenomenon is surprising because women are reported to face many legitimacy challenges when establishing a family business in an Arab society, in which social and economic decisions are male-dominated. Thus, we explore how female-led family ventures gain legitimacy in an Arab society. We employ a multiple case-study approach to investigate three longitudinal cases. We develop a process model of legitimacy formation for female-led family ventures. The legitimacy formation consists of three main phases: individual legitimacy, market validity and royal validity. Our model suggests that meritocracy carves out and informs most decisions and activities throughout the phases of the legitimacy formation. Additionally, we identify four different interconnecting forces (family/business spillover, large voices, bargaining power and influence on family norms) that, if present, accelerate the legitimacy formation. Our analysis also suggests that there are interactions and reciprocal relationships among the founders and the people with whom they interact that can both influence and be influenced by the process of legitimacy formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Bahrain, Family business, Female entrepreneur, Female founder, Female-led family venture, GCC, Gulf States, Legitimacy
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204262 (URN)10.1016/j.jfbs.2020.100358 (DOI)000706786200008 ()2-s2.0-85087804161 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Markowska, M., Ahl, H. & Naldi, L. (2021). Timeout: the role of social welfare in entrepreneurship among mothers. In: : . Paper presented at Symposium Women's Entrepreneurship: Cultural, Institutional, and Global Perspectives, Academy of Management 2021, Entrepreneurship division & Gender, Diversity and Organizations division, virtual, 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timeout: the role of social welfare in entrepreneurship among mothers
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Much of research on women entrepreneurship has been focused on individual-level factors that serve to keep women out of achievement-oriented domains like entrepreneurship or limit their access to resources they need to grow their business (Brush and Jennings, 2013). This is while institutional-level contributors to gender-level inequality have often been overlooked. This is problematic because systematic or institutional factors can have a profound influence on individual-level psychological processes (Konig and Muller, 1986). The purpose of this symposium is to highlight the unrecognized institutional-level factor that influence woman entrepreneurship in either positive or negative ways.

National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204287 (URN)10.5465/AMBPP.2021.12590symposium (DOI)
Conference
Symposium Women's Entrepreneurship: Cultural, Institutional, and Global Perspectives, Academy of Management 2021, Entrepreneurship division & Gender, Diversity and Organizations division, virtual, 2021
Available from: 2023-02-01 Created: 2023-02-01 Last updated: 2023-02-02Bibliographically approved
Markowska, M. & Abebe, T. T. (2021). You are well-educated, so why do you want to start a venture? Cultural norms of women's entrepreneurship in Ethiopia. In: Ulrike Guelich; Amanda Bullough; Tatiana S. Manolova; Leon Schjoedt (Ed.), Women’s entrepreneurship and culture: socio-cultural context, traditional family roles and self-determination (pp. 88-108). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>You are well-educated, so why do you want to start a venture? Cultural norms of women's entrepreneurship in Ethiopia
2021 (English)In: Women’s entrepreneurship and culture: socio-cultural context, traditional family roles and self-determination / [ed] Ulrike Guelich; Amanda Bullough; Tatiana S. Manolova; Leon Schjoedt, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2021, p. 88-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although women entrepreneurs are particularly important in developing country and emerging economy contexts, their activities often are culturally constrained. Many of the constraints imposed are gender-based, that is, they are grounded in social norms and values that see women as subordinate to men and frequently result in women’s limited autonomy and lower access to education and other support mechanisms. To understand the cultural constraints that reduce the attractiveness of entrepreneurship as a career for women, we studied the cases of five educated Ethiopian women entrepreneurs. We identified three constraints: (1) ostracism by family and society for becoming an entrepreneur rather than finding a job; (2) objection to the type of business; and (3) censure for prioritizing business over the role of mother. By providing evidence that legitimization of entrepreneurship as a career is a contextualized process, we contribute to work on entrepreneurship generally and women’s entrepreneurship in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204282 (URN)10.4337/9781789905045.00013 (DOI)2-s2.0-85130151404 (Scopus ID)9781789905038 (ISBN)9781789905045 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Markowska, M. & Wiklund, J. (2020). Entrepreneurial learning under uncertainty: exploring the role of self-efficacy and perceived complexity. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 32(7-8), 606-628
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial learning under uncertainty: exploring the role of self-efficacy and perceived complexity
2020 (English)In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 32, no 7-8, p. 606-628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The entrepreneurial learning literature remains underdeveloped and lacks a clear understanding of the learning process. Building on an in-depth case study of four Scandinavian gourmet restauranteurs, we argue that learning to act on entrepreneurial tasks involves opening-up and focusing processes. We propose a process model that specifies how changing perceptions of complexity and self-efficacy influence an individual?s preference for experimentation (opening up) and modelling (focusing) when acquiring new experience. Specifically, in situations perceived as complex, individuals will likely opt for modelling; however, individuals who feel highly self-efficacious will likely rely more on experimentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
Keywords
Case study, entrepreneurs, learning, self-efficacy, theory development
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204300 (URN)10.1080/08985626.2020.1713222 (DOI)000507667300001 ()2-s2.0-85078628776 (Scopus ID)HOA;intsam;1386997 (Local ID)HOA;intsam;1386997 (Archive number)HOA;intsam;1386997 (OAI)
Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6186-0659

Search in DiVA

Show all publications