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Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Andersson, D., Wahlgren, L., Olsson, K. S. & Schantz, P. (2023). Pedestrians' perceptions of motorized traffic variables in relation to appraisals of urban route environments. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedestrians' perceptions of motorized traffic variables in relation to appraisals of urban route environments
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is important to examine how motorized traffic variables affect pedestrians along a gradient from rural to inner urban settings. Relations between pedestrians' perceptions of four traffic variables and appraisals of route environments as hindering-stimulating for walking as well as unsafe-safe for reasons of traffic, were therefore studied in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294). The pedestrians rated their perceptions and appraisals with the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the traffic variables and the outcome variables. Noise related negatively to both hindering-stimulating for walking, and to unsafety-safety for traffic reasons. Vehicle speed related negatively to unsafety-safety for traffic reasons. Furthermore, vehicle speed protruded as an important origin of the deterring effects of traffic among those who commute by foot. The study shows the value of both partial and simultaneous analyses of the effect of all four traffic variables in relation to outcome variables relevant for walking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
active transportation, environmental unwellbeing–wellbeing, exhaust fumes, flow, hinders–stimulates walking, motorized vehicle speed, noise, unsafe–safe traffic, walking
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205505 (URN)10.3390/ijerph20043743 (DOI)36834450 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85149053545 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2017/63917-6522
Available from: 2023-03-14 Created: 2023-03-14 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, D., Wahlgren, L. & Schantz, P. (2022). Pedestrians' perceptions of route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking. Frontiers In Public Health, 10, Article ID 1012222.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedestrians' perceptions of route environments in relation to deterring or facilitating walking
2022 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, article id 1012222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Every walk takes place in a route environment, and it can play an important role in deterring or facilitating walking, and will always affect the environmental unwell-well-being of pedestrians. The aim of this study is to illuminate which the important route environmental variables are in this respect. The focus is, therefore, on pedestrians' perceptions of route environmental variables and how they relate to overall appraisals of route environments as hindering–stimulating for walking and unsafe–safe for reasons of traffic.

Methods: Commuting pedestrians in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden (n = 294, 49.5 ± 10.4 years, 77% women), were recruited via advertisements. They evaluated their commuting route environments using a self-report tool, the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES). Correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses were used to study the relationships between the variables and the outcome variables.

Results: Aesthetics and greenery appear to strongly stimulate walking, whereas noise, a proxy for motorized traffic, hinders it. Furthermore, aesthetics is positively related to traffic safety, whereas conflicts have the opposite role. Conflicts is an intermediate outcome, representing several basic environmental variables, some of which were directly and negatively related to unsafe–safe traffic.

Conclusion: Route environmental variables appear to be potent factors in deterring or facilitating walking. This knowledge is of importance for policymakers and urban planners when designing route environments with the aim of attracting new pedestrians, and simultaneously stimulating those who already walk to keep on.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
aesthetics, conflicts, environmental unwellbeing – well-being, greenery, noise, route environment, vehicle speed, walking
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-211914 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2022.1012222 (DOI)001011155000001 ()37346457 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85149184587 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2017/63917-6522
Available from: 2023-07-11 Created: 2023-07-11 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P., Olsson, K. S., Salier Eriksson, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2022). Perspectives on exercise intensity, volume, step characteristics and health outcomes in walking for transport. Frontiers In Public Health, 10, Article ID 911863.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on exercise intensity, volume, step characteristics and health outcomes in walking for transport
2022 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, article id 911863Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Quantification of movement intensity and energy utilization, together with frequency of trips, duration, distance, step counts and cadence, is essential for interpreting the character of habitual walking for transport, and its potential support of health. The purpose of the study is to illuminate this with valid methods and novel perspectives, and to thereby provide a new basis for characterizing and interpreting walking in relation to health outcomes.

Methods: Habitual middle-aged commuting pedestrians (males = 10, females = 10) were investigated in the laboratory at rest and with maximal treadmill and cycle ergometer tests. Thereafter, levels of oxygen uptake, energy expenditure, ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate, rated perceived exertion, cadence, number of steps, duration, distance, and speed were recorded during the normal walking commute of each participant in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. The number of commutes per week over the year was self-reported.

Results: Walking in the field demanded about 30% more energy per km compared to level treadmill walking. For both sexes, the walking intensity in field was about 46% of maximal oxygen uptake, and energy expenditure amounted to 0.96 kcal · kg−1 · km−1. The MET values (males: 6.2; females: 6.5) mirrored similar levels of walking speed (males: 5.7; females: 5.9 km · h−1) and levels of oxygen uptake (males: 18.6; females: 19.5 mL · kg−1 · min−1). The average number of MET-hours per week in a typical month was 22 for males and 20 for females. This resulted in a total weekly energy expenditure of ~1,570 and 1,040 kcal for males and females, respectively. Over the year, the number of walking commutes and their accumulated distance was ~385 trips and 800 km for both sexes.

Conclusion: Walking in naturalistic field settings demands its own studies. When males and females walk to work, their relative aerobic intensities and absolute energy demands for a given distance are similar. It is equivalent to the lower part of the moderate relative intensity domain. The combination of oxygen uptake, trip duration and frequency leads to high and sustained levels of MET-hours as well as energy expenditure per week over the year, with a clear health enhancing potential. Based on this study we recommend 6000 transport steps per day, or equivalent, during five weekdays, over the year, in order to reach optimal health gains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
commuter walking, cycling, energy expenditure, exercise intensity, metabolic equivalent of task, rated perceived exertion, trip duration, trip frequency
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201202 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2022.911863 (DOI)000883082900001 ()36339183 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85141381582 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, 2017/63917-6522Swedish Transport Administration, 2020/119325
Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Strömgren, M., Schantz, P., Sommar, J., Raza, W., Markstedt, A. & Forsberg, B. (2020). Modeling commuter modal shift from car trips to cycling: Scenario construction and outcomes for Stockholm, Sweden. Journal of Transport Geography (86), Article ID 102740.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling commuter modal shift from car trips to cycling: Scenario construction and outcomes for Stockholm, Sweden
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, no 86, article id 102740Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents the construction and outcomes of scenarios modeling commuter modal shift from car trips to cycling in the metropolitan region of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. Building and improving upon previous studies in terms of both methodological approach and degree of spatial resolution of the modeling output, we examine scenarios where car commuters able to reach their workplace within 30 and 50 minutes of cycling shift commuting mode. Overall, car–bicycle modal shift figures were 31.6% and 48.7%, respectively. However, there were considerable geographical differences. While a substantial number of new bicycle commuters appeared in all five macro-level subdivisions of the study area, relative modal shift was by far the highest among car commuters living in the Inner City and its immediate surroundings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Cycling, Modal shift, Commuting
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-171297 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102740 (DOI)000552054200008 ()2-s2.0-85085578684 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, FORTE: 2012-1296Swedish Transport Administration, TRV: 2017/63917-6522
Available from: 2020-06-01 Created: 2020-06-01 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P., Wahlgren, L., Salier Eriksson, J., Nilsson Sommar, J. & Rosdahl, H. (2018). Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population. PLOS ONE, 13(11), Article ID e0207573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating duration-distance relations in cycle commuting in the general population
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2018 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is important to estimate the duration-distance relation in cycle commuting in the general population since this enables analyses of the potential for various public health outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to estimate this relation in the Swedish adult population of 2015. For that purpose, the first step was to establishit for adult male and female cycle commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Whether or not the slopes of these relations needed to be altered in order to make them representative of the general population was evaluated by comparing the levels of maximal oxygen uptake in samples of commuter cyclists and the population. The measure used was the maximal oxygen uptake divided by both the body weight and a cycle weight of 18.5 kg. The body weights in the population samples were adjusted to mirror relevant levels in 2015. Age adjustments for the duration-distance relations were calculated on the basis of the maximal oxygen uptake in the population samples aged 20-65 years. The duration-distance relations of the cycle commuters were downscaled by about 24-28% to mirror levels in the general population. The empirical formula for the distance (D, km) was based on duration (T, minutes) · speed (km/min) · a correction factor from cycle commuter to the general population · age adjustment (A, years). For the males in the general population the formula was: D = T · 20.76 km/h · 0.719 · (1.676-0.0147 · A). For females, the formula was: D = T · 16.14 km/h · 0.763 · (1.604-0.0129 · A). These formulas, combined with distributions of route distances between home and work in the population, enable realistic evaluations of the potential for different public health outcomes through cycle commuting.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153803 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0207573 (DOI)000450420900042 ()30444927 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056699840 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P. (2017). Distance, duration, and velocity in cycle commuting: analyses of relations and determinants of velocity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(10), Article ID 1166.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distance, duration, and velocity in cycle commuting: analyses of relations and determinants of velocity
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 1166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose. Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal cycling route. Route distances were measured by a criterion method. Age, sex, weight, height, and cycling durations to work were self-reported. The commuting routes were positioned in relation to inner urban and/or suburban-rural areas. Linear multiple regression analyses were used. Results: Cycling speeds were positively related to commuting distances or durations, being male, of younger age, having higher body weight but lower body mass index (BMI), and using the last digits 1-4 or 6-9 in duration reports (as compared to 0 and 5), as well as cycling in suburban (versus inner urban) areas. Conclusions: The study provides new knowledge about how distance and duration, as well as other factors, relate to the velocity of commuter cycling. It thereby enables the use of more appropriate input values in, for instance, health economic assessments and epidemiological health studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2017
Keywords
cycling, commuting, distance, duration, velocity, environment, sex, age, body weight, BMI
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-140738 (URN)10.3390/ijerph14101166 (DOI)000414763200075 ()28974051 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85030714359 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-18 Created: 2017-10-18 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Stigell, E. & Schantz, P. (2015). Active commuting behaviors in a Nordic metropolitan setting in relation to modality, gender, and health recommendations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(12), 15626-15648
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active commuting behaviors in a Nordic metropolitan setting in relation to modality, gender, and health recommendations
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 15626-15648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interestingsource of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviorsis meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm,Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjustedmaps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in menand women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) anddual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observedin trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met theminimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-modepedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physicalactivity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so onlyduring spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 230–390) adds tothe value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, bothwalking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
M D P I AG, 2015
Keywords
walking, bicycling, commuting, distance, duration, velocity, frequency, seasonality, modality
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112671 (URN)10.3390/ijerph121215008 (DOI)000367539000052 ()2-s2.0-84949908327 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-11 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
Schantz, P. (2015). Om gång och cykling, hälsa och hållbar utveckling. Borlänge: Trafikverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Om gång och cykling, hälsa och hållbar utveckling
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Den fysiska aktiviteten inom befolkningen i Sverige har under mer än ett halvt sekel minskat steg för steg. Sammantaget har det lett till stora förändringar, vilka delvis beror på framväxten av ett bilsamhälle. Idag är det bara några få procent av befolkningen som når upp till ens de minimala nivåerna av hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet.När vi idag söker strategier för att återskapa den rörelse som är tillräcklig för att bidra till en bättre hälsa är det angeläget att det sker på sätt som harmonierar med en hållbar utveckling. Transportsektorn har utomordentliga möjligheter att bidra till det genom åtgärder som stimulerar till gång och cykling. Det gäller särskilt då dessa rörelseformer utgör de mest populära inom befolkningen och många vill vara mer fysiskt aktiva, men tidsbrist ofta uppfattas som ett hinder. Aktiva transporter nyttjar regelbundna behov av tid för förflyttningar vilket underlättar att de blir en del av vår tidsbudget. De kan därigenom iscensättas ofta, vilket är värdefullt då återkommande muskelaktivitet är hälsans moder.Gång och cykling som beteenden varierar i hög grad. För att få en uppfattning om i vilken grad de kan bidra till en bättre hälsa behöver vi relatera dem till konkreta uppgifter om volym, frekvens och intensitet. I rapporten redovisas fyra sådana exempel. De bygger på ett stort antal manliga och kvinnliga fotgängare och cyklister som arbetspendlar i Stor-Stockholm. 90 % av dem har en pendlingstur som tar minst 15 minuter. Det innebär att de kommer upp till minimikravet om 30 minuter måttlig fysisk aktivitet per dag om de går eller cyklar två turer per dag. Deras höga antal cykel- eller gångturer per år (c:a 380 för fotgängarna och 245 för cyklisterna) är viktiga genom att de bidrar till att underhålla de hälsoeffekter av rörelse som annars lätt tillbakabildas. Arbetspendlarnas beteende relateras till två hälsoutfall: förtida mortalitet och typ 2 diabetes. De når mellan stora till maximala hälsovinster enbart genom arbetspendlingen. Det kan handla om upp till 40-55 % reduceringar av risker jämfört med fysiskt inaktiva. Men beteendet cykling är säsongsberoende för många, och det finns behov av att informera om värdet av att fortsätta att cykla under vintern, samt att på olika sätt skapa bättre betingelser för vintercykling.Rapporten belyser även hälsoekonomiska perspektiv. Både WHO:s och Norsk Vegvesens redskap för att värdera ekonomisk nytta av gång och cykling beskrivs och nyttjas för att bedöma ett scenario av ökad cykling vid arbetspendling i Stor-Stockholm. Om drygt 111 000 korta arbetsresor med bil skulle överföras till i snitt knappt 15 minuter, och högst 30 minuter långa cykelturer skulle det kunna leda till hälsoekonomiska vinster om flera miljarder kronor per år. Exempel på utvecklingsbehov av hälsoekonomiska värderingar vad gäller bland annat miljömässigt välbefinnande anges, och ett enkelt redskap för att kunna bedöma potentialen till hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet genom gång- och cykelturer på en ort presenteras.En av rapportens slutsatser är att gång och cykling utgör basen i den rörelsepyramid som kan bidra till ökad folkhälsa. Det motiverar stora satsningar inom transportsektorn för att skapa säkra, trygga och attraktiva färdvägsmiljöer för fotgängare och cyklister. Det finns ett stort behov av att höja medvetandegraden bland allmänheten, förtroendevalda och tjänstemän verksamma inom såväl kommuner som landsting och myndigheter om de frågor som rapporten behandlar och dess slutsatser. Den belägenhet vi befinner oss i motiverar även att skolan får ett särskilt uppdrag som handlar om att undervisa om gång och cykling i ett sammanhang av transporter, och att belysa dessa rörelseformer ur perspektiv av både hälsa och hållbar utveckling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borlänge: Trafikverket, 2015. p. 78
Keywords
gång, cykling, hälsa, välbefinnande, hälsoekonomi
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medicine/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114395 (URN)978-91-7467-816-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2016-01-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3547-425X

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