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Skog, S., Pettersson, F. & From, J. (2024). Facilitating learning and interaction in K-12 remote teaching contexts. Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating learning and interaction in K-12 remote teaching contexts
2024 (English)In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The use of a facilitator is a growing phenomenon in K-12 remote teaching contexts. The aim of this study is to analyse aspects of facilitating students’ learning and interaction, with a special focus on the role of the facilitator. Frame factor theory was used as an analytical framework, including different educational conditions. The following research questions were posed: (1) How do different frame factors condition remote teaching? (2) How do these frame factors influence the role of the facilitator in remote teaching? Data were generated from observations (12 h) and interviews with remote teachers and facilitators (N = 18). Results show that frame factors seem to create two types of classroom context that condition the role, task, and responsibility of the facilitator. In the larger classroom context, the facilitator was a threefold resource - practical, pedagogical, and social in an ongoing collaboration with the teacher, whereas in the small classroom context, the facilitator mainly was a practical resource when needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Facilitator, Frame factor theory, Distance, Online, Remote, Virtual
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221470 (URN)10.1007/s10639-024-12579-1 (DOI)001168870000004 ()2-s2.0-85187304670 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-23 Created: 2024-02-23 Last updated: 2024-07-15
From, J. & Pettersson, F. (2022). In Need of Development, Learning and Research?: On the Possibilities of a Common Point of Departure for Digital and Educational Development. Journal of Digital Social Research (JDSR), 4(2), 47-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Need of Development, Learning and Research?: On the Possibilities of a Common Point of Departure for Digital and Educational Development
2022 (English)In: Journal of Digital Social Research (JDSR), E-ISSN 2003-1998, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 47-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A growing body of initiatives aims to connect school improvement with external actors, such as universities, by means of networks and collaborative partnerships of different kinds. Simultaneously, many schools have difficulties in assessing or predicting their needs associated with the digitalization of a specific local school practice given their lack of existing tools to articulate those needs. This has made it difficult to study digitalization in a complementary and symmetrical way between academia and practice. In this study, we used a quantitative instrument to generate findings and development needs relevant to both research and school development. The instrument, which we distributed to all school leaders in one municipality, measures perceptions of three overall areas: (a) levels of digitalization, (b) organizational digital maturity, and (c) notions of leadership. The data shows, for example, that digitalization, in this municipality, was a concern or issue on an individual level. Achieving a more complex view of digitalization as school development—a collegial approach and mindset together with leadership and organization that focuses on strategy and common goals—appears to be a high priority for research and practice. To conclude, the results generated from the instrument used in this study can contribute to a shared understanding of the findings and the needs relevant to both research and school development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå University, 2022
Keywords
digitalization; digital technologies;organization; school leadership; school development.
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-195595 (URN)10.33621/jdsr.v4i2.110 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-05-31 Created: 2022-05-31 Last updated: 2022-06-02Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, F., From, J. & Lindberg, J. O. (2022). Special Issue: Theory and Practice in Remote Teaching, Online Learning, and Distance Education for K-12: [Special issue introduction]. Journal of Digital Social Research (JDSR), 4(2), 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special Issue: Theory and Practice in Remote Teaching, Online Learning, and Distance Education for K-12: [Special issue introduction]
2022 (English)In: Journal of Digital Social Research (JDSR), E-ISSN 2003-1998, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are many situations where digital technology has served as the lifeline or salvation for society. Unexpected and unpredictable situations like catastrophic floods, blizzards, earthquakes, and more recently the Covid-19 pandemic have forced families to stay home, meaning that digital technologies have become important tools for people to work and learn. Other examples are societal and regional challenges such as lack of qualified teachers, diminishing birth rates, and difficulties in filling classrooms that force digital and educational development. The symposium held in May 2021, which resulted in this special issue, was intended to explore possibilities for ensuring equal access to education in rural schools using remote teaching. At the symposium, different strategies to increase access to education in the context of K-12 using digital technologies was presented and discussed. It brought together researchers from Europe and North America, all represented in this issue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå University, 2022
National Category
Social Sciences Pedagogy
Research subject
education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-195593 (URN)10.33621/jdsr.v4i2.139 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-05-31 Created: 2022-05-31 Last updated: 2022-06-01Bibliographically approved
Siljebo, J., Holmgren, T., Lindberg, J. O., From, J., Pettersson, F. & Öjefors Stark, K. (2021). School leadership in a digitalized society: Reflections on the Use of a Survey Tool for Improving Educational Practice. In: ECER programmes: . Paper presented at ECER 2021, European Conference on Educational Research, Online via Geneva, Switzerland, September 6-9, 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>School leadership in a digitalized society: Reflections on the Use of a Survey Tool for Improving Educational Practice
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2021 (English)In: ECER programmes, 2021Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation will report from a pilot study using a novel quantitative instrument as a mean for findings of scientific relevance as well as of relevance for school development. The aim of the pilot study was to better understand school leadership in the midst of digitalization in school. The project was based on two theoretical positions for understanding leadership in the context of digitalization: Leadership behaviours according to Yukl (2013) and Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) according to Engeström, (2015). The essence of leadership in organizations is, according to Yukl (2013),“influencing and facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives”. Leaders can improve the performance of a team or organization by influencing the processes that determine performance.

Background: The Swedish government has commissioned a national pilot project to test sustainable collaboration models between academia and the school or school system regarding research, school activities and teacher education for the period 2017 to 2021 (ulfavtal.se). Expectations are to contribute to the research base of the school system, and to conduct research build on equal terms between researchers and schools. In Sweden there is an explicit expectation in the Education Act, that education is to “rest on a scientific grounds and proven experience” (Section 5). This means that teachers and school leaders are to base the exercise of their profession on research and that school development is to be permeated by a scientific approach. Along this argument, a need to develop sustainable collaboration models between the school system and academia resting on common grounds is formulated as a goal of the pilot project. Similar collaborative approaches between practice and academa are adopted in many European countreis. This means embracing a dimension of development work into the approach to research.

The idea of forming collaborations between schools and academia to improve the quality of the educational practice is not new internationally. There is a growing body of initiatives with the aim to connect school improvement with external actors such as universities through networks and collaborative partnerships of different kinds (Chapman et al., 2016). Research shows how this may lead to meaningful changes in the teaching and learning processes in schools (Ainscow, 2012). Literature on initial teacher education, professional development for teachers, and educational research, also acknowledges how school–academia partnerships are powerful collaborations that can result in improved practice and results for students (Day & Smethem, 2010). However, only a limited amount of research tries to understand how such partnerships and collaboration forms stem from strategic leadership (e.g., Murphy, 2017).

In this paper we address the issue of better understanding how such collaborations can be built on strategic decisions about content for collaboration, when it comes to digitalization in schools.  

Digitalization and school leadership: As discussed by Olofsson et al. (2015), school leaders often experience digitalization processes as “challenging and difficult” (p. 117). Chua Reyes (2015) showed that school leaders experience that their role has changed “from leading a team of teachers who have been deliverers of knowledge towards leading a team of teacher facilitators” (2015, p. 378). In Sweden, research on school leadership is rather limited (Ärlestig et al., 2016). Studies at hand argues that leadership is important for implementation of digital visions and reforms (Petersen, 2014). Moreover, that school leaders’ professional development is needed to effectively lead for digitalization in school (cf. Håkansson-Lindqvist & Pettersson, 2019; Pettersson, 2018). In 2012, the Swedish School Inspectorate (Lund, 2012) pointed out that school leaders do not actively lead, and support digitalization and that more knowledge is needed for leading digitalization in school.

Method: The quantitative instrument is based on two constructs (1) notions of leadership (based on the survey developed by Yukl, 2013); and (2) levels of expansive learning with digital technology (based on the theoretical foundations found in Engeström, 2015). The first construct is measured in four meta-categories: Task-oriented behaviours, Relations-oriented behaviours, Change-oriented behaviours, and External leadership behaviours. The four meta-categories consist of a total of 17 specific component behaviours, such as Clarifying, Supporting, Advocating change and External monitoring. In total, this part of the survey consists of 49 questions, all modified to address the current state of leadership at the respondent workplace. The second construct is measured in 18 questions related to three levels 1) how respondents use digital technologies in their daily work, 2) how the use has changed the daily practice, and 3) how the use has changed the way they work, communicate, and operate in the entire organization. The questions concern to what degree the use of digital technologies has developed new ways of organising and talking about daily practice. Item are designed as fixed-response format (Wilson, 2005) and responses are on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (not relevant) to 5 (absolutely essential). A series of background questions of relevance for the different constructs are also asked. The instrument is available online and will be administered as an online self-administered questionnaire. In this pilot study, the survey was distributed to all school leaders in one municipality in the northern Sweden (N = 44 with a response rate of 90 %). As can be seen, the total number of school leaders in municipalities in this region is low, but the tests have been made covering the total number of respondents possible. As such, awareness of this challenge is kept in mind in terms of analysis and inferences possible by use of the data.

Expected Outcomes: The possibilities for the results of the survey to be used as a basis for school development is discussed, as is the possibilities for the approach to be a way of conducting research, and thus also development work of relevance for school practice with the outspoken intention to improve the quality of the educational practice. Even if the data at the moment is not fully analyzed yet, there are some interesting trends in the material. For instance, due to the participant school leaders, Task-oriented and Relations-oriented leadership behaviours are more important than Change-oriented behaviours, when it comes to leading digitalization in school. There are also some interesting discrepancies between what is judged as important for their school organisations on one hand, and what is important in their leadership on the other. These trends seem to be of importance for strategic decisions about content for continous collaboration, and thereby for school development when it comes to digitalization in school. For the approach to be a collaboration form that provide genuine possibilities for research to be the scientific ground that educational quality should rest on, as is intended in the education act, there are a number of possibilities as well as challenges such as the inconsistency of the educational practice as such and the contextual boundaries of knowledge of what works and improve the quality of practice.

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187475 (URN)
Conference
ECER 2021, European Conference on Educational Research, Online via Geneva, Switzerland, September 6-9, 2021
Available from: 2021-09-13 Created: 2021-09-13 Last updated: 2021-09-13Bibliographically approved
From, J., Pettersson, F. & Pettersson, G. (2020). Fjärrundervisning - en central del i skolans digitalisering. Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, 25(2-3), 69-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fjärrundervisning - en central del i skolans digitalisering
2020 (Swedish)In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 69-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

I denna artikel analyseras fjärrundervisning i relation till skolans digitalisering, med Nivåer av Lärande som teoretiskt ramverk. Detta görs med utgångspunkt i de försök till digitalisering som sedan 1980-talet pågått i svensk grund- och gymnasieskola, och den brist på pedagogiska objekt i termer av skolans undervisningsuppdrag som kännetecknar dessa försök. Ytterligare en del i föreliggande studie utgör en historisk beskrivning av fjärrundervisningens framväxt i svensk skola, där fjärrundervisning varit ett sätt att hantera skolans behov. Sedan redovisas ett empiriskt case om lärares erfarenheter från, och perspektiv på, egen fjärrundervisning i svensk skola. Detta tydliggör att lärarna använder digital teknik i ett målinriktat pedagogiskt syfte, vilket i detta sammanhang innebär att digital teknik är verktyg för att bedriva fjärrundervisning. Slutligen förs en diskussion kring vad som kännetecknar det pedagogiska objekt och den pedagogiska process som utvecklas och realiseras på olika nivåer i skolorganisationen i samspelet mellan fjärrundervisning och skolans digitalisering. Den slutsats som dras är att skolans digitalisering snarare är en fråga om pedagogik än om teknik.

Keywords
Digitala teknologier, Distansundervisning, Fjärrundervisning, Skolans digitalisering, Skolutveckling
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175583 (URN)10.15626/pfs25.0203.04 (DOI)
Projects
lict
Available from: 2020-10-05 Created: 2020-10-05 Last updated: 2021-02-03Bibliographically approved
Öjefors Stark, K. & From, J. (2020). Regional perspectives on remote teaching in Sweden. Education in the North, 27(2), 7-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional perspectives on remote teaching in Sweden
2020 (English)In: Education in the North, ISSN 0424-5512, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In rural parts of Sweden, there is a growing interest in remote teaching, i.e. synchronous teaching using ICT. The Swedish National Agency for Education views remote teaching as a way to meet teacher shortage. However, there is limited research on remote teaching as an educational form. The purpose of this study was to investigate opportunities and challenges with remote teaching from three perspectives: school, region, and research. The method chosen was content analysis of qualitative interviews with school leaders, regional officials and researchers. All informants ment that remote teaching had great opportunities. Common themes were equality, meeting teacher shortages, access to qualified teachers, and increased teaching quality. However, the informants highlighted challenges related to the technological, practical and organizational issues, learning, and legal issues. Limited use by the Education Act was the foremost challenge according to regional officials and researchers, while school leader more often highlighted technology, pedagogy, and organization as challenges. In conclusion, all three perspectives saw remote teaching as a way to ensure pupils in rural areas the right to equal education and teaching quality. Despite challenges introducing a novel form of teaching, there is a consensus on remote teaching as an integral part of the future school.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aberdeen: School of Education at the University of Aberdeen, 2020
Keywords
Remote teaching, Rural schools, Content analysis, School leader's perspectives, School development
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-178443 (URN)10.26203/x7t6-fh57 (DOI)
Projects
lict
Available from: 2021-01-12 Created: 2021-01-12 Last updated: 2021-02-03Bibliographically approved
Billmayer, J., From, J., Lindberg, J. O. & Pettersson, F. (2020). Remote teaching to ensure equal access to education in rural schools. Education in the North, 27(2), 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote teaching to ensure equal access to education in rural schools
2020 (English)In: Education in the North, ISSN 0424-5512, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An impending challenge in today’s school is to ensure that all students have access to an equal education, which should in turn improve social and economic conditions for both individual and society (Lundahl, 2016). The equality aspect is especially accentuated in rural areas which, unlike metropolitan regions, often have significant difficulties related to long distances between schools, lack of qualified teachers and problems filling the classroom due to diminishing birthrates. This in turn restricts students' right to an equal education in rural areas (cf. Pettersson, 2017).

At the same time, digitalization of society is one of the fundamental challenges for the future. The development and broad availability of digital technologies has created new unique opportunities, and pitfalls, for rethinking and reinventing students’ equal access to learning, education and collaboration in the digital age (Collins and Halverson, 2009). Distance and remote teaching are such examples used to ensure equal access to education, not least in rural areas (cf. Hilli, 2020; Pettersson and Olofsson, 2019). Using digital technologies for remote teaching have thereby also, to some extent, changed the way that schools operate and the ways that teaching is being conducted (cf. From, Pettersson and Pettersson, 2020). However, research, networks and collaborations within this area can be said to be scarce not only at a Nordic, but also at an international level (Barbour, 2013; Toppin and Toppin, 2016).

Based on the lack of research, networks and collaboration for developing remote teaching as a practice, the significance of a symposium was identified. In May 2020, the international research symposium Remote teaching to ensure equal access to education in rural schools was held at Umeå University in Sweden. At the symposium different strategies to systematically and proactively increase access to education at upper secondary school level using digital technologies were discussed. One basic assumption that emerged during the discussions was that the existence of, and access to, new information technologies is necessary but not sufficient. In the discussions it became obvious that it will be of complementary importance who is empowered to design, create, invent and choose to use the technologies that enhance their personal and professional lives.

The symposium resulted in an open call for a special issue of Education in the North, which resulted in a huge interest not only from the Nordic countries but from researchers all over the world. As can be seen in this special issue, research from Australia, Azerbaijan, Finland, Iceland, Scotland, and Sweden with different focuses on aspects of equal access to education in schools are represented. The great promise of this special issue lies in its potential to provide research of interest to a wide audience, including researchers, practitioners and policymakers in both Nordic and international contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aberdeen: School of Education at the University of Aberdeen, 2020
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177937 (URN)10.26203/h6z0-a321 (DOI)
Projects
lict
Available from: 2020-12-22 Created: 2020-12-22 Last updated: 2021-02-03Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, O. J., From, J., Holmgren, T., Lundberg, P., Pettersson, G., Pettersson, F., . . . Thomson, T. (2020). Researching school practices with a complementary and symmetrical approach: the case of remote teaching in the rural north of Sweden. Education in the North, 27(2), 235-241
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Researching school practices with a complementary and symmetrical approach: the case of remote teaching in the rural north of Sweden
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2020 (English)In: Education in the North, ISSN 0424-5512, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 235-241Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This feature describes an ongoing research project on remote teaching in the rural north of Sweden. Remote teaching is a form of teaching in which the teacher and students are separated in space but not in time, and students are accompanied by a designated supervisor at their location. The project is conducted within the framework of the national initiative Development, Learning, Research (DLR) to try out sustainable collaboration models between academia and school practice. At Umeå University, this relation has been described as complementary and symmetrical: complementary in the sense that each part brings unique competencies into the work, and symmetrical in the sense that each part is valued as equal in the work, which allows for a dimension of development work into the research approach. The feature elaborates on opportunities and challenges in conducting complementary and symmetrical research, seeking to promote knowledge built on collaboration between academia and school practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
School of Education at the University of Aberdeen, 2020
Keywords
research and development; school practice; collaboration
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-178373 (URN)10.26203/f6a9-pk97 (DOI)
Projects
lict
Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2021-05-06Bibliographically approved
From, J. (2019). Ett läsår med fjärrundervisning – erfarenheter från ett projekt. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ett läsår med fjärrundervisning – erfarenheter från ett projekt
2019 (Swedish)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Att den svenska skolan ska vara likvärdig har länge varit såväl en självklar vision, som ett juridiskt faktum enligt Skollagen (2010:800, 1 kap, paragraf 8 & 9). Samtidigt har många skolhuvudmän problem med att erbjuda elever en likvärdig utbildning. Orsakerna till detta är många och komplexa, men lärarbristen och de demografiska förändringarna av det svenska samhället (t ex urbaniseringen) är bidragande. Många skolhuvudmän har helt enkelt mycket stora problem att rekrytera legitimerade lärare i alla ämnen. I detta sammanhang har fjärrundervisning kommit att bli ett alternativ som kan bidra till en mer jämlik skola, inte minst genom att möjligheten till att fler elever får tillgång till behöriga lärare. Fjärrundervisning är dock en relativt ny företeelse, vilket innebär att det ännu inte finns så mycket vetenskaplig kunskap och beprövad erfarenhet om fjärrundervisning i svensk skola. Syftet med denna artikel är därför att vetenskapligt belysa lärares erfarenheter av att arbeta med fjärrundervisning under ett läsår.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: , 2019. p. 5
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-164248 (URN)
Projects
lict
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved
Pettersson, G. & From, J. (2018). Fallstudier i Upplands Väsby och Vindeln. In: Ifous (Ed.), Fjärrundervisning - bättre utsikter för fler elever: slutrapport (pp. 19-23). Stockholm: Ifous
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fallstudier i Upplands Väsby och Vindeln
2018 (Swedish)In: Fjärrundervisning - bättre utsikter för fler elever: slutrapport / [ed] Ifous, Stockholm: Ifous , 2018, p. 19-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Ifous, 2018
Series
Ifous rapportserie ; 2018:1
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144438 (URN)978-91-982841-8-8 (ISBN)
Note

"Projektet har till största del finansierats av Vinnova inom ramen för Digitalisering för framtidens skola. Övriga finansiärer är Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting, SKL, och medverkande skolhuvudmän. Projektet har letts och kvalitetsgranskats av Karin Hermansson, FoU-ansvarig Ifous."

Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0051-4744

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