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Eriksson, M., Sandström, K., Carlborg, M. & Broström, M. (2024). Impact of limestone surface impurities on quicklime product quality. Minerals, 14(3), Article ID 244.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of limestone surface impurities on quicklime product quality
2024 (English)In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quicklime is produced through the thermal processing of limestone in industrial kilns. During quarry operations, fine particulate quarry dust adheres to limestone lump surfaces, increasing the bulk concentration of impurities in limestone products. During thermal processing in a kiln, impurities such as Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn react with Ca, reducing quicklime product quality. Which reactant phases are formed, and the extent to which these result in a reduction in quality, has not been extensively investigated. The present study investigated as-received and manually washed limestone product samples from two operational quarries using elemental compositions and a developed predictive multi-component chemical equilibrium model to obtain global phase diagrams for 1000–1500 °C, corresponding to the high-temperature zone of a lime kiln, identifying phases expected to be formed in quicklime during thermal processing. The results suggest that impurities found on the surface of the lime kiln limestone feed reduce the main quality parameter of the quicklime products, i.e., calcium oxide, CaO (s), content by 0.8–1.5 wt.% for the investigated materials. The results also show that, in addition to the effect of impurities, the quantity of CaO (s) varies greatly with temperature. More impurities result in more variation and a greater need for accurate temperature control of the kiln, where keeping the temperature below approximately 1300 °C, that of Hatrurite formation, is necessary for a product with higher CaO (s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024
Keywords
calcium oxide, chemical equilibrium calculations, thermal process chemistry
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223093 (URN)10.3390/min14030244 (DOI)2-s2.0-85189068374 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 50224-1Vinnova, 2015-04541
Available from: 2024-04-11 Created: 2024-04-11 Last updated: 2024-05-02Bibliographically approved
Elbashir, S., Broström, M. & Skoglund, N. (2024). Thermodynamic modelling assisted three-stage solid state synthesis of high purity β-Ca3(PO4)2. Materials & design, 238, Article ID 112679.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamic modelling assisted three-stage solid state synthesis of high purity β-Ca3(PO4)2
2024 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 238, article id 112679Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A three-stage solid state synthesis assisted by thermodynamic modelling was developed to prepare highly pure (>99 %) beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder. The optimal synthesis temperature was experimentally determined to be 1000 °C in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The synthesis design described here has substantially improved the product quality and eliminated the presence of secondary phosphate phases compared to one- and two-stage methods investigated in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the material's structural, vibrational, and morphological characteristics was conducted. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data confirmed the high purity of the samples. The crystal structure of the prepared β-TCP was determined and the refined unit cell parameters agreed well with the reference values. From infrared and Raman spectral analyses, the characteristics of β-TCP were observed and discussed in details. Furthermore, the morphology and elemental composition of the products were examined and found to be homogenous and impurity free. The reproducibility of the material was scrutinized and showed no significant data variations. Using our three-stage synthesis method, it is possible to produce β-TCP powder of high purity with consistent repeatability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Calcium phosphate, FTIR, Raman, Rietveld refinement, Solid state synthesis, Thermodynamics, β-TCP
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220444 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2024.112679 (DOI)2-s2.0-85183319047 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613Bio4Energy
Available from: 2024-02-09 Created: 2024-02-09 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved
Sandström, K., Broström, M. & Eriksson, M. (2023). Ash composition and quicklime quality. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Flame Days 2023, Trondheim, Norway, November 29 -30, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash composition and quicklime quality
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217390 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Flame Days 2023, Trondheim, Norway, November 29 -30, 2023
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Cwik, K., Ma, C., Eriksson, M. & Broström, M. (2023). Electrifying quicklime production to enable carbon capture: how to avoid product carbonation?. In: : . Paper presented at TCCS-12, The 12th Trondheim Conference on Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage, Trondheim, Norway, June 20-21, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrifying quicklime production to enable carbon capture: how to avoid product carbonation?
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221456 (URN)
Conference
TCCS-12, The 12th Trondheim Conference on Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage, Trondheim, Norway, June 20-21, 2023
Available from: 2024-02-23 Created: 2024-02-23 Last updated: 2024-02-23Bibliographically approved
Häggström, G., Karl Hannl, T., Holmgren, P., Broström, M., Skoglund, N. & Öhman, M. (2023). Fate of phosphorus in pulverized fuel co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues. Fuel, 335, Article ID 127059.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fate of phosphorus in pulverized fuel co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues
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2023 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 335, article id 127059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fate of phosphorus concerning its distribution in the thermal process and chemical speciation was studied during the co-combustion of sewage sludge with wheat straw and sunflower husks in powder combustion conditions. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a lab-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR) at 1000 °C and 1400 °C. SEM-EDS and ICP-OES analyses were used for studies of deposits collected on a probe, bottom ash, and particulate matter samples collected during experiments. Deposition probe samples were further studied and interpreted using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermochemical equilibrium calculations (TECs). The inorganic material in the different fuel particles mainly interacted through a molten phase observed on deposition probes. Crystalline P was mainly identified in β-Ca3(PO4)2 whitlockites. TECs support the experimental findings and suggest that a mostly homogenous melt occurs at 1400 °C, whereas Fe-oxides and Ca-phosphates precipitate during the cooling of the formed deposits. It was found that <5 % of incoming P was collected in fine particulate matter (<1 µm), indicating that the majority of P can be found in deposits and bottom ash. This outcome implies that P recovery efforts should be focused on these ash fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Sewage sludge, Phosphorus, Combustion, Ash recovery, Powder combustion, Suspension firing
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201829 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2022.127059 (DOI)000991221600001 ()2-s2.0-85145271125 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00194Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-01613Swedish Research Council, 2017-05331Bio4Energy
Available from: 2022-12-20 Created: 2022-12-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Kumar Wagri, N., Carlborg, M., Eriksson, M., Ma, C., Broström, M. & Andersson, B. M. (2023). High temperature interactions between coal ash and MgO-based refractories in lime kiln conditions. Fuel, 342, Article ID 127711.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High temperature interactions between coal ash and MgO-based refractories in lime kiln conditions
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2023 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 342, article id 127711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magnesium oxide (MgO)-based refractories are commonly used in quicklime and cement rotary kilns. At the high temperatures in the kiln burn zone, the infiltration of molten fuel ash into the refractory can occur. Subsequent chemical interactions can cause refractory wear that inflicts high maintenance costs and loss of production. To improve refractory reliability, it is necessary to increase the understanding of the interactions between fuel ash slag and refractory liner materials. Three commercially available MgO-based refractory materials were exposed to coal ash at 1200 °C and 1400 °C for between 15 and 60 min under a CO2-rich gaseous environment. Hot slag from the coal ash infiltrated the refractories and the infiltration depths were estimated with scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Based on detailed elemental and microstructure analyses, the interactions between ash and refractory were examined. Molten silicates infiltrated the refractory through grain boundaries and pores into depths of up to 2.8 mm. Powder X-ray diffraction of the exposed refractory samples indicated that MgO grains reacted with SiO2-containing phases to form Mg2SiO4. This was identified as a corrosion product whose formation was supported by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. Elevated Mg content was found in the ash residue on top of the samples, indicating the dissolution or dislocation of refractory components. In addition, phases such as MgO were identified in the ash residue.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Coal ash, Lime kilns, MgO refractory, Refractory corrosion, Silicate slag, Slag infiltration
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205464 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2023.127711 (DOI)000952980900001 ()2-s2.0-85149015295 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2023-03-07 Created: 2023-03-07 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Kumar Wagri, N., Carlborg, M., Eriksson, M., Ma, C., Broström, M. & Andersson, B. M. (2023). High temperature interactions between K-rich biomass ash and MgO-based refractories. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 43(8), 3770-3777
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High temperature interactions between K-rich biomass ash and MgO-based refractories
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2023 (English)In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 3770-3777Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MgO-based refractories are used in lime kilns to withstand the high temperature and chemical environment. Efforts to reduce CO2 emissions have led to an increased interest to use bio-based fuels as alternatives to traditional fossil sources. The potential for refractory corrosion from a potassium-rich biomass ash was investigated by studying the infiltration of olive pomace ash into magnesia/spinel refractories. Refractory samples were exposed to the ash at up to 1400 °C for 15–60 min in a CO2–rich atmosphere. Molten ash infiltrated the refractories through pores and grain boundaries to a depth of up to 9.6 mm, which was quantified with a new systematic procedure. The phase KAlO2 was identified inside the refractories after exposure, indicating an attack of spinel components by potassium. Phases found in the ash residues also indicated the migration of refractory constituents. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations were also used to investigate the ash/refractory chemistry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Biomass ash; Lime kiln; Magnesia; Olive pomace; Potassium; Refractory corrosion; Slag infiltration
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205465 (URN)10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2023.01.058 (DOI)000955011500001 ()2-s2.0-85148748148 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency, 34721-3Swedish Energy Agency, 47198-1
Available from: 2023-03-07 Created: 2023-03-07 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Sandström, K., Broström, M., Eriksson, M., Wilhelmsson, B., Viggh, E. & Backman, R. (2023). Modelling chemical phase evolution in counter-current reactors: a cement kiln application. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Flame Days 2023, Trondheim, Norway, November 28 - 30, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling chemical phase evolution in counter-current reactors: a cement kiln application
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2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217394 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Flame Days 2023, Trondheim, Norway, November 28 - 30, 2023
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, P., Chishty, M. A., Eriksson, M. & Broström, M. (2023). Multi-phase modelling of a twin shaft regenerative lime kiln. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Flame Days, Trondheim, Norway, November 29-30, 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-phase modelling of a twin shaft regenerative lime kiln
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-217392 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Flame Days, Trondheim, Norway, November 29-30, 2023
Available from: 2023-12-01 Created: 2023-12-01 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Aguirre Castillo, J., Broström, M. & Eriksson, M. (2023). Phase evolution and burnability of cement raw meal. Advances in Cement Research, 35(12), 577-587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase evolution and burnability of cement raw meal
2023 (English)In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 577-587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) to study the mass transfer of raw meal constituents towards forming clinker phases and the occurrence of free lime (calcium oxide), also known as burnability, was assessed. A measuring strategy with temperature ranging from 1000°C to 1450°C was developed and compared with a conventional burnability method. The free lime determined by the methods showed that HT-XRD produced good results for the evaluation of burnability. In addition, HT-XRD revealed the formation of intermediate phases, providing insight into early reactions in a cement kiln. The particle size of quartz was found to affect crystal expansion of the phase at a high temperature, subsequently affecting the formation of silica polymorphs. The different raw meals used in this study also indicate that the formation of different silica polymorphs affects the formation of C2S. The lack of knowledge regarding the influence of β-quartz on the reduction of free lime is highlighted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ICE publishing, 2023
Keywords
characterisation techniques, clinkering, clinkering reactions, phase transition
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212913 (URN)10.1680/jadcr.23.00034 (DOI)001050073300001 ()2-s2.0-85167698690 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2020-008305Swedish Energy Agency, 50893-1
Available from: 2023-08-16 Created: 2023-08-16 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Projects
Outreach for combating of superheater corrosion problems [2015-06550_Vinnova]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1095-9154

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