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Evander, Magnus
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Publications (10 of 103) Show all publications
Rusanganwa, V., Lwande, O. W., Bainda, B., Chiyo, P., Seruyange, E., Bucht, G. & Evander, M. (2024). Arbovirus surveillance in febrile patients attending selected health facilities in Rwanda. Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 14(1), Article ID 2289872.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbovirus surveillance in febrile patients attending selected health facilities in Rwanda
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2024 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2289872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses cause emerging diseases that affect the livelihoods of people around the world. They are linked to disease outbreaks resulting in high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. In sub-Saharan Africa, numerous arbovirus outbreaks have been documented, but the circulation and magnitude of illness caused by these viruses during inter-epidemic periods remains unknown in many regions. In Rwanda, there is limited knowledge on the presence and distribution of arboviruses. This study aimed at determining the occurrence and distribution of selected arboviruses, i.e., chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o’nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), among febrile patients visiting health centres in Rwanda. A total of 2294 dry blood spots (DBS) were collected on filter papers during August 2019 – December 2020. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on samples in pools of ten, using both quantitative (DENV, ZIKV, RVFV) and conventional PCR (CHIKV, ONNV, WNV, CCHFV) with virus specific primers, followed by sequencing. Demographic data and clinical manifestations of illness were analysed. ONNV infection was detected in 12 of 230 pools (5.2%) and ZIKV in three pools (1.3%). The other arboviruses were not detected. All ONNV cases were found in the Rwaniro health centre, while ZIKV infection was found among patients visiting the Kirinda and Zaza health centres. There was temporal variability in ONNV infections with most cases being recorded during the long dry season, while ZIKV infection occurred during both dry and wet seasons. Patients with ONNV were older and more were females. In conclusion, ONNV and ZIKV infection were detected in acute patients and can explain some of the feverish diseases in Rwanda.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2024
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Public health; Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190543 (URN)10.1080/20008686.2023.2289872 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180412250 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 51160027-04Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 51160059-10Swedish Research Council, 2019-04366Swedish Research Council, 2017-05607
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form. 

Available from: 2021-12-17 Created: 2021-12-17 Last updated: 2024-01-04Bibliographically approved
Lwande, O. W., Näslund, J., Sjödin, A., Lantto, R., Luande, V. N., Bucht, G., . . . Evander, M. (2024). Novel strains of Culex flavivirus and Hubei chryso-like virus 1 from the Anopheles mosquito in western Kenya. Virus Research, 339, Article ID 199266.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel strains of Culex flavivirus and Hubei chryso-like virus 1 from the Anopheles mosquito in western Kenya
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2024 (English)In: Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702, E-ISSN 1872-7492, Vol. 339, article id 199266Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surveillance of mosquito vectors is critical for early detection, prevention and control of vector borne diseases. In this study we used advanced molecular tools, such as DNA barcoding in combination with novel sequencing technologies to discover new and already known viruses in genetically identified mosquito species. Mosquitoes were captured using BG sentinel traps in Western Kenya during May and July 2019, and homogenized individually before pooled into groups of ten mosquitoes. The pools and individual samples were then used for molecular analysis and to infect cell cultures. Of a total of fifty-four (54) 10-pools, thirteen (13) showed cytopathic effect (CPE) on VeroB4 cells, eighteen (18) showed CPE on C6/36 cells. Eight (8) 10-pools out of the 31 CPE positive pools showed CPE on both VeroB4 and C6/36 cells. When using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Sanger sequencing and Twist Comprehensive Viral Research Panel (CVRP) (Twist Biosciences), all pools were found negative by RT-PCR when using genus specific primers targeting alphaviruses, orthobunyaviruses and virus specific primers towards o'nyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus and Sindbis virus (previously reported to circulate in the region). Interestingly, five pools were RT-PCR positive for flavivirus. Two of the RT-PCR positive pools showed CPE on both VeroB4 and C6/36 cells, two pools showed CPE on C6/36 cells alone and one pool on VeroB4 cells only. Fifty individual mosquito homogenates from the five RT-PCR positive 10-pools were analyzed further for flavivirus RNA. Of these, 19 out of the 50 individual mosquito homogenates indicated the presence of flavivirus RNA. Barcoding of the flavivirus positive mosquitoes revealed the mosquito species as Aedes aegypti (1), Mansonia uniformis (6), Anopheles spp (3), Culex pipiens (5), Culex spp (1), Coquilletidia metallica (2) and Culex quinquefasciatus (1). Of the 19 flavivirus positive individual mosquitoes, five (5) virus positive homogenates were sequenced. Genome sequences of two viruses were completed. One was identified as the single-stranded RNA Culex flavivirus and the other as the double-stranded RNA Hubei chryso-like virus 1. Both viruses were found in the same Anopheles spp. homogenate extracted from a sample that showed CPE on both VeroB4 and C6/36 cells. The detection of both viruses in a single mosquito homogenate indicated coinfection. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the Culex flavivirus sequence detected was closely related to a Culex flavivirus isolated from Uganda in 2008. All four Hubei chryso-like virus 1 segments clusters closely to Hubei chryso-like virus 1 strains isolated in Australia, China and USA. Two novel strains of insect-specific viruses in Anopheles mosquitoes were detected and characterized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Anopheles spp, Culex flavivirus, Hubei chryso-like virus 1, mosquito-borne viruses, Next generation target enrichment protocol, Western Kenya
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217457 (URN)10.1016/j.virusres.2023.199266 (DOI)2-s2.0-85176373416 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-05607
Available from: 2023-12-05 Created: 2023-12-05 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
Wigren, J., Vikström, L., Rosendal, E., Gröning, R., Gwon, Y.-D., Nilsson, E., . . . Forsell, M. N. E. (2023). At-home sampling to meet geographical challenges for serological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a rural region of northern Sweden, March to May 2021: a retrospective cohort study. Eurosurveillance, 28(13), Article ID 2200432.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>At-home sampling to meet geographical challenges for serological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a rural region of northern Sweden, March to May 2021: a retrospective cohort study
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2023 (English)In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 28, no 13, article id 2200432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted a need for easy and safe blood sampling in combination with accurate serological methodology. Venipuncture for testing is usually performed by trained staff at healthcare centres. Long travel distances to healthcare centres in rural regions may introduce a bias of testing towards relatively large communities with closer access. Rural regions are therefore often not represented in population-based data.

Aim: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to develop and implement a strategy for at-home testing in a rural region of Sweden during spring 2021, and to evaluate its role to provide equal health care for its inhabitants.

Methods: We developed a sensitive method to measure antibodies to the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and optimised this assay for clinical use together with a strategy of at-home capillary blood sampling.

Results: We demonstrated that our ELISA gave comparable results after analysis of capillary blood or serum from SARS-CoV-2-experienced individuals. We demonstrated stability of the assay under conditions that reflected temperature and humidity during winter or summer. By assessment of capillary blood samples from 4,122 individuals, we could show both feasibility of the strategy and that implementation shifted the geographical spread of testing in favour of rural areas.

Conclusion: Implementation of at-home sampling enabled citizens living in remote rural areas access to centralised and sensitive laboratory antibody tests. The strategy for testing used here could therefore enable disease control authorities to get rapid access to information concerning immunity to infectious diseases, even across vast geographical distance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), 2023
Keywords
coronavirus disease (COVID-19), laboratory, surveillance, Sweden
National Category
Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206673 (URN)10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.13.2200432 (DOI)000971868200003 ()36995373 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151573640 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-14 Created: 2023-04-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Mosomtai, G., Kasiiti, J., Murithi, R., Sandström, P., Landmann, T., Lwande, O., . . . Ottavianelli, G. (2023). Characterizing movement patterns of nomadic pastoralists and their exposure to rift valley fever in Kenya. In: O. Altan; F. Sunar; D. Klein (Ed.), The international archives of the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information sciences: . Paper presented at 39th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, ISRSE 2023, Antalya, Turkey, April 24-28, 2023 (pp. 211-216). Copernicus GmbH, XLVIII-M-1-2023
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing movement patterns of nomadic pastoralists and their exposure to rift valley fever in Kenya
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2023 (English)In: The international archives of the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information sciences / [ed] O. Altan; F. Sunar; D. Klein, Copernicus GmbH , 2023, Vol. XLVIII-M-1-2023, p. 211-216Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The role of animal movement in spreading infectious diseases is highly recognized by various legislations and institutions such as the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Animal Health Code. The increased interactions at the nexus of human-animal-ecosystem interface have seen an unprecedented introduction and reintroduction of new zoonotic diseases with high socio-economic impacts such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that affects both humans and animals and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes or through contact with the body fluids of infected animals. This study seeks to characterize movement patterns of pastoralist and how this movement behaviour increases their susceptibility to RVF virus exposure. We levarage on a rapidly growing field of movement ecology to monitor five herds collared from 2013 - 2015 in an RVF endemic semi-arid region in Kenya. The herds were also sampled for RVF antibodies to assess their exposure to RVF virus during the rainy seasons. adehabitatLT package in R was used to analyze the trajectory data whereas the first passage time (FPT) analysis was used to measure the area utilized in grazing. Sedentary herds grazed within 15km radius while migrating herds presented restricted space use patterns during the dry seasons and transient movement during the start and end of the rainy season. Furthermore, RVF virus antibodies were generally low for sedentary herds whereas the migrating herds recorded high levels during their transition periods. This study can be used to identify RVF risk zones for timely and targeted management strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus GmbH, 2023
Series
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, ISSN 1682-1750, E-ISSN 2194-9034
Keywords
Mosquito vectors, Movement ecology, Nomadic pastoralism, Rift Valley fever, Seroprevalence
National Category
Pathobiology Infectious Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208260 (URN)10.5194/isprs-archives-XLVIII-M-1-2023-211-2023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85156234877 (Scopus ID)
Conference
39th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, ISRSE 2023, Antalya, Turkey, April 24-28, 2023
Funder
The European Space Agency (ESA)Swedish Research Council, 2013-06257Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2011-016
Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
Wilkman, L., Ahlm, C., Evander, M. & Lwande, O. W. (2023). Mosquito-borne viruses causing human disease in Fennoscandia - Past, current, and future perspectives. Frontiers in Medicine, 10, Article ID 1152070.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mosquito-borne viruses causing human disease in Fennoscandia - Past, current, and future perspectives
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Medicine, E-ISSN 2296-858X, Vol. 10, article id 1152070Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Five different mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses) significant to human disease are known to be endemic to Fennoscandia (Sindbis virus, Inkoo virus, Tahyna virus, Chatanga virus, and Batai virus). However, the incidence of mosquito-borne virus infections in Fennoscandia is unknown, largely due to underdiagnosing and lack of surveillance efforts. The Fennoscandian moboviruses are difficult to prevent due to their method of transmission, and often difficult to diagnose due to a lack of clear case definition criteria. Thus, many cases are likely to be mis-diagnosed, or even not diagnosed at all. Significant long-term effects, often in the form of malaise, rashes, and arthralgia have been found for some of these infections. Research into mobovirus disease is ongoing, though mainly focused on a few pathogens, with many others neglected. With moboviruses found as far north as the 69th parallel, studying mosquito-borne disease occurring in the tropics is only a small part of the whole picture. This review is written with the objective of summarizing current medically relevant knowledge of moboviruses occurring in Fennoscandia, while highlighting what is yet unknown and possibly overlooked.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
arbovirus, epidemiology, Fennoscandia, mobovirus, mosquito-borne virus, Sindbis virus
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206955 (URN)10.3389/fmed.2023.1152070 (DOI)000966309500001 ()2-s2.0-85152536431 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2020-01056Umeå UniversitySwedish Research Council, 2019-00773
Available from: 2023-04-26 Created: 2023-04-26 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Vikström, L., Fjällström, P., Gwon, Y.-D., Sheward, D. J., Wigren-Byström, J., Evander, M., . . . Forsell, M. N. E. (2023). Vaccine-induced correlate of protection against fatal COVID-19 in older and frail adults during waves of neutralization-resistant variants of concern: an observational study. The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, 30, Article ID 100646.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vaccine-induced correlate of protection against fatal COVID-19 in older and frail adults during waves of neutralization-resistant variants of concern: an observational study
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2023 (English)In: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 30, article id 100646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: To inform future preventive measures including repeated vaccinations, we have searched for a clinically useful immune correlate of protection against fatal COVID-19 among nursing homes residents.

Methods: We performed repeated capillary blood sampling with analysis of S-binding IgG in an open cohort of nursing home residents in Sweden. We analyzed immunological and registry data from 16 September 2021 to 31 August 2022 with follow-up of deaths to 30 September 2022. The study period included implementation of the 3rd and 4th mRNA monovalent vaccine doses and Omicron virus waves.

Findings: A total of 3012 nursing home residents with median age 86 were enrolled. The 3rd mRNA dose elicited a 99-fold relative increase of S-binding IgG in blood and corresponding increase of neutralizing antibodies. The 4th mRNA vaccine dose boosted levels 3.8-fold. Half-life of S-binding IgG was 72 days. A total 528 residents acquired their first SARS-CoV-2 infection after the 3rd or the 4th vaccine dose and the associated 30-day mortality was 9.1%. We found no indication that levels of vaccine-induced antibodies protected against infection with Omicron VOCs. In contrast, the risk of death was inversely correlated to levels of S-directed IgG below the 20th percentile. The death risk plateaued at population average above the lower 35th percentile of S-binding IgG.

Interpretation: In the absence of neutralizing antibodies that protect from infection, quantification of S-binding IgG post vaccination may be useful to identify the most vulnerable for fatal COVID-19 among the oldest and frailest. This information is of importance for future strategies to protect vulnerable populations against neutralization resistant variants of concern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Correlate of protection, COVID-19, Immune monitoring of vulnerable populations, Longevity of vaccination, Open cohort study, Vaccination, Vulnerable population
National Category
Infectious Medicine Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208263 (URN)10.1016/j.lanepe.2023.100646 (DOI)2-s2.0-85156247971 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilScience for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLabKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationVinnovaSwedish Association of Local Authorities and RegionsFamiljen Erling-Perssons Stiftelse
Available from: 2023-05-24 Created: 2023-05-24 Last updated: 2023-07-14Bibliographically approved
Mutsaers, M., Engdahl, C., Wilkman, L., Ahlm, C., Evander, M. & Lwande, O. W. (2023). Vector competence of Anopheles stephensi for O'nyong-nyong virus: a risk for global virus spread. Parasites & Vectors, 16(1), Article ID 133.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vector competence of Anopheles stephensi for O'nyong-nyong virus: a risk for global virus spread
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2023 (English)In: Parasites & Vectors, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus causing sporadic outbreaks of febrile illness with rash and polyarthralgia. Up to now, ONNV has been restricted to Africa and only two competent vectors have been found, Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus, which are also known malaria vectors. With globalization and invasive mosquito species migrating to ONNV endemic areas, there is a possible risk of introduction of the virus to other countries and continents. Anopheles stephensi, is closely related to An. gambiae and one of the invasive mosquito species of Asian origin that is now present in the Horn of Africa and spreading further east. We hypothesize that An. stephensi, a known primary urban malaria vector, may also serve as a new possible vector for ONNV.

METHODS: One-week-old female adult An. stephensi were exposed to ONNV-infected blood, and the vector competence for ONNV, i.e. infection rates (IRs), dissemination rates (DRs), transmission rates (TRs), dissemination efficiency (DEs) and transmission efficiency (TEs), were evaluated. Infection (IRs), dissemination efficiency (DEs) and transmission efficiency (TEs) were determined. Detection of ONNV RNA was analysed by RT-qPCR in the thorax and abdomen, head, wings, legs and saliva of the infected mosquitoes at four different time points, day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after blood meal. Infectious virus in saliva was assessed by infection of Vero B4 cells.

RESULTS: The mean mortality across all sampling times was 27.3% (95 confidence interval [CI] 14.7-44.2%). The mean rate of infection across all sampling periods was 89.5% (95% CI 70.6-95.9). The mean dissemination rate across sampling intervals was 43.4% (95% CI 24.3-64.2%). The mean TR and TE across all mosquito sampling time intervals were 65.3 (95% CI 28.6-93.5) and 74.6 (95% CI 52.1-89.4). The IR was 100%, 79.3%, 78.6% and 100% respectively at 7, 14, 21 and 28 dpi. The DR was the highest at 7 dpi with 76.0%, followed by 28 dpi at 57.1%, 21 dpi at 27.3% and 14 dpi at the lowest DR of 13.04%. DE was 76%, 13.8%, 25%, 57.1% and TR was 79%, 50%, 57.1% and 75% at 7, 14, 21 and 28 dpi respectively. The TE was the highest at 28 dpi, with a proportion of 85.7%. For 7, 14 and 21 dpi the transmission efficiency was 72.0%, 65.5% and 75.0% respectively.

CONCLUSION: Anopheles stephensi is a competent vector for ONNV and being an invasive species spreading to different parts of the world will likely spread the virus to other regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023
Keywords
Alphavirus, Anopheles stephensi, Arthritis, O’nyong-nyong virus, Vector competence
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206949 (URN)10.1186/s13071-023-05725-0 (DOI)000974116700002 ()37069603 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152669362 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-27 Created: 2023-04-27 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lwande, O. W., Thalin, T., de Jong, J., Sjödin, A., Näslund, J., Evander, M. & Ecke, F. (2022). Alphacoronavirus in a Daubenton’s Myotis Bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Sweden. Viruses, 14(3), Article ID 556.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alphacoronavirus in a Daubenton’s Myotis Bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Viruses, E-ISSN 1999-4915, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated a search for reservoirs and species potentially involved in back and forth transmission. Studies have postulated bats as one of the key reservoirs of coronaviruses (CoVs), and different CoVs have been detected in bats. So far, CoVs have not been found in bats in Sweden and we therefore tested whether they carry CoVs. In summer 2020, we sampled a total of 77 adult bats comprising 74 Myotis daubentonii, 2 Pipistrellus pygmaeus, and 1 M. mystacinus bats in southern Sweden. Blood, saliva and feces were sampled, processed and subjected to a virus next-generation sequencing target enrichment protocol. An Alphacoronavirus was detected and sequenced from feces of a M. daubentonii adult female bat. Phylogenetic analysis of the almost complete virus genome revealed a close relationship with Finnish and Danish strains. This was the first finding of a CoV in bats in Sweden, and bats may play a role in the transmission cycle of CoVs in Sweden. Focused and targeted surveillance of CoVs in bats is warranted, with consideration of potential conflicts between public health and nature conservation required as many bat species in Europe are threatened and protected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
Bats, Coronavirus, Myotis daubentonii, Pipistrellus pygmaeus, Sweden
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193321 (URN)10.3390/v14030556 (DOI)000774647500001 ()2-s2.0-85126338953 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Helge Ax:son Johnsons stiftelse , F21-0215Stiftelsen Längmanska kulturfonden, BA20-0676Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 2020-00093Swedish Research Council, 2017-05607
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Sipari, S., Khalil, H., Magnusson, M., Evander, M., Hörnfeldt, B. & Ecke, F. (2022). Climate change accelerates winter transmission of a zoonotic pathogen. Ambio, 51(3), 508-517
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate change accelerates winter transmission of a zoonotic pathogen
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2022 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 508-517Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many zoonotic diseases are weather sensitive, raising concern how their distribution and outbreaks will be affected by climate change. At northern high latitudes, the effect of global warming on especially winter conditions is strong. By using long term monitoring data (1980–1986 and 2003–2013) from Northern Europe on temperature, precipitation, an endemic zoonotic pathogen (Puumala orthohantavirus, PUUV) and its reservoir host (the bank vole, Myodes glareolus), we show that early winters have become increasingly wet, with a knock-on effect on pathogen transmission in its reservoir host population. Further, our study is the first to show a climate change effect on an endemic northern zoonosis, that is not induced by increased host abundance or distribution, demonstrating that climate change can also alter transmission intensity within host populations. Our results suggest that rainy early winters accelerate PUUV transmission in bank voles in winter, likely increasing the human zoonotic risk in the North.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Climate change, Myodes glareolus, North, Puumala orthohantavirus, Winter, Zoonosis
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186174 (URN)10.1007/s13280-021-01594-y (DOI)000670151800002 ()34228253 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85109284621 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00578, 2017-00867Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Available from: 2021-07-16 Created: 2021-07-16 Last updated: 2022-07-08Bibliographically approved
Abdelrahim, N. A., Mohamed, N., Evander, M., Ahlm, C. & Fadl-Elmula, I. M. (2022). Human herpes virus type-6 is associated with central nervous system infections in children in Sudan. African Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 11(1), Article ID a1718.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human herpes virus type-6 is associated with central nervous system infections in children in Sudan
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2022 (English)In: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 2225-2002, E-ISSN 2225-2010, Vol. 11, no 1, article id a1718Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Human herpes virus type-6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognised as a febrile agent in children. However, less is known in sub-Saharan African countries, including Sudan.

Objective: We investigated the involvement of HHV-6 in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) infections in Khartoum, Sudan.

Methods: Febrile patients aged up to 15 years with suspected CNS infections at Omdurman Hospital for Children from 01 December 2009 to 01 August 2010 were included. Viral DNA was extracted from leftover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and quantitatively amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at Umeå University in Sweden.

Results: Of 503 CSF specimens, 13 (2.6%) were positive for HHV-6 (33.0% [13/40 of cases with proven infectious meningitis]). The median thermal cycle threshold for all HHV-6-positive specimens was 38 (range: 31.9-40.8). The median number of virus copies was 281.3/PCR run (1 × 105 copies/mL CSF; range: 30-44 × 103 copies/PCR run [12 × 103 - 18 × 106 copies/mL CSF]). All positive patients presented with fever and vomiting; 86.0% had seizures. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1; 50.0% were toddlers, 42.0% infants and 8.0% teenagers. Most (83.0%) were admitted in the dry season and 17.0% in the rainy season. Cerebrospinal fluid leukocytosis was seen in 33.0%, CSF glucose levels were normal in 86.0% and low in 14.0%, and CSF protein levels were low in 14.0% and high in 43.0%.

Conclusion: Among children in Sudan with CNS infections, HHV-6 is common. Studies on the existence and spread of HHV-6 chromosomal integration in this population are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AOSIS, 2022
Keywords
aseptic meningitis, HHV-6, real-time PCR, viral meningitis, viral neuroinfections
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203121 (URN)10.4102/AJLM.V11I1.1718 (DOI)000872909300001 ()2-s2.0-85140376080 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-16 Created: 2023-01-16 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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