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Publications (10 of 67) Show all publications
Côté, M., Englund, G., Andersen, T., Hessen, D. O., Finstad, A. G., Bélanger, C. & Couture, R.-M. (2023). Towards modeling data-poor lakes at the regional scale using parameters from data-rich lakes and relationships to lake characteristics. Inland Waters, 13(3), 388-401
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards modeling data-poor lakes at the regional scale using parameters from data-rich lakes and relationships to lake characteristics
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2023 (English)In: Inland Waters, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 388-401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lakes pivotal for recreation and economically relevant activities are often remote and not well studied, which hinders the application of predictive lake models for their management. Here, we provide an approach to simulate—by means of the process-oriented model MyLake—water temperature, ice cover duration, dissolved oxygen, and light attenuation in 198 data-poor lakes based on parameters obtained for a subgroup of 12 data-rich lakes and morphometric data. Specifically, the model is first calibrated using a genetic algorithm on well-studied lakes. Simple relationships between the fitted parameters and lake-catchment morphometric properties are then derived, and the results of simulations using fitted and derived parameters are compared. The loss in goodness-of-fit, expressed as root mean square error (RMSE) incurred by using estimated rather than calibrated parameters, is 0.17 °C for water temperature and 0.82 mg L−1 for dissolved oxygen. These general relationships are then used to provide the model parameters for 198 data-poor lakes distributed throughout Sweden and to model these lakes. Overall, this proof of concept allows simulating lakes selected based on their relevance for lake management rather than based on the availability of extensive field datasets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
climate change impact, data-poor lakes, lake modeling, lakes, model calibration, oxythermal habitats
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221062 (URN)10.1080/20442041.2023.2265798 (DOI)001156530300001 ()2-s2.0-85184241145 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, 224779The Research Council of Norway, 221410
Available from: 2024-02-19 Created: 2024-02-19 Last updated: 2024-05-13Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Englund, G. & Jonsson, B.-G. (2022). Reply to Comment on 'Climate mitigation forestry - Temporal trade-offs' [Letter to the editor]. Environmental Research Letters, 17(4), Article ID 048002.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reply to Comment on 'Climate mitigation forestry - Temporal trade-offs'
2022 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 17, no 4, article id 048002Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2022
National Category
Environmental Sciences Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193716 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/ac57e7 (DOI)000767549100001 ()2-s2.0-85127071684 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-05-03 Created: 2022-05-03 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Skytt, T., Englund, G. & Jonsson, B.-G. (2021). Climate mitigation forestry-temporal trade-offs. Environmental Research Letters, 16(11), Article ID 114037.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate mitigation forestry-temporal trade-offs
2021 (English)In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 16, no 11, article id 114037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 1.5 ◦C target for global warming calls for evaluating short-term (30-50 years) climate change mitigation with different forests usage. In the current scientific literature and in the public debate, there are contrasting views on how forests should be managed to maximize total climate benefit, including the use of products and changes in carbon pools. Three major factors influence the conclusions in different studies: (a) time horizon, (b) site productivity, (c) substitution calculations. Here we show the dependency among these factors by an analysis of four harvest scenarios: 95%, 60%, 40% and 0% of growth, which are compared to a business as usual scenario (80%). The analyses are made for five counties in Sweden, which covers a wide range in forest productivities, from 2.5 m3 ha−1 yr−1 (north) to 11.5 m3 ha−1 yr−1 (south). The results show:

(a) Reduced harvest levels provide increased climate benefits on short time scales (at least 50 years).

(b) Increased harvesting from current level is counterproductive on both short and long term.

(c) The potential effect on the carbon balance of a no-harvest scenario in the five counties, is larger (1.1-16 times) than the expected emissions from all other anthropogenic activities until 2045.

(d) Short-term climate benefits of reduced harvesting are largest in highly productive forests. Smaller but more long-lasting benefits can be obtained by aiming at harvest reductions in less productive forests.

(e) Strategies focused on short-term benefits need to be adapted to the future development of substitution factors and forest growth. If substitution effects become higher, increased harvest levels will be beneficial after 2050 in high productive forests. However, if future substitution effects decrease, which is a plausible and desired development, low harvest strategies are preferred in both short- and long-term time perspectives.

We conclude that even moderate reductions of harvest levels would provide substantial climate benefits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021
Keywords
Boreal forest, Carbon balance, Carbon dioxide exchange, Climate benefit, CO2 balance, Substitution effect
National Category
Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190009 (URN)10.1088/1748-9326/ac30fa (DOI)000714436900001 ()2-s2.0-85119679371 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-12-01 Created: 2021-12-01 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Fall, J., Johannesen, E., Englund, G., Johansen, G. O. & Fiksen, Ø. (2021). Predator–prey overlap in three dimensions: cod benefit from capelin coming near the seafloor. Ecography, 44(5), 802-815
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predator–prey overlap in three dimensions: cod benefit from capelin coming near the seafloor
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2021 (English)In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 802-815Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spatial overlap between predator and prey is a prerequisite for predation, but the degree of overlap is not necessarily proportional to prey consumption. This is because many of the behavioural processes that precede ingestion are non-linear and depend on local prey densities. In aquatic environments, predators and prey distribute not only across a surface, but also vertically in the water column, adding another dimension to the interaction. Integrating and simplifying behavioural processes across space and time can lead to systematic biases in our inference about interaction strength. To recognise situations when this may occur, we must first understand processes underlying variation in prey consumption by individuals. Here we analysed the diet of a major predator in the Barents Sea, the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, aiming to understand drivers of variation in cod's feeding on its main prey capelin Mallotus villosus. Cod and capelin only partly share habitats, as cod mainly reside near the seafloor and capelin inhabit the free water masses. We used data on stomach contents from ~2000 cod individuals and their surrounding environment collected over 12 years, testing hypotheses on biological and physical drivers of variation in cod's consumption of capelin, using generalized additive models. Specifically, effects of capelin abundance, capelin depth distribution, bottom depth and cod abundance on capelin consumption were evaluated at a resolution scale of 2 km. We found no indication of food competition as cod abundance had no effect on capelin consumption. Capelin abundance had small effects on consumption, while capelin depth distribution was important. Cod fed more intensively on capelin when capelin came close to the seafloor, especially at shallow banks and bank edges. Spatial overlap as an indicator for interaction strength needs to be evaluated in three dimensions instead of the conventional two when species are partly separated in the water column.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
functional response, Gadus morhua, Mallotus villosus, predatory fish, predator–prey, spatial overlap, stomach contents, vertical distribution
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-180511 (URN)10.1111/ecog.05473 (DOI)000613569100001 ()2-s2.0-85100109340 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-18 Created: 2021-02-18 Last updated: 2021-07-08Bibliographically approved
Kanbar, H. J., Tran Le, T., Olajos, F., Englund, G. & Holmboe, M. (2021). Tracking mineral and geochemical characteristics of Holocene lake sediments: the case of Hotagen, west-central Sweden. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 21(9), 3150-3168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking mineral and geochemical characteristics of Holocene lake sediments: the case of Hotagen, west-central Sweden
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 3150-3168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Intact lake sediments reflect the development of terrestrial ecosystems. This development can be understood by decoding mineral and geochemical information of sedimentary archives. Therefore, we characterized a Holocene lake sediment core and revealed bulk to micro-scale variations via a combination of geochemical techniques and statistical methods.

Methods: A 2.3 m sediment core was collected from Hotagen, a lake in west-central Sweden; a sediment sample was collected every 5 cm. A part of each sediment sample was kept untreated (named bulk) and another part was size-fractionated into < 4, 4–16, 16–64, and > 64 µm subsamples. Characterization was then made with respect to grain size distribution (GSD), physico-chemical parameters, geochemical properties, organic composition, and mineralogy. The sediments were investigated at bulk, micro-, and elemental scales using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), and scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX).

Results: The deepest sediment was identified as glacial till dating back to the Late Pleistocene. The bulk sediments showed a clear distinction between 0–195 cm (unit 1, U1) and 200–225 cm (unit 2, U2) depths. Quartz and feldspar minerals decreased and organic matter and clay minerals increased from the till towards the lower limit of U1. The development in the sedimentary properties marked the transformation of the terrestrial ecosystem from glacier-covered land to vegetated areas. This development was also well reflected by the appearance of X-ray amorphous materials and the formation of distinct organo-mineral aggregates; chlorite was the predominant clay mineral in these aggregates. The geochemical variation between U2 and U1 sediments was further established by resolving the DRIFT spectral components through multivariate curve resolution alternating least square (MCR-ALS). The U1 sediments settled over a period of ~ 7500 years and showed comparable mineral, geochemical, and organic composition. However, the size-fractionated sediments, mainly < 4 µm, showed diverse mineral and geochemical composition. Indeed, these sediments were distinct by containing relatively higher amounts of X-ray amorphous materials and clay minerals, the latter had variable Na, Mg, and K contents.

Conclusion: The combined use of geochemical and statistical approaches used in this study followed the mineral and geochemical development of sediments that had settled during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Epochs. Finally, the U2 sediments marked the terrestrial ecosystem development that occurred during the late glaciation, deglaciation, and post-glaciation periods. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2021
Keywords
DRIFT, Ecosystem development, Post-glaciation, Sediment core, Size fraction, XRD
National Category
Geochemistry Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186576 (URN)10.1007/s11368-021-03012-y (DOI)000679014900001 ()2-s2.0-85111312144 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-12 Created: 2021-08-12 Last updated: 2022-01-12Bibliographically approved
Skaret, G., Johansen, G. O., Johnsen, E., Fall, J., Fiksen, O., Englund, G., . . . Johannesen, E. (2020). Diel vertical movements determine spatial interactions between cod, pelagic fish and krill on an Arctic shelf bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 638, 13-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diel vertical movements determine spatial interactions between cod, pelagic fish and krill on an Arctic shelf bank
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2020 (English)In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 638, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Predator-prey spatial interactions are essential to understand ecosystem processes like predation rates and trophic interaction strength. In marine systems, such spatial interactions are highly dynamic and difficult to observe, as predators, prey and resources are mobile and responsive to each other, and also since shifting vertical light gradients strongly affect the space use of visual predators and their prey. We visited a bank area in the northern Barents Sea with cold bottom waters (similar to 1 degrees C), and combined conventional trawl and acoustic sampling with broad-band hydroacoustics to obtain long-range, fine-scale observations of interactions between cod, their planktivore prey (capelin and polar cod) and krill. We caught cod in demersal trawl hauls but could not detect them with the vessel acoustics. However, broadband acoustics mounted on a submersible probe allowed us to track individual cod, revealing that they remained mostly within 10 m of the bottom throughout the diel cycle. In the morning, cod lifted slightly from the seabed indicating feeding activity, which corresponded with more fresh prey in cod stomachs in the morning. During daylight, krill pushed towards the bottom, sharing habitat with cod, while the planktivores aggregated in pelagic schools at the cost of lost feeding opportunities, overlapping with their hill prey only during twilight hours. The diel light cycle was an important driver of the spatial movements and aggregations, and krill appear to hide from capelin among the cod near bottom, while cod take advantage of descending pelagic fish after dawn to feed with a minimum of effort.

National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169869 (URN)10.3354/meps13254 (DOI)000521740400002 ()2-s2.0-85090534684 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-29 Created: 2020-04-29 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, G., Bodin, M., Nilsson, K. A., Öhlund, S.-O., Mobley, K. B., Hudson, A. G., . . . Englund, G. (2020). Ecological speciation in European whitefish is driven by a large-gaped predator. Evolution Letters, 4(3), 243-256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecological speciation in European whitefish is driven by a large-gaped predator
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2020 (English)In: Evolution Letters, E-ISSN 2056-3744, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 243-256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lake-dwelling fish that form species pairs/flocks characterized by body size divergence are important model systems for speciation research. Although several sources of divergent selection have been identified in these systems, their importance for driving the speciation process remains elusive. A major problem is that in retrospect, we cannot distinguish selection pressures that initiated divergence from those acting later in the process. To address this issue, we studied the initial stages of speciation in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) using data from 358 populations of varying age (26-10,000 years). We find that whitefish speciation is driven by a large-growing predator, the northern pike (Esox lucius). Pike initiates divergence by causing a largely plastic differentiation into benthic giants and pelagic dwarfs: ecotypes that will subsequently develop partial reproductive isolation and heritable differences in gill raker number. Using an eco-evolutionary model, we demonstrate how pike's habitat specificity and large gape size are critical for imposing a between-habitat trade-off, causing prey to mature in a safer place or at a safer size. Thereby, we propose a novel mechanism for how predators may cause dwarf/giant speciation in lake-dwelling fish species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
Body size, ecological speciation, gape size, predator, trade-off
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-171947 (URN)10.1002/evl3.167 (DOI)000533252100001 ()2-s2.0-85096179796 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-06-18 Created: 2020-06-18 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Kanbar, H. J., Olajos, F., Englund, G. & Holmboe, M. (2020). Geochemical identification of potential DNA-hotspots and DNA-infrared fingerprints in lake sediments. Applied Geochemistry, 122, Article ID 104728.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geochemical identification of potential DNA-hotspots and DNA-infrared fingerprints in lake sediments
2020 (English)In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 122, article id 104728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

DNA preserved in sedimentary materials can be used to study past ecosystem changes, such as species' colonization and extinction. It is believed that minerals, especially clay minerals, enhance the preservation of DNA. However, the role of minerals, as well as organic matter, on DNA sorption in heterogeneous sediments is still not clear. In this study, we examined the effect of mineral and organic matter on DNA binding in lake sediments. Bulk and size-fractionated sediments (0–4, 4–16, 16–64, and >64 μm), having different mineral and organic composition, were used to test DNA sorption; similar experiments were also run after the removal of sedimentary organic matter. Additionally, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) was used to determine the chemical changes caused by DNA sorption and subsequently produce a DNA-infrared (IR) fingerprint. Clay minerals were the main minerals to sorb DNA in the different samples. Moreover, mica promoted DNA sorption in all size fractions, while chlorite promoted DNA sorption in size fractions greater than 16 μm; clay-mineral and organo-mineral complexes caused a preference of certain clay minerals over others. Sedimentary organic matter affected DNA sorption by covering as well as by amplifying potential DNA binding sites, yet DNA sorption did not change significantly. DNA sorption showed IR spectral modifications mainly at ~1640, 1416, and 1231 cm−1. Interestingly, the DNA-IR fingerprint in the heterogeneous sediments was evident by those peaks after spectral subtraction. Finally, we proposed a simple model, based on sediment geochemistry, that can be used to determine potential DNA-hotspots in sediments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
DNA sorption, Sediment grain size, Mineralogy, Clay minerals, Organic matter
National Category
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177774 (URN)10.1016/j.apgeochem.2020.104728 (DOI)000587914200017 ()2-s2.0-85089741678 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations, JCK-1821
Available from: 2020-12-22 Created: 2020-12-22 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Englund, G., Öhlund, G., Olajos, F., Finstad, A., Bellard, C. & Hugueny, B. (2020). Holocene extinctions of a top predator: effects of time, habitat area and habitat subdivision. Journal of Animal Ecology, 89(5), 1202-1215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Holocene extinctions of a top predator: effects of time, habitat area and habitat subdivision
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 1202-1215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Loss of habitat and changes in the spatial configuration of habitats are major drivers of species extinctions, but the responses to these drivers differ between organisms. To advance theory on how extinction risk from different types of habitat alteration relates to species-specific traits, there is a need for studies of the long-term extinction dynamic of individual species. The goal of this study was to quantify how habitat area and the spatial configuration of habitats affect extinction rate of an aquatic top predator, the northern pike Esox lucius L. We recorded the presence/absence of northern pike in 398 isolated habitat fragments, each one consisting of a number of interconnected lakes. Time since isolation of the habitat fragments, caused by cut-off from the main dispersal source in the Baltic Sea, varied between 0 and 10,000 years. Using survival regression, we analysed how pike population survival was affected by time since isolation, habitat size and habitat subdivision. The approach builds on the assumptions that pike colonized all fragments before isolation and that current absences result from extinctions. We verified these assumptions by testing (a) if pike was present in the region throughout the entire time period when the lakes formed and (b) if pike typically colonize lakes that are formed today. We also addressed the likelihood that unrecorded anthropogenic introductions could bias our estimates of extinction rate. Our results supported the interpretation that current patterns of presence/absence in our study system are shaped by extinctions. Further, we found that time since isolation and fragment area had strong effects on pike population survival. In contrast, spatial habitat subdivision (i.e. if a fragment contained few large lakes or many small lakes) and other environmental covariates describing climate and productivity were unrelated to pike survival. Over all, extinction rate was high in young fragments and decreased sharply with increasing fragment age. Our study demonstrates how the link between extinction rate and habitat size and spatial structure can be quantified. More similar studies may help us find generalizations that can guide management of habitat size and connectivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
aquatic ecosystems, connectivity, extinction, fragmentation, habitat age, habitat area
National Category
Zoology Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168983 (URN)10.1111/1365-2656.13174 (DOI)000512817300001 ()31943165 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079448005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-27 Created: 2020-03-27 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Perrin, S. W., Englund, G., Blumentrath, S., O'Hara, R. B., Amundsen, P.-A. & Finstad, A. G. (2020). Integrating dispersal along freshwater ecosystems into species distribution models. Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, 26(11), 1598-1611
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating dispersal along freshwater ecosystems into species distribution models
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2020 (English)In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1598-1611Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Our ability to model species distributions and abundances is a valuable ecological tool in predicting future distributions of species. Effectively incorporating connectivity into these predictions is crucial; however, many connectivity measures utilize metrics which may not have a direct relation to the dispersal capacity of the species they are attempting to model. The identification of more relevant metrics is therefore a vital step forward in species distribution modelling.

Location: 85 freshwater lakes across a latitudinal gradient in Sweden, and an additional 282 freshwater lakes in one drainage basin in northern Norway.

Methods: To investigate the effect of different connectivity measures, we first record recolonization of fish into lakes previously treated with the piscicide rotenone. Two invasive fish species, the northern pike (Esox lucius) and the European perch (Perca fluviatilis), were used as focal study species. We model the distributions of these species in a drainage basin with snapshot data of present-day distributions to see how well the effects of the different connectivity measures correspond to the effects seen in our recolonization study. Connectivity is quantified using slope and distance along streams connecting lacustrine populations.

Results: The effects of connectivity variables were similar in both the recolonization study and the species distribution modelling. Incorporation of connectivity improved species distribution models significantly. There was little evidence for the inclusion of distance between populations, while there was strong evidence for the inclusion of different slope parameters for both species.

Main conclusions: Our study demonstrates the need to ensure the relevance of connectivity measures when accounting for dispersal limitation in distribution models. The correspondence of estimated connectivity measures from recolonization studies to those estimated from species distribution models demonstrates a link between species dispersal capacity and the connectivity measures employed, and is likely to improve our ability to predict species future distributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
connectivity, freshwater, invasion, JSDMs, pathway, slope
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-174889 (URN)10.1111/ddi.13112 (DOI)000563628300001 ()2-s2.0-85089996608 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-09-16 Created: 2020-09-16 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Projects
Spatial heterogeneity and predator-prey dynamics [2010-05318_VR]; Umeå UniversityFISHCON - Biodiversity scenarios for fragmentated landscapes; freshwater connectivity and the future of fish diversity [2012-1826_Formas]; Umeå UniversitySympatric speciation in action [2013-05110_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5634-8602

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