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Nicoll, Rachel
Publications (10 of 53) Show all publications
Salvador, D., Liv, P., Norberg, M., Pahud de Mortanges, A., Saner, H., Glisic, M., . . . Näslund, U. (2023). Changes in fasting plasma glucose and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cohort study from VIPVIZA trial. Atherosclerosis, Article ID 117326.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in fasting plasma glucose and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cohort study from VIPVIZA trial
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2023 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, article id 117326Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Studies on the influence of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) on the development of carotid plaque (CP) and intima media thickness (CIMT) mainly focused on single FPG measures. We investigated whether changes in FPG (ΔFPG) are associated with incident CP and CIMT change (ΔCIMT) over time.

Methods: Analyses were based on information from 1896 participants from the VIPVIZA trial (Visualization of asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease for optimum cardiovascular prevention), with baseline and 3-year follow-up data on FPG, ultrasonographic CP (none or ≥1 lesion/s) and CIMT assessments. We studied the association between baseline FPG (prior to intervention) or 3-year ΔFPG (mmol/L) and incident CP (logistic regression) or ΔCIMT (linear regression). Analyses were adjusted for multiple potential confounders.

Results: 1896 and 873 individuals, respectively, were included in the analysis on incident CP and ΔCIMT. Participants were 60 years old at baseline and 61% and 54% were females, in the CP and CIMT analyses, respectively. Every mmol/L increase in FPG was associated with an increased odds of incident CP (odds ratio: 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17, 1.73), but there was no association with ΔCIMT (mean difference: 0.002 mm, 95% CI: −0.003, 0.008) after 3 years. Baseline FPG was not associated with incident CP nor ΔCIMT progression.

Conclusions: In middle-aged individuals with low to moderate risk for cardiovascular diseases, 3-year ΔFPG was positively associated with the risk of incident CP, but not with ΔCIMT. Single measures of FPG may not be sufficient in estimating cardiovascular risk among individuals with low to moderate risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Carotid intima media thickness, Carotid plaque, Fasting plasma glucose, Prevention, Subclinical atherosclerosis
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-216637 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2023.117326 (DOI)37932189 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85175522942 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 801076
Available from: 2023-11-16 Created: 2023-11-16 Last updated: 2024-04-26
Nicoll, R. & Henein, M. Y. (2022). COVID-19 prevention: vitamin D is still a valid remedy. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(22), Article ID 6818.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>COVID-19 prevention: vitamin D is still a valid remedy
2022 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 11, no 22, article id 6818Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201356 (URN)10.3390/jcm11226818 (DOI)000887641800001 ()36431297 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85142366503 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-07 Created: 2022-12-07 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
Henein, M. Y., Bytyci, I., Nicoll, R., Shenouda, R. B., Ayad, S., Cameli, M. & Vancheri, F. (2021). Combined Cardiac Risk Factors Predict COVID-19 Related Mortality and the Need for Mechanical Ventilation in Coptic Clergy. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(10), Article ID 2066.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Cardiac Risk Factors Predict COVID-19 Related Mortality and the Need for Mechanical Ventilation in Coptic Clergy
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 10, no 10, article id 2066Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: The clinical adverse events of COVID-19 among clergy worldwide have been found to be higher than among ordinary communities, probably because of the nature of their work. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cardiac risk factors on COVID-19-related mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation in Coptic clergy. Methods: Of 1570 Coptic clergy participating in the COVID-19-Clergy study, serving in Egypt, USA and Europe, 213 had the infection and were included in this analysis. Based on the presence of systemic arterial hypertension (AH), participants were divided into two groups: Group-I, clergy with AH (n = 77) and Group-II, without AH (n = 136). Participants’ demographic indices, cardiovascular risk factors, COVID-19 management details and related mortality were assessed. Results: Clergy with AH were older (p < 0.001), more obese (p = 0.04), had frequent type 2 diabetes (DM) (p = 0.001), dyslipidemia (p = 0.001) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (p = 0.04) compared to those without AH. COVID-19 treatment at home, hospital or in intensive care did not differ between the patient groups (p > 0.05 for all). Clergy serving in Northern and Southern Egypt had a higher mortality rate compared to those from Europe and the USA combined (5.22%, 6.38%, 0%; p = 0.001). The impact of AH on mortality was significant only in Southern Egypt (10% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.01) but not in Northern Egypt (4.88% vs. 5.81%; p = 0.43). In multivariate analysis, CHD OR 1.607 ((0.982 to 3.051); p = 0.02) and obesity, OR 3.403 ((1.902 to 4.694); p = 0.04) predicted COVID-19 related mortality. A model combining cardiac risk factors (systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 160 mmHg, DM, obesity and history of CHD) was the most powerful independent predictor of COVID-19-related mortality, OR 3.991 ((1.919 to 6.844); p = 0.002). Almost the same model also proved the best independent multivariate predictor of mechanical ventilation OR 1.501 ((0.809 to 6.108); p = 0.001). Conclusion: In Coptic clergy, the cumulative impact of risk factors was the most powerful predictor of mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
COVID-19, Coptic clergy, mortality, cardiovascular risk factors
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187654 (URN)10.3390/jcm10102066 (DOI)000654904200001 ()34065902 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85114064349 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-20 Created: 2021-09-20 Last updated: 2023-05-26Bibliographically approved
Henein, M. Y., Bytyci, I., Nicoll, R., Shenouda, R. B., Ayad, S., Vancheri, F. & Cameli, M. (2021). Obesity Strongly Predicts COVID-19-Related Major Clinical Adverse Events in Coptic Clergy. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(13), Article ID 2752.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obesity Strongly Predicts COVID-19-Related Major Clinical Adverse Events in Coptic Clergy
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Medicine, E-ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 10, no 13, article id 2752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: The Coptic clergy, due to their specific work involving interaction with many people, could be subjected to increased risk of infection from COVID-19. The aim of this study, a sub-study of the COVID-19-CVD international study of the impact of the pandemic on the cardiovascular system, was to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 among Coptic priests and to identify predictors of clinical adverse events. Methods: Participants were geographically divided into three groups: Group-I: Europe and USA, Group II: Northern Egypt, and Group III: Southern Egypt. Participants' demographic indices, cardiovascular risk factors, possible source of infection, number of liturgies, infection management, and major adverse events (MAEs), comprising death, or mechanical ventilation, were assessed. Results: Out of the 1570 clergy serving in 25 dioceses, 255 (16.2%) were infected. Their mean age was 49.5 +/- 12 years and mean weekly number of liturgies was 3.44 +/- 1.0. The overall prevalence rate was 16.2% and did not differ between Egypt as a whole and overseas (p = 0.23). Disease prevalence was higher in Northern Egypt clergy compared with Europe and USA combined (18.4% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.03) and tended to be higher than in Southern Egypt (18.4% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.09). Ten priests (3.92%) died of COVID-19-related complications, and 26 (10.2) suffered a MAE. The clergy from Southern Egypt were more obese, but the remaining risk factors were less prevalent compared with those in Europe and USA (p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, obesity (OR = 4.180; 2.479 to 12.15; p = 0.01), age (OR = 1.055; 0.024 to 1.141; p = 0.02), and systemic hypertension (OR = 1.931; 1.169 to 2.004; p = 0.007) predicted MAEs. Obesity was the most powerful independent predictor of MAE in Southern Egypt and systemic hypertension in Northern Egypt (p < 0.05 for both). Conclusion: Obesity is very prevalent among Coptic clergy and seems to be the most powerful independent predictor of major COVID-19-related adverse events. Coptic clergy should be encouraged to follow the WHO recommendations for cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
COVID-19, Coptic clergy, prevalence, major adverse events, obesity
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187298 (URN)10.3390/jcm10132752 (DOI)000671014500001 ()34206658 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85114066695 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-09-09 Created: 2021-09-09 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nicoll, R. (2021). Plaque collagen synthesis and calcification: working together to protect against instability and rupture. In: Michael Henein (Ed.), Cardiovascular calcification: (pp. 1-15). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plaque collagen synthesis and calcification: working together to protect against instability and rupture
2021 (English)In: Cardiovascular calcification / [ed] Michael Henein, Springer, 2021, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and often remains undetected until patients are hospitalised with a clinical event, with the Framingham risk score predicting only 60– 65% of individuals at intermediate risk, the group who comprise the majority of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. A systematic review carried out by the US Preventive Services Task Force concluded that the addition of a range of non-traditional risk factors would not improve traditional risk factor predictive ability for CVD morbidity and mortality, suggesting that there is still much to be learned about atherosclerosis. Arterial calcification, which has long been viewed as subclinical atherosclerosis, merely complicates the situation. While a high CT calcium score is predictive of the unstable angina and myocardial infarction (MI) of ACS, yet a calcified plaque is rarely the culprit plaque.

Little attempt has been made to acknowledge or resolve this paradox and knowledge gap. Moreover, numerous in vitro and animal studies have tried and failed to find the one unifying mechanism for the initiation and development of a pathogenic arterial calcification. Furthermore, much of the research into arterial calcification has focused on promotors and inhibitors of calcification, and while more of these are discovered with each passing year, it does not appear to lead towards an understanding of the root cause of arterial calcification or its purpose. This chapter puts forward the hypothesis that arterial calcification is ultimately a protective mechanism, whose development is closely bound up with collagen status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
Arterial calcification, Atherosclerotic plaque, Collagen degradation, Collagen synthesis, Collagen tripeptide, Collagenases, Endothelial injury, Healing response, Microcalcification, Statins
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-213611 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-81515-8_1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85141771854 (Scopus ID)9783030815158 (ISBN)9783030815141 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-08-29 Created: 2023-08-29 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Shenouda, R. B., Vancheri, S., Maria Bassi, E., Nicoll, R., Sobhi, M., El Sharkawy, E., . . . Henein, M. Y. (2021). The relationship between carotid and coronary calcification in patients with coronary artery disease. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 41(3), 271-280
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between carotid and coronary calcification in patients with coronary artery disease
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2021 (English)In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Atherosclerosis is a multi-system pathology with heterogeneous involvement. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence and severity of carotid and coronary calcification in a group of patients with coronary artery disease.

Methods: Sixty-three patients presenting with unstable angina or positive stress test for myocardial ischaemia were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scanning of the carotid and coronary arteries using the conventional protocol and Agatston scoring system. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were also analyzed for correlation with the extent of arterial calcification.

Results: Total coronary artery calcium score (CAC) was several times higher than total carotid calcium score (1274 (1018) vs 6 (124), p = 0·0001, respectively). The left carotid calcium score correlated strongly with the right carotid calcium score (rho = 0·69, p < 0·0001). The total CAC score correlated modestly with the total carotid calcium score (rho = 0·34, p = 0·007), in particular with left carotid score (rho = 0·38, p = 0·002), but not with the right carotid score. The left coronary calcium score correlated with the right coronary calcium score (rho = 0·35, p = 0·004), left carotid calcium score (rho = 0·33, p = 0·007) and left carotid calcium score at the bifurcation (rho = 0·34, p = 0·006). While hypertension correlated with carotid calcium score, diabetes and dyslipidaemia correlated with left CAC score.

Conclusion: In patients with coronary disease, the carotid calcification pattern appeared to be similar between the right and left system in contrast to that of the coronary arteries. CAC correlated only modestly with the carotid score, despite being significantly higher. Hypertension was related to carotid calcium score while diabetes and dyslipidaemia correlated with coronary calcification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
acute coronary syndrome, agatston score, carotid calcification, coronary calcification, CT scanning
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181553 (URN)10.1111/cpf.12694 (DOI)000621846300001 ()33583121 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85101659791 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-29 Created: 2021-03-29 Last updated: 2023-03-08Bibliographically approved
Nicoll, R. (2020). Sickness behavior may follow fracture as well as infection. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Health, 1, Article ID 100002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sickness behavior may follow fracture as well as infection
2020 (English)In: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Health, E-ISSN 2666-3546, Vol. 1, article id 100002Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sickness behavior, induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early stages of an infection, is well known. A case report of three fracture patients, who were not taking analgesic medication, suggests that the initial symptoms experienced, particularly fatigue and mood changes, mirror those of the sickness behavior of infection. A mini-review only found studies investigating one physical, mental or emotional symptom in fracture patients and none drew a parallel with sickness behavior, suggesting that this is a hitherto unrecognised phenomenon which would benefit from further investigation.

Keywords
Depression, Fatigue, Fracture, Sickness behavior
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-202919 (URN)10.1016/j.bbih.2019.100002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127686376 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-13 Created: 2023-01-13 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Nicoll, R. & Henein, M. Y. (2018). Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(3), Article ID 751.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Caloric Restriction and Its Effect on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability and Arterial Stiffness and Dilatation: A Review of the Evidence
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 751Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Essential hypertension, fast heart rate, low heart rate variability, sympathetic nervous system dominance over parasympathetic, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and poor flow-mediated arterial dilatation are all associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review of randomised controlled trials and other studies demonstrates that caloric restriction (CR) is capable of significantly improving all these parameters, normalising blood pressure (BP) and allowing patients to discontinue antihypertensive medication, while never becoming hypotensive. CR appears to be effective regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, weight, body mass index (BMI) or a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, but the greatest benefit is usually observed in the sickest subjects and BP may continue to improve during the refeeding period. Exercise enhances the effects of CR only in hypertensive subjects. There is as yet no consensus on the mechanism of effect of CR and it may be multifactorial. Several studies have suggested that improvement in BP is related to improvement in insulin sensitivity, as well as increased nitric oxide production through improved endothelial function. In addition, CR is known to induce SIRT1, a nutrient sensor, which is linked to a number of beneficial effects in the body.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
blood pressure, heart rate variability, arterial stiffness, flow-mediated dilatation, caloric restriction fasting
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-151188 (URN)10.3390/ijms19030751 (DOI)000428309800108 ()29518898 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043595673 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Zhao, Y., Nicoll, R., Diederichsen, A., Mickley, H., Ovrehus, K., Zamorano, J., . . . Henein, M. (2018). Coronary Calcification and Male Gender Predict Significant Stenosis in Symptomatic Patients in Northern and Southern Europe and the USA: A Euro-CCAD Study. International Cardiovascular Forum Journal, 13, 16-22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coronary Calcification and Male Gender Predict Significant Stenosis in Symptomatic Patients in Northern and Southern Europe and the USA: A Euro-CCAD Study
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2018 (English)In: International Cardiovascular Forum Journal, ISSN 2410-2636, Vol. 13, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Aims: Significant stenosis is the principal cause of stable angina but its predictors and their variation by geographical region are unclear.

Methods and Results: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (Euro-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 5515 symptomatic patients from northern Europe (Denmark, France, Germany), southern Europe (Italy, Spain) and USA. All had conventional cardiovascular risk factor assessment, angiography and CT scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. There were differences in the patient characteristics between the groups, with the USA patients being younger and having more diet and lifestyle-related risk factors, although hypertension may have been better controlled than in Europe. USA patients had a two-fold increase in prevalence of significant stenosis and a three-fold increase in median CAC score. In all three groups, the log CAC score proved to be the strongest predictor of >50% stenosis followed by male gender. In the USA group, there were no additional independently predictive risk factors, although in northern Europe obesity, hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolaemia remained predictive, with all risk factors other than hypertension proving to be predictive in the southern Europe group. Without the CAC score as a variable, male gender followed by diabetes were the most important predictors in all three regions, with hypertension also proving predictive in northern Europe.

Conclusion:  In symptomatic patients, the CAC score and male gender were the two most important predictors of significant stenosis in symptomatic patients in northern and southern Europe and the USA.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Barcaray Publishing, 2018
Keywords
Stenosis, coronary artery calcification, risk factors, geographical region
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Cardiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124924 (URN)10.17987/icfj.v13i0.487 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-08-30 Created: 2016-08-30 Last updated: 2021-04-16Bibliographically approved
Nicoll, R. (2018). Environmental contaminants and congenital heart defects: a re-evaluation of the evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(10), Article ID 2096.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental contaminants and congenital heart defects: a re-evaluation of the evidence
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 10, article id 2096Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a common birth defect of largely unknown etiology, with high fetal and neonatal mortality. A review of CHDs and environmental contaminant exposure found that meta-analyses showed only modest associations for smoking, vehicle exhaust components, disinfectant by-products and proximity to incinerators, with stronger results from the newer, larger and better quality studies masked by the typical absence of effect in older studies. Recent studies of exposure to agricultural pesticides, solvents, metals and landfill sites also showed associations. Certain contaminants have been associated with certain CHDs, with septal defects being the most common. Frequent methodological problems include failure to account for potential confounders or maternal/paternal preconception exposure, differences in diagnosing, defining and classifying CHDs, grouping of defects to increase power, grouping of contaminants with dissimilar mechanisms, exclusion of pregnancies that result in death or later life diagnosis, and the assumption that maternal residence at birth is the same as at conception. Furthermore, most studies use measurement estimates of one exposure, ignoring the many additional contaminant exposures in daily life. All these problems can distort and underestimate the true associations. Impaired methylation is a common mechanism, suggesting that supplementary folate may be protective for any birth defect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
congenital heart defects, environmental toxins, smoking, air pollution, disinfectant byproducts, waste tes, toxic metals, persistent organic pollutants, pesticides
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153665 (URN)10.3390/ijerph15102096 (DOI)000448818100038 ()30257432 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054535401 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
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