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Ryberg, Mats
Publications (10 of 42) Show all publications
Franklin, K. A., Lindberg, E., Svensson, J., Larsson, C., Lindahl, B., Mellberg, C., . . . Ryberg, M. (2022). Effects of a palaeolithic diet on obstructive sleep apnoea occurring in females who are overweight after menopause: a randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity, 46(10), 1833-1839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a palaeolithic diet on obstructive sleep apnoea occurring in females who are overweight after menopause: a randomised controlled trial
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2022 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 1833-1839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/Objectives: Obesity is the main risk factor for obstructive sleep apnoea, commonly occurring in females who are overweight after menopause. We aimed to study the effect of a palaeolithic diet on sleep apnoea in females with overweight after menopause from the population.

Methods: Seventy healthy, non-smoking females with a mean age of 60 years and a mean BMI of 33 kg/m2 were randomised to a palaeolithic diet or to a control low-fat diet according to Nordic Nutritional Recommendations, for 2 years. The apnoea-hypopnoea index was measured and daytime sleepiness was estimated during the intervention.

Results: The mean apnoea-hypopnoea index at baseline was 11.6 (95% CI 8.6–14.5). The mean weight loss was 7.2 kg (95% CI 5.3–9.2 kg) in the palaeolithic diet group and 3.9 kg in the control group (95% CI 1.9–5.9 kg); p < 0.021 for the group difference. The reduction in weight corresponded to a reduction in the apnoea-hypopnoea index in the palaeolithic diet group (r = 0.38, p = 0.034) but not in the control group (r = 0.08, p = 0.69). The apnoea-hypopnoea index was reduced in the palaeolithic diet group when the weight was reduced by more than 8 kg. Daytime sleepiness according to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale score was unaffected by dietary group allocation.

Conclusions: A substantial decrease in body weight of 8 kg was needed to achieve a reduction in sleep apnoea in this small trial of women who are overweight after menopause. The palaeolithic diet was more effective for weight reduction than a control low-fat diet and the reduction in sleep apnoea was related to the degree of weight decrement within this diet group.

Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00692536.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198343 (URN)10.1038/s41366-022-01182-4 (DOI)000829692700001 ()35879528 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85134643819 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Research CouncilForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareRegion Västerbotten
Available from: 2022-08-01 Created: 2022-08-01 Last updated: 2023-09-26Bibliographically approved
Chorell, E., Otten, J., Stomby, A., Ryberg, M., Waling, M., Hauksson, J., . . . Olsson, T. (2021). Improved peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity after lifestyle interventions in type 2 diabetes is associated with specific metabolomic and lipidomic signatures in skeletal muscle and plasma. Metabolites, 11(12), Article ID 834.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity after lifestyle interventions in type 2 diabetes is associated with specific metabolomic and lipidomic signatures in skeletal muscle and plasma
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2021 (English)In: Metabolites, ISSN 2218-1989, E-ISSN 2218-1989, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 834Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lifestyle interventions with weight loss can improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but mechanisms are unclear. We explored circulating and skeletal muscle metabolite signatures of altered peripheral (pIS) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (hIS) in overweight and obese T2D individuals that were randomly assigned a 12-week Paleolithic-type diet with (diet-ex, n = 13) or without (diet, n = 13) supervised exercise. Baseline and post-intervention measures included: mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and lipidomics of skeletal muscle and plasma; pIS and hIS; ectopic lipid deposits in the liver and skeletal muscle; and skeletal muscle fat oxidation rate. Both groups lowered BMI and total % fat mass and increased their pIS. Only the diet-group improved hIS and reduced ectopic lipids in the liver and muscle. The combined improvement in pIS and hIS in the diet-group were associated with decreases in muscle and circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolites, specifically valine. Improved pIS with diet-ex was instead linked to increased diacylglycerol (34:2) and triacylglycerol (56:0) and decreased phosphatidylcholine (34:3) in muscle coupled with improved muscle fat oxidation rate. This suggests a tissue crosstalk involving BCAA-metabolites after diet intervention with improved pIS and hIS, reflecting reduced lipid influx. Increased skeletal muscle lipid utilization with exercise may prevent specific lipid accumulation at sites that perturb insulin signaling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), Diacylglycerol (DAG), Diet, Ectopic fat, Exercise training, Hepatic insulin sensitivity (hIS), Peripheral insulin sensitivity (pIS), Skeletal muscle, Type 2 diabetes
National Category
Physiology Nutrition and Dietetics Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190949 (URN)10.3390/metabo11120834 (DOI)000735530300001 ()34940592 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85121572914 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations, JCK-1725Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20150553
Available from: 2022-01-05 Created: 2022-01-05 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Stomby, A., Waling, M., Chorell, E., Ryberg, M., Svensson, M. B., . . . Olsson, T. (2021). The liver-alpha-cell axis after a mixed meal and during weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Endocrine Connections, 10(9), 1101-1110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The liver-alpha-cell axis after a mixed meal and during weight loss in type 2 diabetes
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2021 (English)In: Endocrine Connections, E-ISSN 2049-3614, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 1101-1110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Glucagon and amino acids may be regulated in a feedback loop called the liver-alpha-cell axis with alanine or glutamine as suggested signal molecules. We assessed this concept in individuals with type 2 diabetes in the fasting state, after ingestion of a protein-rich meal, and during weight loss. Moreover, we investigated if postprandial glucagon secretion and hepatic insulin sensitivity were related.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a 12-week weight-loss trial (Paleolithic diet ± exercise) in 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Before and after the intervention, plasma glucagon and amino acids were measured in the fasting state and during 180 min after a protein-rich mixed meal. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was measured using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]glucose as a tracer.

Results: The postprandial increase of plasma glucagon was associated with the postprandial increase of alanine and several other amino acids but not glutamine. In the fasted state and after the meal, glucagon levels were negatively correlated with hepatic insulin sensitivity (rS = −0.51/r = −0.58, respectively; both P < 0.05). Improved hepatic insulin sensitivity with weight loss was correlated with decreased postprandial glucagon response (r = −0.78; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Several amino acids, notably alanine, but not glutamine could be key signals to the alpha cell to increase glucagon secretion. Amino acids may be part of a feedback mechanism as glucagon increases endogenous glucose production and ureagenesis in the liver. Moreover, postprandial glucagon secretion seems to be tightly related to hepatic insulin sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2021
Keywords
Amino acids, Glucagon, Hepatic insulin sensitivity, Mixed meal, Type 2 diabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-188157 (URN)10.1530/EC-21-0171 (DOI)000704561100017 ()2-s2.0-85115733491 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-07 Created: 2021-10-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Mårtensson, A., Stomby, A., Tellström, A., Ryberg, M., Waling, M. & Otten, J. (2021). Using a paleo ratio to assess adherence to paleolithic dietary recommendations in a randomized controlled trial of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 13(3), 1-15, Article ID 969.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a paleo ratio to assess adherence to paleolithic dietary recommendations in a randomized controlled trial of individuals with type 2 diabetes
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2021 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1-15, article id 969Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial using Paleolithic diet and exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that increased adherence to the Paleolithic diet was associated with greater effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and HbA1c independent of weight loss. Participants were asked to follow a Paleolithic diet for 12 weeks and were randomized to supervised exercise or general exercise recommendations. Four-day food records were analyzed, and food items characterized as “Paleolithic” or “not Paleolithic”. Foods considered Paleolithic were lean meat, poultry, fish, seafood, fruits, nuts, berries, seeds, vegetables, and water to drink; “not Paleolithic” were legumes, cereals, sugar, salt, processed foods, and dairy products. A Paleo ratio was calculated by dividing the Paleolithic calorie intake by total calorie intake. A mul-tiple regression model predicted the outcome at 12 weeks using the Paleo ratio, group affiliation, and outcome at baseline as predictors. The Paleo ratio increased from 28% at baseline to 94% after the intervention. A higher Paleo ratio was associated with lower fat mass, BMI, waist circumference, sys-tolic blood pressure, and serum triglycerides at 12 weeks, but not with lower HbA1c levels. The Paleo ratio predicted triglyceride levels independent of weight loss (p = 0.046). Moreover, an increased monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and an increased polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio was associated with lower triglyceride levels independent of weight loss. (p = 0.017 and p = 0.019 respectively). We conclude that a higher degree of adherence to the Paleolithic diet recommendations improved fat quality and was associated with improved triglyceride levels independent of weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Blood pressure, Dietary intervention, Paleolithic diet, Triglycerides, Type 2 diabetes, Weight loss
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181805 (URN)10.3390/nu13030969 (DOI)000633973400001 ()2-s2.0-85102600392 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Diabetesfonden, 2014-096Region Västerbotten, VLL-460481Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20120450Konung Gustaf V:s och Drottning Victorias Frimurarestiftelse
Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Stomby, A., Otten, J., Ryberg, M., Andrew, R., Walker, B. R. & Olsson, T. (2020). Diet-induced weight loss alters hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Endocrinology, 182(4), 447-457
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diet-induced weight loss alters hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus
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2020 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 182, no 4, p. 447-457Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Altered tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has been described in uncomplicated obesity and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that weight loss induced by diet and exercise, which has previously been shown to reverse abnormal cortisol metabolism in uncomplicated obesity, also normalizes cortisol metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Objective: Test the effects of a diet intervention with added exercise on glucocorticoid metabolism.

Design: Two groups followed a Paleolithic diet (PD) for 12 weeks with added 180 min of structured aerobic and resistance exercise per week in one randomized group (PDEX).

Setting: Umea University Hospital.

Participants: Men and women with type 2 diabetes treated with lifestyle modification +/- metformin were included. Twenty-eight participants (PD, n = 15; PDEX, n = 13) completed measurements of glucocorticoid metabolism.

Main outcome measures: Changes in glucocorticoid metabolite levels in 24-h urine samples, expression of HSD1181 mRNA in s.c. adipose tissue and conversion of orally administered cortisone to cortisol measured in plasma. Body composition and insulin sensitivity were measured using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Results: Both groups lost weight and improved insulin sensitivity. Conversion of orally taken cortisone to plasma cortisol and the ratio of 5 alpha-THF + 5 beta-THF/THE in urine increased in both groups.

Conclusions: These interventions caused weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity with concomitant increases in the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, which is an estimate of hepatic HSD11B1 activity. This suggests that dysregulation of liver glucocorticoid metabolism in these patients is a consequence rather than a cause of metabolic dysfunction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2020
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169468 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0901 (DOI)000520599800010 ()32069218 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081663190 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Bergman, F., Matsson-Frost, T., Jonasson, L. S., Chorell, E., Sörlin, A., Wennberg, P., . . . Boraxbekk, C.-J. (2020). Walking Time Is associated With Hippocampal Volume in Overweight and Obese Office Workers. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, Article ID 307.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Walking Time Is associated With Hippocampal Volume in Overweight and Obese Office Workers
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2020 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 14, article id 307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects on cognition and brain function after installing treadmill workstations in offices for 13 months.

Methods: Eighty healthy overweight or obese office workers aged 40–67 years were individually randomized to an intervention group, receiving a treadmill workstation and encouraging emails, or to a control group, continuing to work as usual. Effects on cognitive function, hippocampal volume, prefrontal cortex (PFC) thickness, and circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed. Further, mediation analyses between changes in walking time and light-intensity physical activity (LPA) on changes in BDNF and hippocampal volume between baseline and 13 months, and multivariate analyses of the baseline data with percentage sitting time as the response variable, were performed.

Results: No group by time interactions were observed for any of the outcomes. In the mediation analyses, positive associations between changes in walking time and LPA on changes in hippocampal volume were observed, although not mediated by changes in BDNF levels. In the multivariate analyses, a negative association between percentage sitting time and hippocampal volume was observed, however only among those older than 51 years of age.

Conclusion: Although no group by time interactions were observed, our analyses suggest that increased walking and LPA may have positive effects on hippocampal volume and that sedentary behavior is associated with brain structures of importance for memory functions.

Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01997970.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2020
Keywords
cognition, brain function, physical activity, sedentary behavior, office work, randomized cotrolled trail
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-174415 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2020.00307 (DOI)000566191600001 ()32973475 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85090298824 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västerbotten
Available from: 2020-08-24 Created: 2020-08-24 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Stomby, A., Salami, A., Dahlqvist, P., Evang, J. A., Ryberg, M., Bollerslev, J., . . . Ragnarsson, O. (2019). Elevated resting-state connectivity in the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex among patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. European Journal of Endocrinology, 180(5), 329-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated resting-state connectivity in the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex among patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 5, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Cushing's syndrome is associated with long-term cognitive deficits and affective symptoms such as depression and anxiety. The alterations in brain function under lying these deficits after Cushing's syndrome are unclear and therefore we aimed to explore alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission. Design: Cross-sectional case-control study. Methods: Nineteen women with Cushing's syndrome in remission for a median time of 7 years (IQR: 6-10) and a mean age of 45 years were included at three university clinics. These patients and 38 age-matched female controls underwent brain imaging at a single center. The main outcome measure was functional connectivity at rest, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex networks, exhibited elevated functional connectivity among patients compared to controls. The degree of elevated functional connectivity in the MTL was negatively associated with time in remission. Conclusions: Resting-state functional connectivity within glucocorticoid receptor-rich regions, particularly the MTL and medial prefrontal cortex, was increased in patients. These differences in connectivity may provide a neural basis for the cognitive deficits and affective symptoms commonly experienced by patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2019
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159205 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0028 (DOI)000466509100003 ()30939453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85066163811 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Andersson, J., Ståhl, J., Stomby, A., Saleh, A., Waling, M., . . . Olsson, T. (2019). Exercise Training Adds Cardiometabolic Benefits of a Paleolithic Diet in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, 8(2), Article ID e010634.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise Training Adds Cardiometabolic Benefits of a Paleolithic Diet in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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2019 (English)In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e010634Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The accumulation of myocardial triglycerides and remodeling of the left ventricle are common features in type 2 diabetes mellitus and represent potential risk factors for the development of diastolic and systolic dysfunction. A few studies have investigated the separate effects of diet and exercise training on cardiac function, but none have investigated myocardial changes in response to a combined diet and exercise intervention. This 12-week randomized study assessed the effects of a Paleolithic diet, with and without additional supervised exercise training, on cardiac fat, structure, and function.

Methods and Results: Twenty-two overweight and obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to either a Paleolithic diet and standard-care exercise recommendations ( PD ) or to a Paleolithic diet plus supervised exercise training 3 hours per week ( PD - EX ). This study includes secondary end points related to cardiac structure and function, ie, myocardial triglycerides levels, cardiac morphology, and strain were measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including proton spectroscopy, at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both groups showed major favorable metabolic changes. The PD - EX group showed significant decreases in myocardial triglycerides levels (-45%, P=0.038) and left ventricle mass to end-diastolic volume ratio (-13%, P=0.008) while the left ventricle end-diastolic volume and stroke volume increased significantly (+14%, P=0.004 and +17%, P=0.008, respectively). These variables were unchanged in the PD group.

Conclusions: Exercise training plus a Paleolithic diet reduced myocardial triglycerides levels and improved left ventricle remodeling in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01513798.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, diet, exercise, myocardial metabolism, type 2 diabetes mellitus
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-157046 (URN)10.1161/JAHA.118.010634 (DOI)000460105800010 ()30652528 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060171480 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Ryberg, M., Mellberg, C., Andersson, T., Chorell, E., Lindahl, B., . . . Olsson, T. (2019). Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women. European Journal of Endocrinology, 180(6), 417-427
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postprandial levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon after two years of weight loss with a Paleolithic diet: a randomized controlled trial in healthy obese women
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 6, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts on postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon.

METHODS: In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomized to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described.

RESULTS: In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months, and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34% and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group, and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The AUC for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the β-hydroxybutyrate increase.

CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2019
Keywords
glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose tolerance test, Paleolithic diet, weight loss
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158775 (URN)10.1530/EJE-19-0082 (DOI)000468743400012 ()31042670 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85066329068 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2006-0699Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2010-0398Swedish Research Council, K2011-12237-15-16Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Diabetes AssociationVästerbotten County Council
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Otten, J., Stomby, A., Waling, M., Isaksson, A., Söderström, I., Ryberg, M., . . . Olsson, T. (2018). A heterogeneous response of liver and skeletal muscle fat to the combination of a Paleolithic diet and exercise in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia, 61(7), 1548-1559
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A heterogeneous response of liver and skeletal muscle fat to the combination of a Paleolithic diet and exercise in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial
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2018 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1548-1559Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims/hypothesis: The aim of the study was to investigate ectopic fat deposition and insulin sensitivity, in a parallel single-blinded randomised controlled trial, comparing Paleolithic diet alone with the combination of Paleolithic diet and exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-two individuals with type 2 diabetes with BMI 25-40 kg/m(2) and 30-70 years of age followed a Paleolithic diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. In addition, study participants were randomised by computer program to either supervised combined exercise training (PD-EX group) or standard care exercise recommendations (PD group). Staff performing examinations and assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Thirteen participants were analysed in each group: hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were measured using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique combined with [6,6-H-2(2)]glucose infusion, and liver fat was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy; both analyses were secondary endpoints. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a secondary analysis. All examinations were performed at Umca University Hospital, Umca, Sweden. Results: Both study groups showed a median body weight loss of 7 kg. Fat mass decreased by 5.7 kg in the PD group and by 6.5 kg in the PD-EX group. Maximum oxygen uptake increased in the PD-EX group only. Liver fat showed a consistent reduction (74% decrease) in the PD group, while the response in the PD-EX group was heterogeneous (p < 0.05 for the difference between groups). IMCL content of the soleus muscle decreased by 40% in the PD group and by 22% in the PD-EX group (p < 0.05 for the difference between groups). Both groups improved their peripheral and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, but not their hepatic insulin sensitivity. Plasma fetuin-A decreased by 11% in the PD group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the PD-EX group. Liver fat changes during the intervention were correlated with changes in fetuin-A (r(S) = 0.63, p < 0.01). Participants did not report any important adverse events caused by the intervention. Conclusions/interpretation: A Paleolithic diet reduced liver fat and IMCL content, while there was a tissue-specific heterogeneous response to added exercise training.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Exercise, Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, Insulin sensitivity, Intramyocellular fat, Liver fat, Nutrition, Obesity, Paleolithic diet, Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Weight loss
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150764 (URN)10.1007/s00125-018-4618-y (DOI)000434250500007 ()29696296 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046029986 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
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