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Wiklund-Hörnqvist, CarolaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5523-490x
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Karlsson Wirebring, L., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Stillesjö, S., Granberg, C., Lithner, J., Andersson, M., . . . Jonsson, B. (2022). An fMRI intervention study of creative mathematical reasoning: behavioral and brain effects across different levels of cognitive ability. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 29, Article ID 100193.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An fMRI intervention study of creative mathematical reasoning: behavioral and brain effects across different levels of cognitive ability
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2022 (English)In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 29, article id 100193Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Many learning methods of mathematical reasoning encourage imitative procedures (algorithmic reasoning, AR) instead of more constructive reasoning processes (creative mathematical reasoning, CMR). Recent research suggest that learning with CMR compared to AR leads to better performance and differential brain activity during a subsequent test. Here, we considered the role of individual differences in cognitive ability in relation to effects of CMR.

Methods: We employed a within-subject intervention (N=72, MAge=18.0) followed by a brain-imaging session (fMRI) one week later. A battery of cognitive tests preceded the intervention. Participants were divided into three cognitive ability groups based on their cognitive score (low, intermediate and high).

Results: On mathematical tasks previously practiced with CMR compared to AR we observed better performance, and higher brain activity in key regions for mathematical cognition such as left angular gyrus and left inferior/middle frontal gyrus. The CMR-effects did not interact with cognitive ability, albeit the effects on performance were driven by the intermediate and high cognitive ability groups.

Conclusions: Encouraging pupils to engage in constructive processes when learning mathematical reasoning confers lasting learning effects on brain activation, independent of cognitive ability. However, the lack of a CMR-effect on performance for the low cognitive ability group suggest future studies should focus on individualized learning interventions, allowing more opportunities for effortful struggle with CMR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Angular gyrus, fMRI, Individual differences, Intervention, Mathematical reasoning, Problem solving
National Category
Neurosciences Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200872 (URN)10.1016/j.tine.2022.100193 (DOI)000891628800003 ()2-s2.0-85140885425 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-2099
Available from: 2022-11-09 Created: 2022-11-09 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Levlin, M., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Sandgren, O., Karlsson, S. & Jonsson, B. (2022). Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 53(2), 542-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder
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2022 (English)In: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, ISSN 0161-1461, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 542-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school.

Method: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (Mage = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1–2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition.

Results: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words.

Conclusions: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP,whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to be-learned material (Tier 2 words).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2022
Keywords
developmental language disorder, vocabulary instruction, retrieval-based word learning
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
language teaching and learning; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193294 (URN)10.1044/2021_LSHSS-21-00101 (DOI)000781636800018 ()35320680 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128488862 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-2099
Available from: 2022-03-25 Created: 2022-03-25 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Stillesjö, S., Andersson, M., Jonsson, B. & Nyberg, L. (2022). Retrieval Practice Is Effective Regardless of Self-Reported Need for Cognition - Behavioral and Brain Imaging Evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article ID 797395.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retrieval Practice Is Effective Regardless of Self-Reported Need for Cognition - Behavioral and Brain Imaging Evidence
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 797395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an emerging consensus that retrieval practice is a powerful way to enhance long-term retention and to reduce achievement gaps in school settings. Less is known whether retrieval practice benefits performance in individuals with low intrinsic motivation to spend time and effort on a given task, as measured by self-reported need for cognition (NFC). Here, we examined retrieval practice in relation to individual differences in NFC by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Using a within-subject design, upper-secondary school students (N = 274) learned a language-based material (Swahili-Swedish word-pairs), with half of the items by means of retrieval practice with feedback and half by study only. One week later, the students were tested on the word-pairs either in the classroom (n = 204), or in a fMRI scanner (n = 70). In both settings, a retrieval practice effect was observed across different levels of NFC (high or low). Relatedly, comparable fMRI effects were seen in both NFC subgroups. Taken together, our findings provide behavioral and brain-imaging evidence that retrieval practice is effective also for individuals with lower levels of NFC, which is of direct relevance for educational practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
Multidisciplinary, retrieval practice, testing effect, need for cognition (NFC), learning and memory, fMRI, classroom
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences Educational Sciences
Research subject
Psychology; biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192342 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2021.797395 (DOI)000760859000001 ()35222156 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125176134 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-2099Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2015.0277
Available from: 2022-02-10 Created: 2022-02-10 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, B., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Stenlund, T., Andersson, M. & Nyberg, L. (2021). A learning method for all: The testing effect is independent of cognitive ability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(5), 972-985
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A learning method for all: The testing effect is independent of cognitive ability
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 113, no 5, p. 972-985Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The testing effect, defined as the positive effect of retrieval practice (i.e., self-testing) on long-term memory retention relative to other ways to support learning, is a robust empirical phenomenon. Despite substantial scientific evidence for the testing effect, less is known about its effectiveness in relation to individual differences in cognitive ability. In the present study, we examine whether the effect of retrieval practice is beneficial independent of cognitive ability using behavioral and brain imaging data. In a within-subject design, upper-secondary students learned Swahili–Swedish word pairs through retrieval practice and study. The testing effects were assessed at a direct test and for a subsample after 1- and 4-weeks retention intervals, respectively. Another subsample performed the 1-week retention test during functional MRI (fMRI). Memory retention was analyzed in relation to an educationally relevant composite score dividing participants into low, intermediate, and high cognitive-ability groups. We provide behavioral evidence that the testing effect is independent of cognitive ability. The fMRI findings confirmed a general effectiveness of retrieval practice by showing that brain regions associated with successful retrieval of conceptual representations and semantic processing were more strongly engaged after retrieval practice in all cognitive-ability groups. It is argued that the advantages of retrieval practice should be conveyed to all teachers and students.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2021
Keywords
the testing effect, individual differences, learning, cognition, fMRI
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176365 (URN)10.1037/edu0000627 (DOI)000683461500007 ()2-s2.0-85091607398 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014 –2099
Available from: 2020-11-02 Created: 2020-11-02 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Stillesjö, S., Karlsson Wirebring, L., Andersson, M., Granberg, C., Lithner, J., Jonsson, B., . . . Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. (2021). Active math and grammar learning engages overlapping brain networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(46), Article ID e2106520118.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active math and grammar learning engages overlapping brain networks
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2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 118, no 46, article id e2106520118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here demonstrate common neurocognitive long-term memory effects of active learning that generalize over course subjects (mathematics and vocabulary) by the use of fMRI. One week after active learning, relative to more passive learning, performance and fronto-parietal brain activity was significantly higher during retesting, possibly related to the formation and reactivation of semantic representations. These observations indicate that active learning conditions stimulate common processes that become part of the representations and can be reactivated during retrieval to support performance. Our findings are of broad interest and educational significance related to the emerging consensus of active learning as critical in promoting good long-term retention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2021
Keywords
Multidisciplinary
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences Educational Sciences
Research subject
Psychology; biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189659 (URN)10.1073/pnas.2106520118 (DOI)000722462500012 ()2-s2.0-85119248707 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, V.R., grant no. 721-2014-2099
Available from: 2021-11-22 Created: 2021-11-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Bertilsson, F., Stenlund, T., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. & Jonsson, B. (2021). Retrieval Practice: Beneficial for All Students or Moderated by Individual Differences?. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 20(1), 21-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retrieval Practice: Beneficial for All Students or Moderated by Individual Differences?
2021 (English)In: Psychology Learning & Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Retrieval practice is a learning technique that is known to produce enhanced long-term memory retention when compared to several other techniques. This difference in learning outcome is commonly called “the testing effect”. Yet there is little research on how individual differences in personality traits and working memory capacity moderate the size of the retrieval-practice benefits. The current study is a conceptual replication of a previous study, further investigating whether the testing effect is sensitive to individual differences in the personality traits Grit and Need for Cognition, and working memory capacity. Using a within-subjects design (N = 151), participants practiced 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs (e.g., adhama–honor) through retrieval practice and re-studying. Learning was assessed at three time points: five minutes, one week, and four weeks after practice. The results revealed a significant testing effect at all three time points. Further, the results showed no association between the testing effect and the personality traits, or between the testing effect and working memory, at any time point. To conclude, retrieval practice seems to be a learning technique that is not moderated by individual differences in these specific personality traits or with working memory capacity, thus possibly beneficial for all students.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
retrieval practice, the testing effect, individual differences, personality traits, working memory capacity, testeffekten, individuella skillnader, personlighetsdrag, arbetsminneskapacitet
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177598 (URN)10.1177/1475725720973494 (DOI)000598809700001 ()2-s2.0-85096392466 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721- 2014-2099
Available from: 2020-12-14 Created: 2020-12-14 Last updated: 2023-10-02Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Stillesjö, S., Andersson, M., Jonsson, B. & Nyberg, L. (2021). Retrieval practice facilitates learning by strengthening processing in both the anterior and posterior hippocampus. Brain and Behavior, 11, Article ID e01909.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retrieval practice facilitates learning by strengthening processing in both the anterior and posterior hippocampus
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2021 (English)In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 11, article id e01909Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction and Methods: A large number of behavioral studies show that retrieval practice is a powerful way of strengthening learning of new information. Repeated retrieval might support long‐term retention in a quantitative sense by inducing stronger episodic representations or in a qualitative sense by contributing to the formation of more gist‐like representations. Here we used fMRI to examine the brain bases related to the learning effects following retrieval practice and provide imaging support for both views by showing increased activation of anterior and posterior hippocampus regions during a delayed memory test.

Results: Brain activity in the posterior hippocampus increased linearly as a function of number of successful retrievals during initial learning, whereas anterior hippocampus activity was restricted to items retrieved many but not few times during the learning phase.

Conclusion: Taken together, these findings indicate that retrieval practice strengthens subsequent retention via "dual action" in the anterior and posterior hippocampus, possibly reflecting coding of individual experiences as well as integration and generalization across multiple experiences. Our findings are of educational significance by providing insight into the brain bases of a learning method of applied relevance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
Memory and Learning, Hippocampus, Retrieval practice, the Testing Effect
National Category
Psychology Pedagogy Neurosciences
Research subject
Psychology; education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176280 (URN)10.1002/brb3.1909 (DOI)000580983300001 ()33094555 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85093506964 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-2099, 2016-07213
Available from: 2020-10-28 Created: 2020-10-28 Last updated: 2022-02-23Bibliographically approved
Nyroos, M., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C. & Löfgren, K. (2018). Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions
2018 (English)In: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 27, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Executive function (EF) skills are crucial for pupils' learning. Therefore, incorporating well-considered instructional strategies may reduce the EF demands placed on pupils with insufficient EF skills in the classroom. Hence, educators are critically positioned. In the present study, 303 student teachers answered the Mathematics Skills Questionnaire. The aim of the study was to (a) examine how student teachers rated the importance of EF skills and EF-related skills involved in pupils' learning and (b) investigate whether there were any differences in rating between regular student teachers and special needs student educators. The results of a two-way mixed ANOVA showed a significant main effect of skill in the total sample. Follow-up tests revealed that skills such as reasoning and proof, inhibition, shifting, and creativity were rated as more important when compared to other skills. Follow-up comparison of the significant interaction effect between skill and student teacher group revealed that the special needs student teachers regarded working memory skills as more important, while the regular student teachers rated EF-related skills that are grounded in core EF skills to have higher importance. The science of learning and its educational implications are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Working memory, Inhibition, Shifting, Special education
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141944 (URN)10.1016/j.tsc.2017.11.007 (DOI)000427552900001 ()2-s2.0-85033662762 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Andersson, M., Jonsson, B. & Nyberg, L. (2017). Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success. npj Science of learning, 2(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success
2017 (English)In: npj Science of learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

Keywords
test-enhanced learning, feedback, retrieval success, learning
National Category
Neurosciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology; education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142064 (URN)10.1038/s41539-017-0013-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061401416 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-2099
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2017-11-20 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Bertilsson, F., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Stenlund, T. & Jonsson, B. (2017). The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 16(3), 241-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Publishing Company, 2017
Keywords
retrieval practice, the testing effect, need for cognition; grit, working memory capacity, learning
National Category
Learning Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-139735 (URN)10.1891/1945-8959.16.3.241 (DOI)000416163800002 ()2-s2.0-85037048617 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-09-20 Created: 2017-09-20 Last updated: 2023-10-02Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5523-490x

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