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Carson, D. B., Brunet Johansson, A. & Carson, D. A. (2024). Who gives? Non-commercial distribution networks in domestic food production in the inland north of Sweden. Sustainability, 16(6), Article ID 2300.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who gives? Non-commercial distribution networks in domestic food production in the inland north of Sweden
2024 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 16, no 6, article id 2300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the social context of “domestic food production” (dfp) in the inland North of Sweden, with a focus on understanding the contributions of non-commercial food distribution to local food security and sustainable rural community-building. We report on the findings of an exploratory pilot study that included an online survey of 305 people who engaged in at least one dfp activity (hunting, fishing, foraging, or farming). The aims were to uncover common social practices of dfp, as well as to identify key values attached to dfp, the extent of commercial and non-commercial distribution of home-produced food, and motivations to give away food. The main findings emphasize the social nature of dfp activities, with the vast majority of respondents undertaking dfp in groups or as part of formal clubs. Key values attached to dfp included social and community-related aspects, while commercial interests were limited. Respondents were more likely to engage in non-commercial distribution networks, usually involving close family and friends. Food givers mostly cited social factors as their main motivations rather than other food-related aspects (such as food security, health benefits, or food waste). Food givers were also likely to receive food from others, emphasizing the relatively narrow and reciprocal character of non-commercial food networks. We conclude that non-commercial dfp networks may be expanded to the broader community by exploiting the social nature of dfp and encouraging generalized reciprocity led by dfp clubs. This could potentially reduce the negative impacts of food deserts whilst also stimulating community interactions, learning and local dfp communities of practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024
Keywords
domestic food production, non-commercial food networks, informal food sharing, food security
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222556 (URN)10.3390/su16062300 (DOI)001192996100001 ()2-s2.0-85189024452 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00828Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00352The Kamprad Family Foundation, 2022-0029
Available from: 2024-03-21 Created: 2024-03-21 Last updated: 2024-04-22Bibliographically approved
Bohn, D., Carson, D. A., Demiroglu, O. C. & Lundmark, L. (2023). Public funding and destination evolution in sparsely populated Arctic regions. Tourism Geographies, 25(8), 1833-1855
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public funding and destination evolution in sparsely populated Arctic regions
2023 (English)In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1833-1855Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the role of public funding in transforming tourism pathways in sparsely populated Arctic destinations, comparing Northern Sweden and Finnish Lapland. Our theoretical framework considers destination path plasticity and moments of change through the lens of geographical political economy to understand patterns of uneven development. This perspective helps explain how regional development funding driven by multi-scalar political priorities and global markets set structural conditions for tourism. We present a spatial analysis of public funding between 2007 and 2021 for private firms and public projects, complemented by document analysis and expert interviews. We find that public funding in Finnish Lapland has largely reinforced ‘Arctification’ and export-driven tourism in a few locations. In Northern Sweden, it has focused more on redistributing resources to micro-businesses and broader socio-economic development in lagging regions, yet with limited impacts on changing dominant tourism pathways. Public projects improved knowledge creation and networking among public and private actors but were largely unable to consolidate emerging pathways in the long run. Overall, regional development funding supported incremental change around existing pathways and had limited transformative effects in response to shocks or disruptive moments due to the rigid nature of funding programmes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Arctic tourism, geographical political economy, Path plasticity, regional development funding, trigger events, uneven development
National Category
Human Geography Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206754 (URN)10.1080/14616688.2023.2193947 (DOI)000968064100001 ()2-s2.0-85152028194 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Climate Change and the Double Amplification of Arctic Tourism: Challenges and Potential Solutions for Tourism and Sustainable Development in an Arctic Context
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-02228Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00352
Available from: 2023-05-02 Created: 2023-05-02 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
Åberg, K. G. & Carson, D. A. (2023). Tasting the intangible: examples of communication from Sápmi (1ed.). In: Jack Hunter; Rachael Ironside (Ed.), Folklore, people, and places: international perspectives on tourism and tradition in storied places (pp. 143-154). Abingdon: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tasting the intangible: examples of communication from Sápmi
2023 (English)In: Folklore, people, and places: international perspectives on tourism and tradition in storied places / [ed] Jack Hunter; Rachael Ironside, Abingdon: Routledge, 2023, 1, p. 143-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter explores the relation between folklore, food, and tourism in the Swedish part of the cross-national country of Sápmi, the land of the indigenous Sámi. Tourism has been labelled as an experience industry, offering opportunities for entrepreneurs in remote regions to create unique stories as a tool for marketing, product development, and branding. However, when heritage is commercialised, issues related to control are vital in order to remain respectful. Two examples of Sámi food tourism initiatives are described here, both based in the region Västerbotten and operated by Sámi organisations. Together, they illustrate how food, heritage, and communication can be performed in virtual as well as tangible ways, offering both economic and sociocultural potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Abingdon: Routledge, 2023 Edition: 1
Series
Routledge Advances in Tourism and Anthropology
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-207890 (URN)10.4324/9781003374138-13 (DOI)2-s2.0-85153648201 (Scopus ID)9781003374138 (ISBN)9781032316932 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Eimermann, M. & Carson, D. A. (2023). Towards a cordial dialogue between lifestyle migration/mobilities and rural tourism geographies. Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, 105(4), 341-355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a cordial dialogue between lifestyle migration/mobilities and rural tourism geographies
2023 (English)In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 341-355Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This article introduces the special issue Changing dimensions of lifestyle mobilities in turbulent times: impacts of COVID-19 outbreaks and multiple crises. It aims not just to understand the individual drivers and consequences of mobility but their interactions with local manifestations of spatial (in)justice in various meaningful places. This editorial synthesizes the four studies of population flows in proximate and remote rural areas in Europe, and puts their contributions to the fields of lifestyle migration and mobilities in context. We introduce the lifestyle migration hub meeting that inspired this special issue and a mobility spectrum around which the article revolves. We then indicate common interests of lifestyle migration and rural tourism geographies, focusing on the contributors’ use of human geographic perspectives and aided by observations from ongoing ethnographic work about the demographic future of small villages in northern Sweden. A discussion of multiple disruptions, precarity and vulnerability is linked with a review of the papers before elaborating on destinations and communities as meaningful but vulnerable places. The conclusion outlines how concerns with people’s and place’s vulnerability and precarity in multiple disruptions to mobility flows can be further explored in cordial dialogue between scholars of lifestyle migration/mobility and tourism geography.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
Crises, lifestyle migration, precarity, rural geographies, tourism, vulnerability
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215384 (URN)10.1080/04353684.2023.2197921 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173637814 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2023-10-30 Created: 2023-10-30 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Eimermann, M., Carson, D. A. & Lundmark, L. (2023). Transforming a dogsledding community: the 'Gafsele Open' and lifestyle migrants in sparsely populated northern Sweden. In: Heather Mair (Ed.), Handbook on tourism and rural community development: (pp. 386-402). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transforming a dogsledding community: the 'Gafsele Open' and lifestyle migrants in sparsely populated northern Sweden
2023 (English)In: Handbook on tourism and rural community development / [ed] Heather Mair, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 386-402Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter increases our understanding of how intra-European lifestyle migrants may transform communities in sparsely populated areas (SPAs) through their engagements in civil society, using the example of a dogsledding community in Arctic Sweden. In-depth narrative analysis of interviews with international migrant dogsledders and longer-term residents shows the heterogeneity of communities in sparsely populated settings and their diverse perspectives on community transformation and renewal in response to challenges of demographic shrinkage (Eimermann et al., 2022). The case study village of Gafsele in Åsele municipality provides an interesting study context as it is home to a relatively large group of international migrants, many of whom were attracted by exceptional opportunities for dogsledding and an internationally renowned trail network. The local dogsledding club organizes an annual dogsledding event (the Gafsele Open) attracting Swedish and international participants. Balancing their incomes and lifestyles around dogsledding activities, migrants are engaging in the club and co-organizing the event as individuals and through their businesses (D.A. Carson et al., 2018; Eimermann & Singleton, 2021). This area is thus exploring its potential for local rural development through community- and nature-based tourism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023
Series
Research handbooks in tourism
Keywords
community, dogsledding, lifestyle, northern Sweden, sparsely populated areas, tourism
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208280 (URN)10.4337/9781800370067.00038 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163048035 (Scopus ID)9781800370050 (ISBN)9781800370067 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00344
Available from: 2023-05-16 Created: 2023-05-16 Last updated: 2023-07-12Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. A., Carson, D. B. & Argent, N. (2022). Cities, hinterlands and disconnected urban-rural development: Perspectives from sparsely populated areas. Journal of Rural Studies, 93, 104-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cities, hinterlands and disconnected urban-rural development: Perspectives from sparsely populated areas
2022 (English)In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 93, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article introduces the special issue ‘Rural hinterland development in sparsely populated areas (SPAs): new challenges and opportunities arising from urbanisation within the periphery’. It problematises the relationships between growing cities and hinterland areas in SPAs, such as those commonly found in Arctic, Outback and similar remote resource peripheries of developed countries. Many SPAs are rapidly urbanising, with polarised development becoming an ever-increasing concern for regional planners and policy-makers. This special issue contributes to debates about the impact that urban growth and city-centric development strategies in SPAs might have on the development prospects for small and distant settlements in the hinterland. We first discuss why SPAs are different from other rural contexts when it comes to urban-rural interactions and introduce the idea of regional disconnectedness as a defining feature of SPAs. We then review the papers in this collection, which include perspectives from northern Sweden, Iceland, Finland, Scotland, Alaska, and Australia, and position them according to their contributions to theory, policy and practice. The special issue challenges assumptions that city-centric regional development in SPAs will automatically generate spillover or backwash effects for the hinterland. It emphasises the need to consider diverse mobility flows within SPAs as part of urban-rural interactions. It also raises attention to micro-scale urbanisation within the hinterland, with housing, services, and amenities increasingly concentrating in a few small towns. The final discussion outlines important areas for research into more effective urban-rural partnership building in SPAs and on how to embrace regional disconnectedness for more targeted hinterland development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Sparsely populated areas (SPAs), Urbanisation, Microurbanisation, Growth centre, Boomtown, Spillover, Disconnectedness, Urban-rural migration, Regional development
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199049 (URN)10.1016/j.jrurstud.2022.05.012 (DOI)000808003700006 ()2-s2.0-85131598811 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2022-09-01 Created: 2022-09-01 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B., Carson, D. A., Lundmark, L. & Hurtig, A.-K. (2022). Resource deserts, village hierarchies and de-growth in sparsely populated areas: The case of Southern Lapland, Sweden. Fennia, 200(2), 210-227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource deserts, village hierarchies and de-growth in sparsely populated areas: The case of Southern Lapland, Sweden
2022 (English)In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 200, no 2, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small villages in northern Sweden have seen a continuing removal of key services, such as schools, shops and public transport, since the 1970s. Disinvestment in public services has not been strategically planned but has happened in response to population loss and increased costs on a case-by-case basis. More recently, there has been a shift in policy thinking to what might be termed a ‘de-growth’ approach where digitalisation and increased personal mobility are used to provide new ways of delivering services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence of ‘resource deserts’ in Southern Lapland and the emergence (or consolidation) of village hierarchies in allocating public services. We map out the distribution of neighbourhood services (grocery stores, pre-/schools and petrol pumps) among villages, and explore the lived experiences in accessing these resources in different villages. Our results show that resource deserts clearly exist in the south and east of the region, while villages in the more sparsely populated western mountain areas were generally in a better position to retain resources. We identify a lack of consistent and transparent service planning at the village level as a key shortcoming in municipal and regional service strategies. There appear to be unofficial settlement hierarchies in the differential treatment of villages that are otherwise similar in population size, population change and distance to central places. We find that political decisions on service allocations are likely influenced by several factors. These include legacy effects relating to historic settlement status, the location of villages in relation to key transport or mobility corridors, as well as ideological factors favouring villages with more ‘exotic’ features and development potential in line with the municipalities’ economic, social and political priorities. We finally argue that a shift to de-growth needs to be more strategically planned if it is to eliminate resource deserts and promote equity of service access across all villages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geographical Society of Finland, 2022
Keywords
resource desert, service decline, village hierarchies, rural planning, sparsely populated areas, northern Sweden
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204609 (URN)10.11143/fennia.120788 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149036762 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016–00352The Kamprad Family Foundation, 2022–0029Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2017–00183Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016–344
Available from: 2023-02-08 Created: 2023-02-08 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, L., Carson, D. A. & Eimermann, M. (2022). Spillover, sponge or something else?: Dismantling expectations for rural development resulting from giga-investments in northern Sweden. Fennia, 200(2), 157-174
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spillover, sponge or something else?: Dismantling expectations for rural development resulting from giga-investments in northern Sweden
2022 (English)In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 200, no 2, p. 157-174Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paradoxical situation of planning for growth while managing decline has long been a reality for politicians and planners in Nordic peripheries. In recent years, however, attempts to plan for demographic adaptation, smart shrinkage, and ‘right-sizing’ public services have become commonplace. While it has taken decades for this to become an accepted part of municipal planning, new opportunities are now arising in the Swedish North due to several unforeseen giga-investments. These are expected to trigger rapid socio-economic growth along the urbanized coast and in a few select inland locations. Yet the likely effects on shrinking rural and sparsely populated municipalities geographically adjacent to these investment hotspots are much less understood. Previous research suggests that such investment projects might cause pressure for rural labour and housing markets but may also offer a range of positive spillover effects and development opportunities for rural areas. We draw on structural level narratives and interviews with key informants, including local and regional political stakeholders, to identify how the prospects of the giga-investments are viewed in places that are not directly affected, and what opportunities and threats are discussed. An overarching theme identified in the empirical material concerns the a-spatiality of discourses of growth, which we divide into two concrete dilemmas: infrastructure and mobility. Our findings show that, while the investments are seen as ringing in a new ‘golden age’ for the northern region, such a-spatial understandings of regional characteristics might stand in the way of acting fast and being able to make the most of the potential spillover effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Geographical Society of Finland, 2022
Keywords
Arctic Sweden, green (re)industrialization, planning, sparsely populated municipalities, spillover/sponge, sustainable development
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204610 (URN)10.11143/fennia.120530 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149042039 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2023-02-08 Created: 2023-02-08 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B. & Carson, D. A. (2022). Understanding the demographic future of small Arctic villages using agent-based modelling. In: Doris Friedrich; Markus Hirnsperger; Stefan Bauer (Ed.), More than 'nature': research on infrastructure and settlements in the North (pp. 263-281). Vienna: LIT Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the demographic future of small Arctic villages using agent-based modelling
2022 (English)In: More than 'nature': research on infrastructure and settlements in the North / [ed] Doris Friedrich; Markus Hirnsperger; Stefan Bauer, Vienna: LIT Verlag, 2022, p. 263-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Large parts of the Scandinavian Arctic and sub-Arctic are characterized by small settlements of just a few dozen or hundred inhabitants. Many of these villages have experienced loss of population and services. However, recent in-migration and new technologies facilitating ageing in place and e-commute work have seen some villages grow, some stabilize their population base, and many undergo dramatic demographic transformation. These local processes have largely been hidden from policy-makers and planners because standard statistical analyses and demographic modeling are either only applied at regional level, or are poorly suited to such small populations. This chapter introduces an agent-based demographic model (ABDM) applied to small villages in the north of Sweden. ABDMs provide a way to combine quantitative and qualitative data about demographic change processes and model the impacts of these on population size, structure, and dynamics over time. This chapter presents examples of how ABDMs provide insights into demographic change in the northern inland of Sweden and how they might facilitate truly local-level planning in a peripheral Arctic context. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vienna: LIT Verlag, 2022
Series
Beiträge zum zirkumpolaren Norden Contributions to Circumpolar Studies ; 3
Keywords
demographic change, small villages, agent-based demographic model, northern Sweden
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199050 (URN)978-3-643-91218-3 (ISBN)978-3-643-96218-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-09-01 Created: 2022-09-01 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved
Carson, D. B. & Carson, D. A. (2021). Demographic instability as a barrier to remote economic development in the north: Are cities the answer?. Sustainability, 13(15), Article ID 8566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demographic instability as a barrier to remote economic development in the north: Are cities the answer?
2021 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 15, article id 8566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Remote and sparsely populated northern peripheries in Australia, Europe and North America experience high rates of population turnover and struggle to recruit and retain popula-tions. There has been discussion about the extent to which their larger urban centres may be key to navigating common ‘boom and bust’ cycles, thus contributing to more stable and resilient demographic and economic development in their jurisdictions. This paper examines the population development in twelve remote northern jurisdictions dominated by a large city, comparing urban and regional growth patterns around periods of economic boom and bust since 1990. It was expected that periods of high population growth would be initially led by regional areas where resource projects are commonly located, but that the cities would ultimately benefit more from high growth periods and suffer less from periods of low population growth. It was also expected that cities would retain key populations better than regions because of a growing global urban preference. Results suggest that regional areas did grow more at the start of high growth periods, but there was no universal experience of higher city growth throughout the two boom and bust cycles. Rather, each city and region had unique growth pattern properties. Cities must not be assumed a priori to be the drivers of demographic development, but attention needs to be paid to what types of cities promote less volatile growth and development potential in the regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Boom and bust, Jack London Effect, Northern cities, Population growth, Population retention, Resource cycle, Resource peripheries, Urban preference
National Category
Economic Geography Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186961 (URN)10.3390/su13158566 (DOI)000682273900001 ()2-s2.0-85112660619 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00352
Available from: 2021-08-30 Created: 2021-08-30 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8439-2640

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