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Almevall, A., Dahlin Almevall, A., Öhlin, J., Gustafson, Y., Zingmark, K., Niklasson, J., . . . Olofsson, B. (2024). Self-rated health in old age, related factors and survival: A 20-Year longitudinal study within the Silver-MONICA cohort. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), 122, Article ID 105392.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-rated health in old age, related factors and survival: A 20-Year longitudinal study within the Silver-MONICA cohort
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2024 (English)In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 122, article id 105392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) offers insights into the evolving health demographics of an ageing population.

Aim: To assess change in SRH from old age to very old age and their associations with health and well-being factors, and to investigate the association between SRH and survival.

Methods: All participants in the MONICA 1999 re-examination born before 1940 (n = 1595) were included in the Silver-MONICA baseline cohort. The Silver-MONICA follow-up started in 2016 included participants in the Silver-MONICA baseline cohort aged 80 years or older. Data on SRH was available for 1561 participants at baseline with 446 of them also participating in the follow-up. The follow-up examination included a wide variety of measurements and tests.

Findings: Most participants rated their health as "Quite good" (54.5 %) at baseline. Over the study period, 42.6 % had stable SRH, 40.6 % had declined, and 16.8 % had improved. Changes in SRH were at follow-up significantly associated with age, pain, nutrition, cognition, walking aid use, self-paced gait speed, lower extremity strength, independence in activities of daily living, weekly physical exercise, outdoor activity, participation in organized activities, visiting others, morale, and depressive symptoms. SRH at baseline was significantly associated with survival (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates associations between changes in SRH and a multitude of health- and wellbeing-related factors, as well as a relation between survival and SRH, accentuating their relevance within the ageing population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Aged 80 and over, Aging/psychology, Diagnostic self evaluation, Longitudinal studies, Population characteristics, Self-rated health, Survival analysis
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222682 (URN)10.1016/j.archger.2024.105392 (DOI)38492492 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85187986768 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-01074Swedish Research Council, K2014-99X-22610-01-6Visare NorrNorrbotten County CouncilRegion VästerbottenSwedish Dementia CentreFoundation for the Memory of Ragnhild and Einar LundströmSwedish Society of MedicineKonung Gustaf V:s och Drottning Victorias Frimurarestiftelse
Available from: 2024-04-09 Created: 2024-04-09 Last updated: 2024-04-09Bibliographically approved
Paluch, A. E., Bajpai, S., Ballin, M., Bassett, D. R., Buford, T. W., Carnethon, M. R., . . . Fulton, J. E. (2023). Prospective association of daily steps with cardiovascular disease: a harmonized meta-analysis. Circulation, 147(2), 122-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective association of daily steps with cardiovascular disease: a harmonized meta-analysis
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2023 (English)In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 147, no 2, p. 122-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Taking fewer than the widely promoted "10 000 steps per day" has recently been associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. The relationship of steps and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly described. A meta-analysis examining the dose-response relationship between steps per day and CVD can help inform clinical and public health guidelines.

METHODS: Eight prospective studies (20 152 adults [ie, ≥18 years of age]) were included with device-measured steps and participants followed for CVD events. Studies quantified steps per day and CVD events were defined as fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were completed using study-specific quartiles and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI were meta-analyzed with inverse-variance-weighted random effects models.

RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 63.2±12.4 years and 52% were women. The mean follow-up was 6.2 years (123 209 person-years), with a total of 1523 CVD events (12.4 per 1000 participant-years) reported. There was a significant difference in the association of steps per day and CVD between older (ie, ≥60 years of age) and younger adults (ie, <60 years of age). For older adults, the HR for quartile 2 was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.93), 0.62 for quartile 3 (95% CI, 0.52 to 0.74), and 0.51 for quartile 4 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.63) compared with the lowest quartile. For younger adults, the HR for quartile 2 was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.46 to 1.35), 0.90 for quartile 3 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.25), and 0.95 for quartile 4 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.48) compared with the lowest quartile. Restricted cubic splines demonstrated a nonlinear association whereby more steps were associated with decreased risk of CVD among older adults.

CONCLUSIONS: For older adults, taking more daily steps was associated with a progressively decreased risk of CVD. Monitoring and promoting steps per day is a simple metric for clinician-patient communication and population health to reduce the risk of CVD.

Keywords
cardiovascular disease, exercise, public health, risk reduction behavior
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203550 (URN)10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.061288 (DOI)000918503500006 ()36537288 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85145966261 (Scopus ID)
Funder
NIH (National Institutes of Health)Novo NordiskSwedish Research Council, 2016-02589
Available from: 2023-01-19 Created: 2023-01-19 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nordström, P., Ballin, M. & Nordström, A. (2023). Safety and effectiveness of monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and risk factors for hospitalisation caused by the omicron variant in 0.8 million adolescents: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden. PLoS Medicine, 20(2), Article ID e1004127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and effectiveness of monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and risk factors for hospitalisation caused by the omicron variant in 0.8 million adolescents: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
2023 (English)In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 20, no 2, article id e1004127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Real-world evidence on the safety and effectiveness of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination against severe disease caused by the omicron variant among adolescents is sparse. In addition, evidence on risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease, and whether vaccination is similarly effective in such risk groups, is unclear. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the safety and effectiveness of monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination against COVID-19 hospitalisation, and risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalisation in adolescents.

Methods and findings: A cohort study was conducted using Swedish nationwide registers. The safety analysis included all individuals in Sweden born between 2003 and 2009 (aged 11.3 to 19.2 years) given at least 1 dose of monovalent mRNA vaccine (N = 645,355), and never vaccinated controls (N = 186,918). The outcomes included all-cause hospitalisation and 30 selected diagnoses until 5 June 2022. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 hospitalisation, and risk factors for hospitalisation, were evaluated in adolescents given 2 doses of monovalent mRNA vaccine (N = 501,945), as compared to never vaccinated controls (N = 157,979), for up to 5 months follow-up during an omicron predominant period (1 January 2022 to 5 June 2022). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, baseline date, and whether the individual was born in Sweden. The safety analysis showed that vaccination was associated with 16% lower (95% confidence interval (CI) [12, 19], p < 0.001) risk of all-cause hospitalisation, and with marginal differences between the groups regarding the 30 selected diagnoses. In the VE analysis, there were 21 cases (0.004%) of COVID-19 hospitalisation among 2-dose recipients and 26 cases (0.016%) among controls, resulting in a VE of 76% (95% CI [57, 87], p < 0.001). Predominant risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalisation included previous infections (bacterial infection, tonsillitis, and pneumonia) (odds ratio [OR]: 14.3, 95% CI [7.7, 26.6], p < 0.001), and cerebral palsy/development disorders (OR: 12.7, 95% CI [6.8, 23.8], p < 0.001), with similar estimates of VE in these subgroups as in the total cohort. The number needed to vaccinate with 2 doses to prevent 1 case of COVID-19 hospitalisation was 8,147 in the total cohort and 1,007 in those with previous infections or developmental disorders. None of the individuals hospitalised due to COVID-19 died within 30 days. Limitations of this study include the observational design and the possibility of unmeasured confounding.

Conclusions: In this nationwide study of Swedish adolescents, monovalent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination was not associated with an increased risk of any serious adverse events resulting in hospitalisation. Vaccination with 2 doses was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation during an omicron predominant period, also among those with certain predisposing conditions who should be prioritised for vaccination. However, COVID-19 hospitalisation in the general population of adolescents was extremely rare, and additional doses in this population may not be warranted at this stage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205727 (URN)10.1371/journal.pmed.1004127 (DOI)000989141600001 ()36802397 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85149482318 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-17 Created: 2023-03-17 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Mikkilä, S., Johansson, J., Nordström, A., Nordström, P., Emaus, N., Handegård, B. H., . . . Welde, B. (2022). A 15-year follow-up study of hip bone mineral density and associations with leisure time physical activity: the Tromsø Study 2001-2016. PLOS ONE, 17, Article ID e0262228.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 15-year follow-up study of hip bone mineral density and associations with leisure time physical activity: the Tromsø Study 2001-2016
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2022 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, article id e0262228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The aim was to investigate the long-term association between leisure time physical activity and hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD), in addition to change in hip aBMD over time, in 32-86 years old women and men.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the 2001, 2007-2008, and 2015-2016 surveys of the Tromsø Study, a longitudinal population study in Norway. Leisure time physical activity was assessed by the four-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale which refers to physical exertion in the past twelve months. Hip aBMD was assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Linear Mixed Model analysis was used to examine long-term associations between physical activity and hip aBMD (n = 6324). In addition, the annual change in hip aBMD was analyzed in a subsample of 3199 participants.

Results: Physical activity was significantly and positively associated with total hip aBMD in the overall cohort (p<0.005). Participants who reported vigorous activity had 28.20 mg/cm2 higher aBMD than those who were inactive (95% CI 14.71; 41.69, controlled for confounders), and even light physical activity was associated with higher aBMD than inactivity (8.32 mg/cm2, 95% CI 4.89; 11.76). Associations between physical activity and femoral neck aBMD yielded similar results. Hip aBMD decreased with age in both sexes, although more prominently in women. From 2001 to 2007-2008, aBMD changed by -5.76 mg/cm2 per year (95% CI - 6.08; -5.44) in women, and -2.31 mg/cm2 (95% CI -2.69; -1.93), in men. From 2007-2008 to 2015-2016, the change was -4.45 mg/cm2 per year (95% CI -4.84; -4.06) in women, and -1.45 mg/cm2 (95% CI -1.92; -0.98) in men.

Conclusions: In this cohort of adult men and women, physical activity levels were positively associated with hip aBMD in a dose-response relationship. Hip aBMD decreased with age, although more pronounced in women than men. Copyright:

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2022
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192159 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0262228 (DOI)000829607600025 ()2-s2.0-85123552826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-04 Created: 2022-02-04 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Paluch, A. E., Bajpai, S., Bassett, D. R., Carnethon, M. R., Ekelund, U., Evenson, K. R., . . . Fulton, J. E. (2022). Daily steps and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of 15 international cohorts. The Lancet Public Health, 7(3), e219-e228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Daily steps and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of 15 international cohorts
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2022 (English)In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e219-e228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Although 10 000 steps per day is widely promoted to have health benefits, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. We aimed to determine the association between number of steps per day and stepping rate with all-cause mortality.

METHODS: In this meta-analysis, we identified studies investigating the effect of daily step count on all-cause mortality in adults (aged ≥18 years), via a previously published systematic review and expert knowledge of the field. We asked participating study investigators to process their participant-level data following a standardised protocol. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality collected from death certificates and country registries. We analysed the dose-response association of steps per day and stepping rate with all-cause mortality. We did Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using study-specific quartiles of steps per day and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) with inverse-variance weighted random effects models.

FINDINGS: We identified 15 studies, of which seven were published and eight were unpublished, with study start dates between 1999 and 2018. The total sample included 47 471 adults, among whom there were 3013 deaths (10·1 per 1000 participant-years) over a median follow-up of 7·1 years ([IQR 4·3-9·9]; total sum of follow-up across studies was 297 837 person-years). Quartile median steps per day were 3553 for quartile 1, 5801 for quartile 2, 7842 for quartile 3, and 10 901 for quartile 4. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0·60 (95% CI 0·51-0·71) for quartile 2, 0·55 (0·49-0·62) for quartile 3, and 0·47 (0·39-0·57) for quartile 4. Restricted cubic splines showed progressively decreasing risk of mortality among adults aged 60 years and older with increasing number of steps per day until 6000-8000 steps per day and among adults younger than 60 years until 8000-10 000 steps per day. Adjusting for number of steps per day, comparing quartile 1 with quartile 4, the association between higher stepping rates and mortality was attenuated but remained significant for a peak of 30 min (HR 0·67 [95% CI 0·56-0·83]) and a peak of 60 min (0·67 [0·50-0·90]), but not significant for time (min per day) spent walking at 40 steps per min or faster (1·12 [0·96-1·32]) and 100 steps per min or faster (0·86 [0·58-1·28]).

INTERPRETATION: Taking more steps per day was associated with a progressively lower risk of all-cause mortality, up to a level that varied by age. The findings from this meta-analysis can be used to inform step guidelines for public health promotion of physical activity.

FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-195542 (URN)10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00302-9 (DOI)000765912700011 ()35247352 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125451203 (Scopus ID)
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health)
Available from: 2022-05-30 Created: 2022-05-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nordström, P., Ballin, M. & Nordström, A. (2022). Effectiveness of a fourth dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against all-cause mortality in long-term care facility residents and in the oldest old: a nationwide, retrospective cohort study in Sweden. The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, 21, Article ID 100466.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of a fourth dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against all-cause mortality in long-term care facility residents and in the oldest old: a nationwide, retrospective cohort study in Sweden
2022 (English)In: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 21, article id 100466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The effect of a fourth dose of COVID-19 vaccine on the risk of death in the oldest and frailest individuals is unknown.

Methods: Two matched cohorts were formed using Swedish nationwide registers. In the first, residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) given a fourth dose of an mRNA vaccine from 1 January 2022 onwards were matched 1:1 on birth year and county of residence to residents given at least a third dose (N = 24,524). In the second, all individuals aged ≥80 years given a fourth dose were matched 1:1 to individuals given at least a third dose (N = 394,104). Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in fourth-dose recipients as compared with in third-dose recipients, with relative vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimated as 1 minus the hazard ratio.

Findings: From 7 days after baseline and onwards, there were 1119 deaths in the LTCF cohort during a median follow-up of 77 days and a maximum follow-up of 126 days. During days 7 to 60, the VE of the fourth dose was 39% (95% CI, 29-48), which declined to 27% (95% CI, -2-48) during days 61 to 126. In the cohort of all individuals aged ≥80 years, there were 5753 deaths during a median follow-up of 73 days and a maximum follow-up of 143 days. During days 7 to 60, the VE of the fourth dose was 71% (95% CI, 69-72), which declined to 54% (95% CI, 48-60) during days 61 to 143. The VE of the fourth dose seemed stronger when it was compared to third-dose recipients where at least four months had passed since vaccination (P < 0·001 for interaction).

Interpretation: As compared with a third dose, a fourth dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, administered during the Omicron era, was associated with reduced risk of death from all causes in residents of LTCFs and in the oldest old during the first two months, after which the protection became slightly lower. These findings suggest that a fourth dose may prevent premature mortality in the oldest and frailest even after the emergence of the Omicron variant, although the timing of vaccination seems to be important with respect to the slight waning observed after two months.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
COVID-19, Nursing home residents, Vaccination
National Category
Immunology in the medical area Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199556 (URN)10.1016/j.lanepe.2022.100466 (DOI)000880780100001 ()35855494 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85138253770 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-20 Created: 2022-09-20 Last updated: 2022-12-29Bibliographically approved
Vikberg, S., Björk, S., Nordström, A., Nordström, P. & Hult, A. (2022). Feasibility of an Online Delivered, Home-Based Resistance Training Program for Older Adults: A Mixed Methods Approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article ID 869573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility of an Online Delivered, Home-Based Resistance Training Program for Older Adults: A Mixed Methods Approach
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 869573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Physical inactivity and low muscle mass are risk factors for falls, fractures and overall poor health. However, physical activity is reduced with increased age and only a fraction of older adults engages in resistance training (RT). Thus, strategies that facilitate RT among older adults are needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience, and explore barriers and motivators toward an online delivered, home-based RT program in older adults with low muscle mass.

Methods: Thirty men and women, 70–71 years of age with low muscle mass were assigned home-based RT with online exercise videos (3 times/week, 45 min/session for 10 weeks) accompanied with an initial supervised try-out session. Quantitative outcome measures included changes in lean body mass and physical function. Semi structured one-to-one interviews with a subset of the participants (n = 8) were also conducted to generate a greater understanding of the participants experience of the digitally supported RT. The material was transcribed and analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

Results: Twenty-seven participants (90%) completed the trial. Lean body mass increased by 0.39 kg (95% CI: 0.06–0.72, p < 0.05) and chair stand time improved by 1.6 s (95% CI: 0.8–2.3, p < 0.001). No significant improvements were seen for balance or gait speed. The theme “Engaging in Digital Resistance Training with Personal Adaptation Leads to a Sense of Strength and Vitality” captured the participants experience of the intervention, where a sense of how the body was changing toward a more active lifestyle was described. Instructions, feedback, and intrinsic motivation were identified as key elements for compliance. 

Conclusion: The online delivered RT program for older adults with low muscle mass was feasible based on high compliance, user satisfaction, increased lean mass and improved chair-stand time. The participant experiences may explain the high compliance to the intervention and effects on outcomes. Based on these results, online delivered RT could be an accessible exercise routine for older adults with low muscle mass. More research is needed to verify the present findings and assess changes in a long-term perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
ageing, e-health, elderly, functional strength, home-based exercise, motivation, online training, sarcopenia
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198041 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2022.869573 (DOI)000816009700001 ()35726270 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133348400 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Umeå University, IH 5.3–4-2019
Available from: 2022-07-15 Created: 2022-07-15 Last updated: 2022-07-15Bibliographically approved
Burman, M., Hörnsten, C., Gustafson, Y., Olofsson, B. & Nordström, P. (2022). Obesity may increase survival, regardless of nutritional status: a Swedish cohort study in nursing homes. BMC Geriatrics, 22(1), Article ID 655.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obesity may increase survival, regardless of nutritional status: a Swedish cohort study in nursing homes
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2022 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 655Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: To investigate the associations between the body mass index (BMI), Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) scores, and 2-year mortality.

Methods: A nationwide cohort study using data from a national quality register of older (age ≥ 65 years) nursing home residents (N = 47,686). Individuals were categorized according to BMI as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (class I, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2; class II, 35.0-39.9 kg/m2; class III, ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Participants' nutritional status were categorized as good (MNA-SF score 12-14), at risk of malnutrition (MNA-SF score 8-11), or malnutrition (MNA-SF score 0-7). Associations with mortality were analysed using Cox proportional-hazards models.

Results: At baseline, 16.0% had obesity, and 14.6% were malnourished. During 2 years of follow-up, 23,335 (48.9%) individuals died. Compared with normal-weight individuals, mortality was greater among underweight individuals [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-1.69] and lesser among individuals with class I (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.60-0.66), class II (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.56-0.68), and class III (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.94) obesity. Compared with individuals with good nutritional status, mortality was increased for those with malnutrition (HR 2.98,95% CI 2.87-3.10). Lower mortality among obese individuals was also seen in subgroups defined according to MNA-SF scores.

Conclusions: Among older nursing home residents, obesity, including severe obesity, was associated with lower 2-year mortality. Higher BMIs were associated with better survival, regardless of nutritional status according to MNA-SF.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2022
Keywords
Mortality, Nutritional status, Obesity, Older nursing home residents
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182792 (URN)10.1186/s12877-022-03356-1 (DOI)000838662600003 ()35948885 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135815690 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2014-99X-22610-01-6Västerbotten County Council
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form. 

Available from: 2021-05-04 Created: 2021-05-04 Last updated: 2022-09-09Bibliographically approved
Öhlin, J., Toots, A., Littbrand, H., Wennberg, P., Olofsson, B., Gustafson, Y., . . . Söderberg, S. (2022). Physical activity in late middle- to older-aged people and dementia, cognitive, and physical function two decades later. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 51, 135-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity in late middle- to older-aged people and dementia, cognitive, and physical function two decades later
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2022 (English)In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 51, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Low physical activity (PA) is a potential risk factor for dementia and cognitive impairment. However, few studies have focused on very old people (aged ≥80 years), the age group with highest prevalence of dementia. The aim was to investigate if PA associated with subsequent dementia, cognitive function, and gait speed (GS), in very old people.

Methods: A population-based survey was conducted in 1999 and followed-up between 2016 and 2019 in participants ≥80 years. Altogether 541 individuals (56.2% women), 64.9 ± 4.2 years of age at baseline participated. Self-rated baseline PA was categorized into low, medium, or high. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), executive function with the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and GS (in meters/second) was measured over 2.4 m at follow-up.

Results: During a mean of 19.0 ± 1.1 years, 175 (32.3%) developed dementia. Low or medium PA compared to high PA did not associate with subsequent dementia, and PA did not associate with future cognitive function (MMSE). PA associated with executive function (FAB) (unstandardized beta [95% confidence interval]) (0.67 [0.07–1.27]), but not after adjustments. PA associated with subsequent GS in the unadjusted model and after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and education (0.06 [0.02–0.09], and 0.04 [0.01–0.08], respectively), but not after adding adjustment for hypertension, obesity, and glucose intolerance.

Conclusion: No support was found for the hypothesis that low PA is a potential risk factor for dementia in very high age. However, PA and executive function were associated in unadjusted analyses which indicate that PA may be important for at least one aspect of cognitive function. The association between PA and GS around 2 decades later seems attenuated by cardiometabolic risk factors. Future investigations regarding PA, dementia, and cognitive decline may consider cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and glucose intolerance, and include repeated measures of PA over the life course.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2022
Keywords
cognitive function, dementia, executive function, gait speed, physical activity, very old people
National Category
Physiotherapy Geriatrics
Research subject
physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187213 (URN)10.1159/000523726 (DOI)000779096600001 ()2-s2.0-85128538079 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2016-01074Swedish Research Council, K2014-99X22610-01-6The Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedKonung Gustaf V:s och Drottning Victorias Frimurarestiftelse
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2021-09-06 Created: 2021-09-06 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Burman, M., Hörnsten, C., Öhlin, J., Olofsson, B., Nordström, P. & Gustafson, Y. (2022). Prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in four cohorts of very old adults, 2000–2017. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 26(7), 706-713
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in four cohorts of very old adults, 2000–2017
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2022 (English)In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Springer Link, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 706-713Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Investigate trends in the prevalence of obesity and malnutrition among very old adults (age ≥ 85 years) between 2000 and 2017.

Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements: A study with data from the Umeå 85+/Gerontological regional database population-based cohort study of very old adults in northern Sweden. Every 5 years from 2000–2002 to 2015–2017, comprehensive assessments of participants were performed during home visits (N=1602). Body mass index (BMI) classified participants as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores classified participants as malnourished (0 to <17), at risk of malnutrition (17–23.5), and having good nutritional status (24–30). Prevalence and trends were examined using analysis of variance and chi-squared tests, including subgroup analyses of nursing home residents.

Results: Between 2000–2002 and 2015–2017, the mean BMI increased from 24.8± 4.7 to 26.0± 4.7 kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity and underweight were 13.4% and 7.6%, respectively, in 2000–2002 and 18.3% and 3.0%, respectively, in 2015–2017. The mean MNA score increased between 2000–2002 and 2010–2012 (from 23.2± 4.7 to 24.2± 3.6), and had decreased (to 23.3± 4.2) by 2015–2017. The prevalence of malnutrition was 12.2%, 5.1%, and 8.7% in 2000–2002, 2010–2012, and 2015–2017, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed similar BMI and MNA score patterns among nursing home residents.

Conclusions: Among very old adults, the mean BMI and prevalence of obesity seemed to increase between 2000–2002 and 2015–2017. Meanwhile, the nutritional status (according to MNA scores) seemed to improve between 2000–2002 and 2010–2012, it declined by 2015–2017.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Body mass index, malnutrition, Mini Nutritional Assessment, obesity, very old adult
National Category
Geriatrics Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182795 (URN)10.1007/s12603-022-1820-x (DOI)000824821500002 ()35842761 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133502496 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2014-99X-22610-01-6Umeå UniversityVästerbotten County Council
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form. 

Available from: 2021-05-04 Created: 2021-05-04 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Projects
PRESCRIBED DRUGS, GENES AND INJURIOUS FALLS IN MEN AND WOMEN [2011-02976_VR]; Umeå UniversityStudies to improve fracture prevention in the old-a gender perspective [2016-02584_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2924-508X

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