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DeMarinis, Valerie
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Wallin, M. I., DeMarinis, V., Nevonen, L. & Bäärnhielm, S. (2024). A qualitative analysis of the documentation of DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interviews with non-native speaking patients in a Swedish mental health care setting. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 15, Article ID 1298920.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A qualitative analysis of the documentation of DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interviews with non-native speaking patients in a Swedish mental health care setting
2024 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 15, article id 1298920Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Cultural variety in expressed symptom presentations of mental health problems creates difficulties in transcultural diagnostic assessments. This emphasizes the need of culturally sensitive diagnostic tools like the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). Although the CFI is being implemented worldwide there is a lack of studies analyzing what kind of information it provides when used with new patients in routine psychiatric assessments, and how CFI information contributes to diagnostic evaluations. This study aimed to find out what information the CFI questions revealed when used with non-native Swedish speaking patients. We also wanted to understand how the CFI may facilitate identification of psychiatric diagnoses among these patients.

Materials and methods: The CFI was used as part of a routine clinical psychiatric assessment in an outpatient clinic in Sweden. Interpreters were used in the consultations when needed. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze the documented CFI answers from non-native speaking patients.

Results: We found that the CFI information contained contextualized descriptions of dysfunction and current life conditions, as well as expressions of emotions, often described along with somatic terms.

Discussion: Our results indicate that the narrative approach of the CFI, giving contextualized information about distress and functioning, can facilitate clinicians’ identification of psychiatric symptoms when language, psychiatric terms and understandings are not shared between patient and clinician.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2024
Keywords
clinical assessment, cultural formulation, cultural identity, cultural psychiatry, ethnicity and mental health
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222353 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1298920 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186908037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Svamo, N. T., Haug, S. H., DeMarinis, V. & Hertzberg, U. (2024). Adolescents' voices on self-engagement in mental health treatment: a scoping review. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescents' voices on self-engagement in mental health treatment: a scoping review
2024 (English)In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArticle, review/survey (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Introduction: According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, adolescents' involvement in their healthcare is a fundamental right, and self-engagement in mental health treatment is vital for realizing their potential within person-centered care (PCC). Research exists that highlights barriers to involving adolescents in their care decisions. However, research on adolescents' own voices about self-engagement in mental health treatment has been scarce. This scoping review aimed to examine and summarize current knowledge on adolescents' voices regarding self-engagement in mental health treatment.

Method: The review followed the scoping methodology of Arksey and O'Malley from 2005, updated by Levac and colleagues in 2010, involving five stages: (1) identifying the research question, (2) identifying relevant studies, (3) study selection, (4) charting the data, and (5) collating, summarizing and reporting the results. Results: Nineteen studies were included. The following themes on adolescents' voices regarding self-engagement in mental health treatment were identified: (1) the therapeutic alliance, (2) the need for active engagement in treatment, (3) different experiences due to time of data collection, (4) treatment context and healthcare system, and (5) adolescent-caregiver interaction.

Conclusion: Adolescents' understanding of self-engagement was multilevel and comprehensive, including individual, contextual and relational factors. A strong therapeutic alliance with healthcare providers, and a need to be actively engaged in treatment were highlighted. To succeed in strengthening PCC in mental healthcare for adolescents, health professionals must take this complex understanding into consideration, as treatment without adolescents' self-engagement may worsen their clinical outcomes. Future research should explore specific PCC interventions and incorporate diverse methodologies in various clinical contexts. Additionally, insights from healthcare providers and caregivers on self-engagement in mental health treatment will complement these findings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Adolescents, Mental health treatment, Person-centered care, Scoping review, Self-engagement
National Category
Pediatrics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222980 (URN)10.1007/s00787-024-02425-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85188835681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-04 Created: 2024-04-04 Last updated: 2024-04-04
Hadding, C., Semb, O., Lehti, A., Martin, F., Sandlund, M. & DeMarinis, V. (2023). Being in-between; exploring former cult members' experiences of an acculturation process using the cultural formulation interview (DSM-5). Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, Article ID 1142189.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being in-between; exploring former cult members' experiences of an acculturation process using the cultural formulation interview (DSM-5)
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 14, article id 1142189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To explore the experiences of acculturation into secular Swedish society of former members of cults, with particular focus on mental health, needs and resources.

Design: Qualitative method using the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) from the DSM-5 as an interview guide. Analysis of participants’ experiences of acculturation through systematic text condensation.

Participants: Eleven Swedish former members of ideological or religion-based cults.

Setting: Swedish mainstream, secular society.

Results: Former cult members experience an ‘in-between time’ in the period after leaving the cult and find themselves in a confusing, chaotic state. They describe having lived in an honor culture where acts of violence were normalized. In the cult, they felt disconnected from themselves, and post-cult they try to regain access to their own values and feelings as well as create new bonds with family members and friends outside the cult. They find it hard to talk about their cult background and find relief in communicating with other former cult members. In their post-cult life, they eventually start seeing the world in a brighter, more hopeful way than before. However, they are also at risk of re-experiencing cult-related traumatic events and of new traumatic experiences within the post-cult acculturation process, and of persistent psychological distress.

Conclusion: Former cult members face a challenging acculturation process, having lost a functioning worldview upon leaving the cult but not yet gained another to take its place. While the in-between time is often transient, they may need support from the healthcare system, especially regarding mental health concerns, while establishing themselves into mainstream society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
acculturation, coersive control, consultation, cult, cultural formulation
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215230 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1142189 (DOI)001074809100001 ()37779627 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85172988375 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-17 Created: 2023-10-17 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Mughal, R., DeMarinis, V., Nordendahl, M., Lone, H., Phillips, V. & Boyd-MacMillan, E. (2023). Public mental health approaches to online radicalisation: an empty systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(16), Article ID 6586.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public mental health approaches to online radicalisation: an empty systematic review
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 16, article id 6586Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This systematic review seeks to position online radicalisation within whole system frameworks incorporating individual, family, community and wider structural influences whilst reporting evidence of public mental health approaches for individuals engaging in radical online content. Methods: the authors searched Medline (via Ovid), PsycInfo (via Ebscohost) and Web of Science (Core Collection) with the use of Boolean operators across “extremism”, “online content” and “intervention”. Results: Following full-text assessments, all retrieved papers were excluded. No publications fulfilled the primary objective of reporting public mental health interventions specifically addressing online radicalisation. However, six publications fulfilled the secondary objective of identifying theoretical and conceptual relationships amongst elements in the three inclusion criteria (online extremism, psychological outcomes and intervention strategy) that could inform interventions within public mental health frameworks. These publications were quality assessed and discussed following the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care guide for reporting empty reviews. Conclusions: there is an immediate need for further research in this field given the increase in different factions of radicalised beliefs resulting from online, particularly social media, usage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
online radicalisation, public mental health, radicalisation, social media
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214047 (URN)10.3390/ijerph20166586 (DOI)2-s2.0-85168763075 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 959200
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Hadding, C., Semb, O., Lehti, A., Fahlström, M., Sandlund, M. & DeMarinis, V. (2022). How can I trust someone who lives in the darkness?: former cult members’ perceptions of consultations with healthcare professionals. International journal of coercion, abuse, and manipulation, 4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How can I trust someone who lives in the darkness?: former cult members’ perceptions of consultations with healthcare professionals
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2022 (English)In: International journal of coercion, abuse, and manipulation, ISSN 2710-401X, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study explores former cult members’ perceptions of consultations with healthcare professionals for mental illness that they relate to their cult involvement. The study also aims to identify the needs, obstacles, and facilitating factors related to these consultations.

Design: Qualitative methods using semi-structured interviews that were analyzed using systematic text condensation.

Participants: Nineteen former cult members who had been in contact with Swedish healthcare professionals due to mental illness related to their cult involvement.

Results: Former cult members remain affected by cult belief systems, rules, and ideations even after leaving a cult. This leads to ambivalence and inner conflict for the former cult member in a healthcare consultation. Care providers are perceived as ignoring cult experiences and lacking knowledge of a cult’s impact on an individual.

Conclusions: To understand, help, and work with former cult members, healthcare professionals need to know about cults and the possible impacts of cult involvement. Person- and patient-centeredness in the form of non-judgmental attitudes, validation of experiences, and awareness of the psychosocial situation are important in consultations with these patients. More over, healthcare providers need to acknowledge cultural and existential aspects of a former cult member’s life, both in the present and from earlier experiences in the cult.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Cultic Studies Association, 2022
Keywords
cult, former cult member, consultation, healthcare, person-centered
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204431 (URN)10.54208/1000/0004/003 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-02-04 Created: 2023-02-04 Last updated: 2024-05-14
Frøkedal, H., Stifoss-Hanssen, H., DeMarinis, V., Ruud, T., Visser, A. & Sørensen, T. (2022). Participation in Existential Groups Led by Norwegian Healthcare Chaplains: Relations to Psychological Distress, Crisis of Meaning and Meaningfulness. The international journal for the psychology of religion, 32(1), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation in Existential Groups Led by Norwegian Healthcare Chaplains: Relations to Psychological Distress, Crisis of Meaning and Meaningfulness
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2022 (English)In: The international journal for the psychology of religion, ISSN 1050-8619, E-ISSN 1532-7582, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Spirituality groups led by healthcare chaplains have been found to aid patients' recovery processes in US psychiatric units. In Norway, existential groups (EGs) led by healthcare chaplains and co-led by healthcare staff members are offered at psychiatric units; these groups share commonalities with spirituality groups, group psychotherapy, existential therapy and clinical pastoral care, facilitating patients' reflections regarding existential, spiritual and religious issues. The study aimed to examine associations between patients' participation and topics discussed in the EGs and their experiences of psychological distress, crisis of meaning and meaningfulness. A cross-sectional design was applied among 157 patients attending EGs led by healthcare chaplains across Norway. Multivariate regression analyses assessed the strength of possible associations, adjusted for relevant demographical variables. Significant association was found between lengthier EG participation and lower levels of psychological distress, while discussion topics concerning religious and spiritual issues were significantly associated with the experience of meaningfulness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2022
National Category
Nursing Religious Studies Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181839 (URN)10.1080/10508619.2020.1844966 (DOI)000628030100001 ()2-s2.0-85102486479 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2022-07-13Bibliographically approved
Çetrez, Ö. A., DeMarinis, V., Sundvall, M., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M., Borisova, L. & Titelman, D. (2021). A Public Mental Health Study Among Iraqi Refugees in Sweden: Social Determinants, Resilience, Gender, and Cultural Context. Frontiers in Sociology, 6, Article ID 551105.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Public Mental Health Study Among Iraqi Refugees in Sweden: Social Determinants, Resilience, Gender, and Cultural Context
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 6, article id 551105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This public mental health study highlights the interactions among social determinants and resilience on mental health, PTSD and acculturation among Iraqi refugees in Sweden 2012-2013.

Objectives: The study aims to understand participants' health, resilience and acculturation, paying specific attention to gender differences.

Design: The study, using a convenience sampling survey design (N = 4010, 53.2% men), included measures on social determinants, general health, coping, CD-RISC, selected questions from the EMIC, PC-PTSD, and acculturation.

Results: Gender differences and reported differences between life experiences in Iraq and Sweden were strong. In Sweden, religious activity was more widespread among women, whereas activity reflecting religion and spirituality as a coping mechanism decreased significantly among men. A sense of belonging both to a Swedish and an Iraqi ethnic identity was frequent. Positive self-evaluation in personal and social areas and goals in life was strong. The strongest perceived source of social support was from parents and siblings, while support from authorities generally was perceived as low. Self-rated health was high and the incidence of PTSD was low. A clear majority identified multiple social determinants contributing to mental health problems. Social or situational and emotional or developmental explanations were the most common. In general, resilience (as measured with CD-RISC) was low, with women's scores lower than that of men.

Conclusions: Vulnerability manifested itself in unemployment after a long period in Sweden, weak social networks outside the family, unsupportive authorities, gender differences in acculturation, and women showing more mental health problems. Though low socially determined personal scores of resilience were found, we also identified a strong level of resilience, when using a culture-sensitive approach and appraising resilience as expressed in coping, meaning, and goals in life. Clinicians need to be aware of the risks of poorer mental health among refugees in general and women in particular, although mental health problems should not be presumed in the individual patient. Instead clinicians need to find ways of exploring the cultural and social worlds and needs of refugee patients. Authorities need to address the described post-migration problems and unmet needs of social support, together comprising the well-established area of the social determinants of health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
acculturation, Iraqi, mental health, perceptions of illness, refugees, resilience, social support, trauma
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186338 (URN)10.3389/fsoc.2021.551105 (DOI)000679059900001 ()2-s2.0-85105937295 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-2179
Available from: 2021-07-22 Created: 2021-07-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sundvall, M., Titelman, D., DeMarinis, V., Borisova, L. & Cetrez, O. (2021). Safe but isolated: an interview study with Iraqi refugees in Sweden about social networks, social support, and mental health. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 67(4), 351-359
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safe but isolated: an interview study with Iraqi refugees in Sweden about social networks, social support, and mental health
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2021 (English)In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, ISSN 0020-7640, E-ISSN 1741-2854, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 351-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Problems with social networks and social support are known to be associated with mental ill-health in refugees. Social support after migration promotes resilience. Aim: To study how Iraqi refugees who arrived in Sweden after the year 2000 perceived their social networks and social support, and to relate the observed network characteristics and changes to the refugees' mental health and well-being. Method: Semi-structured interviews with 31 refugees, including questions on background and migration experiences, a biographical network map, and three health assessment scales. The findings were analysed with descriptive statistics and content thematic analysis. Results: The respondents' networks were diminished. Social support was continued to be provided mainly by family members and supplemented by support from authorities. The main themes of the refugee experience of post-migration challenges were weakened social networks, barriers to integration and challenges to cultural and religious belonging. Failed reunion and worrying about relatives was described as particularly painful. Negative contacts with authority persons were often seen as humiliating or discriminating. Acquiring a new cultural belonging was described as challenging. At the same time, changing family and gender roles made it more difficult to preserve and develop the culture of origin. Traumatic experiences and mental health problems were common in this group. Family issues were more often than integration difficulties associated with mental health problems. Conclusion: In order to strengthen post-migration well-being and adaptation, authorities should support the refugees' social networks. Clinicians need to address post-migration problems and challenges, including the meaning and function of social networks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175663 (URN)10.1177/0020764020954257 (DOI)000569361500001 ()32907462 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85090598452 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2009-2179
Note

Article first published online: September 10, 2020

Available from: 2020-10-07 Created: 2020-10-07 Last updated: 2022-04-28Bibliographically approved
Vattoe, I. E., DeMarinis, V., Haug, S. H. K., Lien, L. & Danbolt, L. J. (2020). Emotional stressors among volunteers operating a diaconal suicide-prevention crisis line in Norway: a qualitative study. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 48(4), 563-575
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional stressors among volunteers operating a diaconal suicide-prevention crisis line in Norway: a qualitative study
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2020 (English)In: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 563-575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the worldwide proliferation of suicide-prevention crisis-line networks, there is limited in-depth knowledge of how the volunteer call responders experience and manage emotional stressors. The study's purpose was to explore emotional stressors related to operating a diaconal suicide-prevention crisis line, and how these are managed in daily operations. In this qualitative study, 27 volunteers were interviewed in four focus groups. The material was analysed using systematic text condensation. The participants experienced emotional stressors related to being unable to actively intervene, encountering traumatised callers and feeling uncertain about representing the Church. They used a combination of personal coping strategies and organisational support factors. Implications for training and practice are further discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
Keywords
Hotlines, suicide prevention, qualitative research, vicarious traumatisation, burnout, growth
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-162677 (URN)10.1080/03069885.2019.1646409 (DOI)000479567900001 ()2-s2.0-85090075945 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Vatto, I. E., Haug, S. H. K., DeMarinis, V., Lien, L. & Danbolt, L. J. (2020). The significance ascribed to contacting a diaconal suicide-prevention crisis line in Norway: a qualitative study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 23(2), 113-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The significance ascribed to contacting a diaconal suicide-prevention crisis line in Norway: a qualitative study
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2020 (English)In: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 113-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Suicide-prevention crisis lines worldwide offer support to individuals in crisis, nonetheless, there is limited in-depth knowledge as to the significance of contacting these services from the service-users’ first-hand perspectives. This study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the significance ascribed to contacting a diaconal suicide-prevention crisis line in Norway. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with nine callers. The material was analysed using systematic text condensation. The analysis revealed three main themes reflecting the crisis line’s emotional, relational and existential support functions in terms of providing: (i) immediate emotional availability, (ii) experiences of connectedness and acceptance, and (iii) a safe space for existential meaning-making processes. The findings point to the need for future research on the value of integrating biopsychosocio-existential perspectives into intervention models within the field of crisis support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2020
Keywords
Crisis lines, suicide prevention, diaconal, culture, existential meaning-making
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173908 (URN)10.1080/13674676.2020.1763281 (DOI)000549950700001 ()2-s2.0-85088145382 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-07 Created: 2020-08-07 Last updated: 2021-05-04Bibliographically approved
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