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Näsman, M. & Ballor, G. (2024). The car industry and climate change: a historical review. Milan: Università Bocconi (24)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The car industry and climate change: a historical review
2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the second half of the twentieth century, the car industrybecame a lightning rod for debates about human contributions to climatechange. Widespread motorisation galvanised the green movements of the1960s and 1970s, regulators increasingly demanded the use of pollutionand climate mitigation technologies, and carmakers responded to thischanging consumer and regulatory environment by gradually observingstricter emissions standards and innovating away from combustible enginesat the turn of the millennium. This paper traces the arc of the relationshipbetween car manufacturing and climate change through a businesshistorical lens, from the development of internal combustion engines andtheir alternatives to the political economy of an energy transition and thedecision to prioritise electric vehicles. Our analysis aims to lay a foundationfor further research on industry and climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Milan: Università Bocconi, 2024. p. 62
Series
GREEN Working paper series, ISSN 2785-1079 ; 24
Keywords
environmental history, business history, automakers, regulation, climate governance
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223349 (URN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M22-0029
Available from: 2024-04-15 Created: 2024-04-15 Last updated: 2024-06-13
Näsman, M., Bergquist, A.-K., Björling, N., Eriksson, M., Liliequist, E., Lindmark, M., . . . Eriksson, R. (2023). A promised land? First summary of the research program. Umeå: Umeå University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A promised land? First summary of the research program
Show others...
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This document lays out the background for the research program “A promised land? Drivers, challenges and opportunities related to the (green) industrialization of Northern Sweden,” (nr. M22-0029) awarded by the Swedish Riksbankens Jubileumsfond’s in 2022. The document summarizes work in progress and may therefore be updated and republished in different versions according to the requirements of the program. 

This interdisciplinary program aims to understand the economic, social, and political challenges and opportunities of the ongoing industrial transformation in northern Sweden. A key element of the program is to identify drivers, obstacles, and preconditions in a historical, present, and forward-looking process-perspective. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2023. p. 4
Series
CERUM rapport, ISSN 0282-0277 ; 78
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Economic History Economics Ethnology Human Geography Economic Geography Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218238 (URN)978-91-8070-259-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M22-0029
Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2024-06-05Bibliographically approved
Bergquist, A.-K. & Näsman, M. (2023). Safe before green!: the greening of Volvo cars in the 1970s–1990s. Enterprise & society, 24(1), 59-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe before green!: the greening of Volvo cars in the 1970s–1990s
2023 (English)In: Enterprise & society, ISSN 1467-2227, E-ISSN 1467-2235, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 59-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although the automobile industry has served as the backbone of much business history scholarship, business historians have paid little attention to this industry’s actions concerning the complex of environmental issues that took hold in the 1960s. Volvo represents a captivating case study to gain insight into why the automobile industry’s growth has been difficult to align with the shift toward environmental sustainability. Although Volvo pioneered the exhaust emission control technology on the U.S. market in the 1970s and gained an international reputation for high environmental and safety standards in the decades that followed, the company was unable to seriously address climate change in the 1990s. This article identifies several key factors impacting the automobile industry’s passive response to environmental challenges - for instance, weak and asymmetric emission control regulations on international markets, consumer preferences for larger cars (SUVs) in the 1990s, and a lack of systematic regulatory pressure to shift from fossil fuels and the internal combustion engine. In the case of Volvo, world leadership in safety standards, rather than low carbon emissions, constituted the company’s competitive advantage as climate change emerged as one of the most critical environmental issues in the 1990s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2023
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-184922 (URN)10.1017/eso.2021.23 (DOI)000767041500001 ()2-s2.0-85108521377 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2021-06-21 Created: 2021-06-21 Last updated: 2023-07-12Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. (2022). David Larsson Heidenblad, Den gröna vändningen: En ny kunskapshistoria om miljöfrågornas genombrott under efterkrigstiden (Lund: Nordic Academic Press 2021). 270 s. [Review]. Historisk Tidskrift, 142(2), 297-299
Open this publication in new window or tab >>David Larsson Heidenblad, Den gröna vändningen: En ny kunskapshistoria om miljöfrågornas genombrott under efterkrigstiden (Lund: Nordic Academic Press 2021). 270 s.
2022 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 297-299Article, book review (Refereed) Published
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-196860 (URN)2-s2.0-85160727442 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-20 Created: 2022-06-20 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. (2022). Historiska perspektiv på fordonsflottans gröna omställning. Ekonomisk Debatt (6), 19-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historiska perspektiv på fordonsflottans gröna omställning
2022 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 19-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Personbilstrafiken är en flaskhals i klimatomställningen. Genom att använda styrmedel som koldioxidskatt, reduktionsplikt och bonus-malus har Sverige ambitionen att leda utfasningen av fossila bränslen globalt. Dessa styrmedel gör fossila alternativ dyrare, men har låg acceptans, problematiska fördelningseffekter och leder inte till teknisk utveckling. Nyligen har EU tagit det historiska beslutet att fasa ut fossildrivna personbilar och lätta lastbilar från 2035. Den svenska debatten underskattar dock vikten av internationella regelverk. Sverige bör fokusera mindre på att ställa om den egna fordonsflottan genom att höja bränslepriset och i stället fokusera på en smidig omställning inom hela EU.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Nationalekonomiska föreningen, 2022
Keywords
Grön omställning, fordonsflottan, utsläppsstandarder, styrmedel
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-199992 (URN)
Available from: 2022-10-05 Created: 2022-10-05 Last updated: 2022-10-05Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. & Pitteloud, S. (2022). The power and limits of expertise: Swiss–Swedish linking of vehicle emission standards in the 1970s and 1980s. Business and Politics, 24(3), 241-260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The power and limits of expertise: Swiss–Swedish linking of vehicle emission standards in the 1970s and 1980s
2022 (English)In: Business and Politics, ISSN 1369-5258, E-ISSN 1469-3569, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 241-260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent decades have witnessed increased public concern about vehicle emissions and growing frustrationwith political inaction and business preferences for the status quo. This article provides historical perspectiveon such regulatory dynamics by analyzing the Swiss and the Swedish cases of vehicle emission governance inthe1970s-1980s. Relying on archival documents detailing the policy process in both countries as well as oninternational regulatory arenas, the analysis focuses on political solutions for reducing the toxicity of vehicleemissions. It uncovers the influence of national as well as international business groups and the existence ofthe tension between various national ministries, arising from conflicting environmental and trade-relatedgoals. Is also highlights the importance of different institutional settings in creating the expertise to explainthe political outcomes. While the Swiss corporatist system gave a great deal of power to a variety of interestgroups at each stage of the political process, the Swedish government invested significant resources in thecreation of independent expertise and enjoyed a relative autonomy, despite the importance of the Swedishcar industry. The analysis also assesses the importance of the Swiss–Swedish collaboration in overcomingcertain obstacles and their contribution to the implementation of stricter regulations in Europe thatultimately occurred at the margins of the European Economic Community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2022
Keywords
business power, car industry, vehicle emissions, expertise, environmental standards
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192934 (URN)10.1017/bap.2022.3 (DOI)000764362900001 ()2-s2.0-85126326124 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-04 Created: 2022-03-04 Last updated: 2022-12-14Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. (2022). "Utan bilen stannar Sverige": Svensk bilindustri under oljekrisen och den gröna omställningens dynamik. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Utan bilen stannar Sverige": Svensk bilindustri under oljekrisen och den gröna omställningens dynamik
2022 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna uppsats undersöker bilen och bilsamhällets relation till människan och miljön genom att närmare studera den svenska bilindustrins politiska aktiviteter i samband med 1970-talets oljekriser och den sammankopplade strukturkrisen. Särskilt söker uppsatsen att förklara bilindustrins motstånd mot svenska myndigheters försök att snabbt minska luftföroreningar från bilavgaser, där jag fokuserar på den svenska industrins argument kring ett harmoniserat regelsystem i Europa. Uppsatsen visar att industrin motstånd mot strikta utsläppsregler varken huvudsakligen var en respons på miljörörelsens bilkritik eller en kall företagsekonomisk kalkyl, utan sprunget ur problem relaterande till ett komplext och internationellt integrerat handelssystem för bilar. Utifrån dessa resultat drar uppsatsen lärdomar kring den gröna omställningen av fordonsflottan, dels vad gäller relationer mellan enskilda stater och det internationella ekonomiska och politiska systemet, dels kring industrins makt att styra utvecklingen och dels kring framtiden för bilsamhället

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2022. p. 27
Series
Umeå papers in economic history, ISSN 1653-7378 ; 2022:53
Keywords
ekonomisk historia, svensk bilindustri, miljöreglering, utsläpp, Sverige, grön omställning
National Category
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193946 (URN)
Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2022-04-21Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. (2021). The political economy of emission standards: politics, business and the making of vehicle emission regulations in Sweden and Europe, 1960-1980s. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The political economy of emission standards: politics, business and the making of vehicle emission regulations in Sweden and Europe, 1960-1980s
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Utsläppens politiska ekonomi : politik, företag och utformningen av bilavgasregleringar i Sverige och Europa, 1960 till 1980-talet
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to an improved historical understanding of the challenges and complexities involved in constructing systems of governance of motor vehicle air pollution. The specific aim of the study is to explore the development of regulatory vehicle emission standards in Sweden between 1960 and the 1980s as well as to analyze this development within its broader European economic, regulatory and environmental policy context by adopting a transnational approach. The overarching research question concerns the historical dynamics and processes that created obstacles to implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Sweden from 1960 through the 1980s. To answer this question, the study focuses specifically on expert, business, and governmental actors’ interaction in the political process in Sweden, seeking to reveal these actors’ motivations, justifications, and power to influence the outcome.

The study concludes that one set of difficulties concerned the relationship between vehicle emission standards and international trade, in the sense that stringent emission standards, which in turn are dissimilar from internationally adopted norms, raise trade barriers with implications for trade and foreign relations. The Swedish government, however, implemented stricter standards than those in Europe on three occasions between 1968 and 1982. Both the Swedish and the international car industry were greatly opposed to the Swedish government’s implementation of standards that were more stringent than those adopted in Europe, though the Swedish industry was not opposed to the government’s environmental ambitions as such. On the international arena, since the late 1960s, the thesis shows that the car industry favored international harmonization of technical regulations and lobbied national governments toward this end, while the study further concludes that the Swedish car industry was unsuccessful in its attempts to oppose regulation at home. Another set of challenges was related to the knowledge creation process and the requirement that these standards should reflect technical, economic, and scientific knowledge. The thesis shows how Swedish techno-scientific experts were key actors in the Swedish system of vehicle emission governance, while techno-scientific knowledge was an important tool in justifying Swedish unilateral policies to industrial actors and foreign governments. Still, producing techno-scientific knowledge is a time-consuming process and requires considerable resources. For small countries, the relative costs of producing techno-scientific knowledge are higher than producing it in the immediate political, economic, and technical context – i.e., together with other European countries and car industries. However, the thesis further concludes that the knowledge created in the Swedish system for vehicle emission governance was an important tool for linking standards with other progressive countries: both in terms of implementing goals on air pollution control that were more ambitious than those adopted by most European countries and for coordinating implementation of these standards as well as new fuel infrastructures. 

This thesis contributes new historical knowledge and perspectives of relevance to several bodies of literature. By displacing the EEC/EU from the center of analysis, the thesis offers the literature on European integration new perspectives. The thesis also adds knowledge regarding the construction of technical standards by shedding light on the role of knowledge creation in developing and implementing standards in a transitional setting. The thesis, moreover, contributes to the literature on the political power of business by closely tracing the car industry’s attempts to influence the regulatory development.        

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2021. p. 361
Series
Umeå studies in economic history, ISSN 0347-254X ; 51
Keywords
history, car industry, environmental governance, environmental regulation, air pollution, transition, vehicle emissions, transnational, European integration, standards, knowledge creation, linking, delinking, expertise, business power, lobbying, California Effect Hypothesis
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History; History; sustainability
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186828 (URN)978-91-7855-580-2 (ISBN)978-91-7855-581-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-09-17, S 213, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2016-0311:1
Available from: 2021-08-27 Created: 2021-08-24 Last updated: 2021-08-25Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. (2020). Green capitalism?: Business and the environment in the twentieth century [Review]. Business History, 62(2), 373-374
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green capitalism?: Business and the environment in the twentieth century
2020 (English)In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 373-374Article, book review (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-156371 (URN)10.1080/00076791.2018.1483301 (DOI)000512192900011 ()
Note

Published online: 21 Jun 2018

Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Näsman, M. (2016). Konsekvenser av indragen assistansersättning: En studie om medikalisering och hur kostnader skiftar från samhället till brukaren och dess anhöriga. Rapport för STIL om förändrat stöd enligt LSS och SFB. Umeå
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Konsekvenser av indragen assistansersättning: En studie om medikalisering och hur kostnader skiftar från samhället till brukaren och dess anhöriga. Rapport för STIL om förändrat stöd enligt LSS och SFB
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport är skriven för föreningen STIL inom projektet Kostnader för assistans i förändring. Rapporten studerar förändringen i lagen om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade, LSS, från 1994 med speciellt fokus på personlig assistans. Rapporten beräknar hur kostnader skiftar från staten till kommunerna, brukaren samt dess anhöriga när assistansersättningen dras in. Rapporten finner också belägg för att diskursen förändrats mot en mer medikaliserad syn på människor med funktionshinder och även synen på samhälleligt stöd till gruppen. Vidare argumenteras i rapporten att det finns problem med att tolka LSS som en rättighetslag inom den svenska ramlagstraditionen och att fokus från myndigheter och politiker skiftat från att kontrollera kostnadsökningen till att minska kostnader. Rapporten avslutas med policyförslag riktade mot direktiven för den nya offentliga utredningen Översyn av insatser enligt LSS och assistansersättningen (dir. 2016;40).

Abstract [en]

This report is written for the organization STIL in the project (The social costs of changing personal assistance). The report studies the changes in the Swedish 1994 law, Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments (LSS), with specific focus on personal assistance. The report calculates how costs shifts from the national state to the municipalities, the recipients of personal assistance and the relatives of the recipients when the entitlement for personal assistance is withdrawn. The report also finds evidence for a change in discourse towards a more medicalized view on people with functional impairments and governmental support aimed for that group. Further it is argued in the report that there is a problem of how to interpret the LSS as an entitlement law within the tradition of Swedish framework law along with a change of focus among authorities and politicians from controlling the development of costs to cutting costs. The report ends with policy suggestions aimed towards the directive of the new governmental report Översyn av insatser enligt LSS och assistansersättningen (dir. 2016;40).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: , 2016. p. 95
Series
Umeå papers in economic history, ISSN 1653-7378 ; 46
Keywords
Economic History, Sweden, LSS, functional impairment, disability, personal assistance, costs, ekonomisk historia, Sverige, LSS, funktionshinder, funktionsnedsättning, personlig assistans, kostnader
National Category
Economic History
Research subject
Economic History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125936 (URN)881253 (Local ID)881253 (Archive number)881253 (OAI)
Projects
Kostnader för assistans i förändring
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Projects
Det nya framtidslandet? Drivkrafter, utmaningar och möjligheter i relation till norra Sveriges (gröna) industrialisering [M22-0029_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Blombäck, W., Eriksson, R. & Lundberg, J. (2024). Skellefteå under omvandling: en studie av yrkesstruktur och flyttmönster under etableringsfasen av Northvolt. Umeå: Umeå UniversityNäsman, M. & Ballor, G. (2024). The car industry and climate change: a historical review. Milan: Università Bocconi (24)Näsman, M., Bergquist, A.-K., Björling, N., Eriksson, M., Liliequist, E., Lindmark, M., . . . Eriksson, R. (2023). A promised land? First summary of the research program. Umeå: Umeå UniversityEriksson, M., Liliequist, E. & Lundgren, A. S. (2023). Nya Norrlandsbilder och varför de spelar roll. Plan (2), 51-53Eriksson, R., Hane-Weijman, E., Lundberg, J. & Rataj, M. (2023). Stora investeringar i små kommuner: vem ska flytta till norra Sverige och hur planerar vi för det?. Plan: tidskrift för planering av landsbygd och tätorter (2), 30-35Adjei, E. K., Eriksson, R. & Lundberg, J. (2023). The effects of a large industrial investment on employment in a remote and sparsely populated area using a synthetic control approach. Regional Science Policy & Practice, 15(7), 1553-1576Hansen, H. K. & Eriksson, R. (2023). The public sector and regional development: why public sector employment remains a black box in economic geography, and how should we open it?. Progress in Human Geography, 47(6), 833-849
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4352-6323

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