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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Vorburger, A., Fatemi, S., Carberry Mogan, S. R., Galli, A., Liuzzo, L., Poppe, A. R., . . . Wurz, P. (2024). 3D Monte-Carlo simulation of Ganymede's atmosphere. Icarus, 409, Article ID 115847.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Monte-Carlo simulation of Ganymede's atmosphere
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2024 (English)In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 409, article id 115847Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present new model results for H2O, O2, H2, O, and H in the atmosphere of Ganymede. The results are obtained from a collision-less 3D Monte-Carlo model that includes sublimation, ion and electron sputtering, and ion and electron radiolysis. Because Ganymede has its own magnetic field, its immediate plasma environment is particularly complex. The interaction between Ganymede's and Jupiter's magnetospheres makes it highly variable in both space and time. The recent Juno Ganymede flyby provided us with new data on the electron local environment. Based on the electron measurements recorded by the Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE), we implement two electron populations, one for the moon's polar regions and one for the moon's auroral regions. Comparing the atmospheric contribution of these newly defined electron populations to the overall source and loss processes is one of the main goals of this work. Our analysis shows that for H2O, sublimation remains the most important source process even after accounting for the new electron populations, delivering more than three orders of magnitude more H2O molecules to the atmosphere than all other source processes combined. The source fluxes for O2 and H2, on the other hand, are dominated by radiolysis induced by the auroral electrons, assuming that the electron fluxes JADE measured during Juno's transit of Ganymede's magnetopause current layer are representative of auroral electrons. Atomic O and H are mainly added to the atmosphere through the dissociation of O2 and H2, which is primarily induced by auroral electrons. Our understanding of Ganymede's atmosphere today is mainly based on spectroscopic observations. The interpretation of spectroscopic data strongly depends on assumptions taken, though. Our analysis shows that for a holistic understanding of Ganymede's atmosphere, simultaneous observations of the moon's surface, atmosphere, and full plasma environment (thermal and energetic ions and electrons) at different times and locations (both with respect to Ganymede and with respect to Jupiter) are particularly important. Such measurements are planned by ESA's Jupiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), in particular by the Particle Environment Package (PEP), which will greatly advance our understanding of Ganymede and its atmosphere and plasma environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Atmosphere, Ganymede, Monte-Carlo model, Sputtering, Sublimation
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217546 (URN)10.1016/j.icarus.2023.115847 (DOI)2-s2.0-85177788162 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-13 Created: 2023-12-13 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Gunell, H., Goetz, C. & Fatemi, S. (2024). Impact of radial interplanetary magnetic fields on the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Hybrid simulations of the plasma environment. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 682, Article ID A62.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of radial interplanetary magnetic fields on the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Hybrid simulations of the plasma environment
2024 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 682, article id A62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The direction of the interplanetary magnetic field determines the nature of the interaction between a Solar System object and the solar wind. For comets, it affects the formation of both a bow shock and other plasma boundaries, as well as mass-loading. Around the nucleus of a comet, there is a diamagnetic cavity, where the magnetic field is negligible. Observations by the Rosetta spacecraft have shown that, most of the time, the diamagnetic cavity is located within a solar-wind ion cavity, which is devoid of solar wind ions. However, solar wind ions have been observed inside the diamagnetic cavity on several occasions. Understanding what determines whether or not the solar wind can reach the diamagnetic cavity also advances our understanding of cometsolar wind interaction in general.

Aims. We aim to determine the influence of an interplanetary magnetic field directed radially out from the Sun that is, parallel to the solar wind velocity on the cometsolar wind interaction. In particular, we explore the possibility of solar wind protons entering the diamagnetic cavity under radial field conditions.

Methods. We performed global hybrid simulations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using the simulation code Amitis for two different interplanetary magnetic field configurations and compared the results to observations made by the Rosetta spacecraft.

Results. We find that, when the magnetic field is parallel to the solar wind velocity, no bow shock forms and the solar wind ions are able to enter the diamagnetic cavity. A solar wind ion wake still forms further downstream in this case.

Conclusions. The solar wind can enter the diamagnetic cavity if the interplanetary magnetic field is directed radially from the Sun, and this is in agreement with observations made by instruments on board the Rosetta spacecraft.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2024
Keywords
Comets: general, Comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Methods: numerical, Plasmas
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221400 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/202348186 (DOI)001158013900006 ()2-s2.0-85184848705 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 108/18Swedish National Space Board, 115/18Swedish Research Council, 2018-03454
Available from: 2024-02-26 Created: 2024-02-26 Last updated: 2024-02-26Bibliographically approved
Wang, X.-D., Fatemi, S., Holmström, M., Nilsson, H., Futaana, Y. & Barabash, S. (2024). Martian global current systems and related solar wind energy transfer: hybrid simulation under nominal conditions. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 527(4), 12232-12242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Martian global current systems and related solar wind energy transfer: hybrid simulation under nominal conditions
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2024 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 527, no 4, p. 12232-12242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetized solar wind drives a current system around Mars that maintains its induced magnetosphere. The solar wind also transfers its energy to the atmospheric ions, causing continuous atmospheric erosion, which has a profound impact on the planet’s evolution history. Here, we use Amitis, a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-based hybrid plasma model to first reproduce the global pattern of the net electric current and ion currents under an interplanetary magnetic field perpendicular to the solar wind flow direction. The resultant current distribution matches the observations and reveals more details. Using the electric field distribution characterized earlier with the same model, we calculate for the first time the spatial distribution of energy transfer rate to the plasmas in general and to different ion species at Mars. We find out that (1) the solar wind kinetic energy is the dominant energy source that drives Martian induced magnetosphere, (2) the energy flux of the shocked solar wind flows from the magnetic equatorial plane towards the plasma sheet in the induced magnetotail, (3) both the bow shock and the induced magnetospheric boundary are dynamos where plasma energy is transferred to the electromagnetic field, and (4) the planetary ions act as loads and gain energy from the electromagnetic field. The most intense load region is the planetary ion plume. The general pattern of the energy transfer rate revealed in this study is common for induced magnetospheres. Its variabilities with the upstream conditions can provide physical insight into the observed ion escape variabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024
Keywords
methods: numerical, planets and satellites: terrestrial planets, planet–star interactions, plasmas
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220012 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stad3486 (DOI)2-s2.0-85182507230 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 127/14Swedish National Space Board, 115/18Swedish Research Council, 2018-03454Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SNIC2020/5-101Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SNIC2020/5-459
Available from: 2024-01-31 Created: 2024-01-31 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved
Szalay, J., Allegrini, F., Ebert, R., Bagenal, F., Bolton, S., Fatemi, S., . . . Wilson, R. (2024). Oxygen production from dissociation of Europa’s water-ice surface. Nature Astronomy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen production from dissociation of Europa’s water-ice surface
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2024 (English)In: Nature Astronomy, E-ISSN 2397-3366Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Jupiter’s moon Europa has a predominantly water-ice surface that is modified by exposure to its space environment. Charged particles break molecular bonds in surface ice, thus dissociating the water to ultimately produce H2 and O2, which provides a potential oxygenation mechanism for Europa’s subsurface ocean. These species are understood to form Europa’s primary atmospheric constituents. Although remote observations provide important global constraints on Europa’s atmosphere, the molecular O2 abundance has been inferred from atomic O emissions. Europa’s atmospheric composition had never been directly sampled and model-derived oxygen production estimates ranged over several orders of magnitude. Here, we report direct observations of H2+ and O2+ pickup ions from the dissociation of Europa’s water-ice surface and confirm these species are primary atmospheric constituents. In contrast to expectations, we find the H2 neutral atmosphere is dominated by a non-thermal, escaping population. We find 12 ± 6 kg s−1 (2.2 ± 1.2 × 1026 s−1) O2 are produced within Europa’s surface, less than previously thought, with a narrower range to support habitability in Europa’s ocean. This process is found to be Europa’s dominant exogenic surface erosion mechanism over meteoroid bombardment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222360 (URN)10.1038/s41550-024-02206-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85186587520 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03454Swedish National Space Board, 115/18EU, Horizon 2020, 884711
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-15
Szabo, P., Poppe, A., Mutzke, A., Fatemi, S., Vorburger, A. & Wurz, P. (2023). Energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission characteristics at the moon and mercury from 3D regolith simulations of solar wind reflection. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 128(9), Article ID e2023JE007911.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission characteristics at the moon and mercury from 3D regolith simulations of solar wind reflection
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 128, no 9, article id e2023JE007911Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reflection of solar wind protons as energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the lunar surface has regularly been used to study the plasma-surface interaction at the Moon. However, there still exists a fundamental lack of knowledge of the scattering process. ENA emission from the surface is expected to similarly occur at Mercury and will be studied by BepiColombo. Understanding this solar wind backscattering will allow studies of both Mercury's plasma environment as well as properties of the hermean surface itself. Here, we expand on previous simulation studies of the solar-wind-regolith interaction with 3D grains in SDTrimSP-3D to compare the predicted scattering energies and angles to ENA measurements from the Moon by the Chandrayaan-1 and IBEX missions. The simulations reproduce a backward emission toward the Sun, which can be connected to the geometry of the regolith grain stacking. In contrast, the ENA energy distribution and its Maxwellian shape is mostly connected to the solar wind velocity. Our simulations also correctly describe a lunar ENA albedo between 10% and 20% and support its decrease with solar wind velocity. We further expand our studies to illustrate how BepiColombo will be able to observe ENAs at Mercury using hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetosphere as an input for the complex surface precipitation patterns. We demonstrate that the variable ion precipitation will directly influence ENA emission from the surface. The orbits of BepiColombo's Mercury Planetary Orbiter and Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter/Mio spacecraft are shown to be suitable to observe ENA emission patterns both on a local and a global scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2023
Keywords
BepiColombo, energetic neutral atoms, Mercury, Moon, regolith, solar wind backscattering
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214260 (URN)10.1029/2023JE007911 (DOI)2-s2.0-85169675879 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 2022-00183
Available from: 2023-09-13 Created: 2023-09-13 Last updated: 2023-09-13Bibliographically approved
Wang, X.-D., Fatemi, S., Nilsson, H., Futaana, Y., Holmström, M. & Barabash, S. (2023). Solar wind interaction with Mars: electric field morphology and source terms. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 521(3), 3597-3607
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar wind interaction with Mars: electric field morphology and source terms
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2023 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 521, no 3, p. 3597-3607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The correlation between space environment conditions and the properties of escaping ions is a central topic of Mars research. Although empirical correlations have been visible in the data, a physics-based interpretation, rather than statistics-based pictures, has not been established yet. As a first effort, we investigate the electric field, the direct contributor to ion acceleration, in the Mars plasma environment from a hybrid plasma model (particle ions and fluid electrons). We use Amitis, a hybrid model combined with an observation-based ionospheric model, to simulate the Mars-solar wind interaction under nominal solar wind plasma conditions for perpendicular and Parker spiral directions of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The simulations show following results: (1) the electric field morphology is structured by the IMF direction and the different plasma domains in the solar wind-Mars interaction; (2) asymmetry of the electric field between the hemispheres where the convective electric field points inward and outward, respectively, due to the mass loading and asymmetric draping of the magnetic field lines; (3) the motional electric field dominates in most regions, especially in the dayside magnetosheath; and (4) the Hall term is an order of magnitude weaker and significant in the magnetotail and plasma boundaries for a perpendicular IMF case. The Hall term is relatively stronger for the Parker spiral case. (5) The ambipolar electric field, in principle, agrees with Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution measurements in the magnetosheath.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
methods: numerical, planet-star interactions, planets and satellites: terrestrial planets, plasmas
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209157 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stad247 (DOI)000961016300017 ()2-s2.0-85160302947 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 127/14Swedish National Space Board, 115/18Swedish Research Council, 2018-03454Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SNIC2020/5-101Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SNIC2020/5-459
Available from: 2023-06-21 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
Poppe, A. R. & Fatemi, S. (2023). The solar wind interaction with (1) ceres: The role of interior conductivity. The Planetary Science Journal, 4(1), Article ID 14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The solar wind interaction with (1) ceres: The role of interior conductivity
2023 (English)In: The Planetary Science Journal, E-ISSN 2632-3338, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a potential "ocean world," (1) Ceres' interior may possess relatively high electrical conductivities on the order of 10(-4)-10(0) S m(-1), suggesting that the solar wind interaction with Ceres may differ from other highly resistive objects such as the Moon. Here, we use a hybrid plasma model to quantify the solar wind interaction with Ceres over a range of scenarios for Ceres' internal conductivity structure and the upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Internal models for Ceres include one-, two-, and three-layer conductivity structures that variously include a crust, mantle, and/or subsurface ocean, while modeled solar wind conditions include a nominal case, a high IMF case, and an "extreme" space weather case. To first order, Ceres' interaction with the solar wind is governed by the draping and enhancement of the IMF over its interior, whether from a moderate-conductivity mantle or a high-conductivity ocean. In turn, IMF draping induces compressional wings in the solar wind density and deceleration in the solar wind speed outside of Ceres. Together, all three effects are readily observable by a hypothetical orbital or landed mission with standard plasma and magnetic field instrumentation. Finally, we also consider the possible effects of unipolar induction within Ceres, which has been previously suggested as a mechanism for conducting bodies in the solar wind. Our model results show that the efficacy of unipolar induction is highly suppressed by the slow magnetic field-line diffusion through Ceres' interior and, thus, is not a significant contributor to Ceres' overall interaction with the solar wind.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218265 (URN)10.3847/PSJ/acaf6a (DOI)000920635700001 ()2-s2.0-85179833416 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03454Swedish National Space Board, 115/18
Available from: 2023-12-19 Created: 2023-12-19 Last updated: 2023-12-28Bibliographically approved
Vorburger, A., Fatemi, S., Galli, A., Liuzzo, L., Poppe, A. R. & Wurz, P. (2022). 3D Monte-Carlo simulation of Ganymede's water exosphere. Icarus, 375, Article ID 114810.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Monte-Carlo simulation of Ganymede's water exosphere
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2022 (English)In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 375, article id 114810Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present ab initio 3D Monte-Carlo simulations of Ganymede's surface sputtered and sublimated H2O exosphere. As inputs, we include surface water content maps and temperature distribution maps based on Galileo and Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations. For plasma precipitation, we use hybrid model results for thermal H+ and O+, energetic H+, O++, S+++, and electrons, with unprecedented energy resolution. Our results show that up to a solar zenith angle of ∼60° and up to ∼600 km altitude, sublimated H2O dominates the atmosphere by up to four orders of magnitudes in number density, while sputtering dominates elsewhere. Sputtering is mainly induced by the impinging O+, O++, and S+++ ions, while protons (H+) and electrons only add about 1% of the total sputtered H2O molecules to the atmosphere. Electrons are thus not important for the generation of the atmosphere, but they are important for spectroscopic observability of the atmosphere since they are the main inducer of the Lyman-α and O I emission lines. The extended H2O atmosphere at altitudes ≳1 Ganymede radius is mainly the result of sputtering by thermal O+ ions, which is the only ion species with substantial fluxes in the low-energy range (10 eV–10 keV), i.e., is the only species that efficiently induces nuclear sputtering. Most released H2O molecules return to the surface where they immediately adsorb, not forming a thermalized atmosphere. The morphology of Ganymede's magnetosphere, and the resulting dichotomies in the surface fluxes of the precipitating magnetospheric particles (polar fluxes > equatorial fluxes and leading equatorial fluxes > trailing equatorial fluxes), are thus well discernible in the sputtered atmosphere, persisting up to altitudes of a few thousand kilometers. In-situ measurements, as they are planned for the upcoming JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, will mainly probe this sputtered atmosphere, except for encounters with the near-surface atmosphere on Ganymede's day-side, where the sublimated atmosphere will be probed instead. Finally, we compare our model results to the first observational evidence for a sublimated H2O atmosphere on Ganymede, and find a very good agreement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academia Press, 2022
Keywords
Exosphere, Ganymede, Monte-Carlo model, Sputtering, Sublimation
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190923 (URN)10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114810 (DOI)000789227900001 ()2-s2.0-85121492894 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 115/18Swedish National Space Board, 179/18Swedish Research Council, 2018-03454
Available from: 2022-01-03 Created: 2022-01-03 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Shi, Z., Rong, Z., Fatemi, S., Slavin, J., Klinger, L., Dong, C., . . . Wei, Y. (2022). An Eastward Current Encircling Mercury. Geophysical Research Letters, 49(10), Article ID e2022GL098415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Eastward Current Encircling Mercury
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2022 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 49, no 10, article id e2022GL098415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mercury has a terrestrial-like magnetosphere which is usually taken as a scaled-down-version of Earth's magnetosphere with a similar current system. We examine Mercury's magnetospheric current system based on a survey of Mercury's magnetic field measured by the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft as well as computer simulations. We show that there is no significant Earth-like ring current flowing westward around Mercury, instead, we find, for the first time, an eastward current (EC) encircling the planet near the night-side magnetic equator with an altitude of ∼500–1,000 km. The EC is closed with the dayside magnetopause current and could be driven by the gradient of plasma pressure as a diamagnetic current. Thus, Mercury's magnetosphere is not a scaled-down Earth magnetosphere, but a unique natural space plasma laboratory. Our findings offer fresh insights to analyze data from the BepiColombo mission, which is expected to orbit Mercury in 2025.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2022
Keywords
eastward current, Hermean magnetosphere, Mercury
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203166 (URN)10.1029/2022GL098415 (DOI)000799056800001 ()2-s2.0-85131321661 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 115/18Swedish Research Council, 2018–03454Umeå University
Available from: 2023-01-16 Created: 2023-01-16 Last updated: 2023-01-16Bibliographically approved
Orsini, S., Milillo, A., Lichtenegger, H., Varsani, A., Barabash, S., Livi, S., . . . Vorburger, A. (2022). Inner southern magnetosphere observation of Mercury via SERENA ion sensors in BepiColombo mission. Nature Communications, 13(1), Article ID 7390.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inner southern magnetosphere observation of Mercury via SERENA ion sensors in BepiColombo mission
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2022 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 7390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mercury’s southern inner magnetosphere is an unexplored region as it was not observed by earlier space missions. In October 2021, BepiColombo mission has passed through this region during its first Mercury flyby. Here, we describe the observations of SERENA ion sensors nearby and inside Mercury’s magnetosphere. An intermittent high-energy signal, possibly due to an interplanetary magnetic flux rope, has been observed downstream Mercury, together with low energy solar wind. Low energy ions, possibly due to satellite outgassing, were detected outside the magnetosphere. The dayside magnetopause and bow-shock crossing were much closer to the planet than expected, signature of a highly eroded magnetosphere. Different ion populations have been observed inside the magnetosphere, like low latitude boundary layer at magnetopause inbound and partial ring current at dawn close to the planet. These observations are important for understanding the weak magnetosphere behavior so close to the Sun, revealing details never reached before.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2022
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201621 (URN)10.1038/s41467-022-34988-x (DOI)000968977000001 ()36450728 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85143092291 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2022-12-14 Created: 2022-12-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9450-6672

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