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Elgh, Fredrik
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Publications (10 of 108) Show all publications
Vestin, E., Boström, G., Olsson, J., Elgh, F., Lind, L., Kilander, L., . . . Weidung, B. (2024). Herpes simplex viral infection doubles the risk of dementia in a contemporary cohort of older adults: a prospective study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 97(4), 1841-1850
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Herpes simplex viral infection doubles the risk of dementia in a contemporary cohort of older adults: a prospective study
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 1841-1850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Evidence indicates that herpes simplex virus (HSV) participates in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Objective: We investigated AD and dementia risks according to the presence of herpesvirus antibodies in relation to anti-herpesvirus treatment and potential APOE ε4 carriership interaction.

Methods: This study was conducted with 1002 dementia-free 70-year-olds living in Sweden in 2001–2005 who were followed for 15 years. Serum samples were analyzed to detect anti-HSV and anti-HSV-1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G, anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG, anti-HSV IgM, and anti-HSV and anti-CMV IgG levels. Diagnoses and drug prescriptions were collected from medical records. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were applied.

Results: Cumulative AD and all-cause dementia incidences were 4% and 7%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of participants were anti-HSV IgG carriers, of whom 6% received anti-herpesvirus treatment. Anti-HSV IgG was associated with a more than doubled dementia risk (fully adjusted hazard ratio = 2.26, p = 0.031). No significant association was found with AD, but the hazard ratio was of the same magnitude as for dementia. Anti-HSV IgM and anti-CMV IgG prevalence, anti-herpesvirus treatment, and anti-HSV and -CMV IgG levels were not associated with AD or dementia, nor were interactions between anti-HSV IgG and APOE ε4 or anti-CMV IgG. Similar results were obtained for HSV-1.

Conclusions: HSV (but not CMV) infection may be indicative of doubled dementia risk. The low AD incidence in this cohort may have impaired the statistical power to detect associations with AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2024
Keywords
Aged 80 and over, Alzheimer disease, apolipoprotein E, cognitive disorder, cohort study, cytomegalovirus, dementia, Herpes simplex, human herpesvirus 1, neurocognitive disorder
National Category
Neurology Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221788 (URN)10.3233/JAD-230718 (DOI)38306033 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85185225398 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Gun och Bertil Stohnes StiftelseThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedSwedish Society of MedicineMärta Lundqvists FoundationRegion UppsalaStiftelsen Gamla TjänarinnorThe Swedish Brain Foundation
Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-03-19Bibliographically approved
Olsson, J., Nourmohammadi, S., Honkala, E., Johansson, A., Hallmans, G., Weidung, B., . . . Elgh, F. (2024). Time trends in herpesvirus seroepidemiology among Swedish adults. BMC Infectious Diseases, 24(1), Article ID 273.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time trends in herpesvirus seroepidemiology among Swedish adults
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2024 (English)In: BMC Infectious Diseases, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 273Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Human herpesviruses are widespread among the human population. The infections often occurunnoticed, but severe disease as well as long-term sequelae are part of the symptom spectrum. The prevalence variesamong subpopulations and with time. The aim of this study was to describe the seroprevalence of ImmunoglobulinG against Herpes simplex 1, Herpes simplex 2, Epstein-Barr virus and Cytomegalovirus in the adult Swedish populationover a time period of several decades.

Methods: Serum samples (n = 892) from biobanks, originating from 30-year-old women, 50-year-old menand 50-year-old women sampled between 1975 and 2018, were analyzed for presence of anti-herpesvirus antibod-ies. Linear regression analysis was used to test for a correlation between birth year and seroprevalence. Multiple linearregression analysis was used to differentiate between other factors such as age and gender.

Results: Birth year correlated negatively with the prevalence of immunoglobulin G against Herpes simplex 1and Epstein-Barr virus (p = 0.004 and 0.033), and positively with Immunoglobulin G against Cytomegalovirus(p = 0.039). When participant categories were analyzed separately, birth year correlated negatively with the preva-lence of Immunoglobulin G against Herpes simplex 1 and Herpes simplex 2 (p = 0.032 and 0.028) in 30-year-old women,and with the prevalence of Immunoglobulin G against Cytomegalovirus in 50-year-old men (p = 0.011).

Conclusions: The prevalence of Immunoglobulin G against Herpes simplex 1, Herpes simplex 2 and Epstein-Barr virusdecreases in later birth cohorts. This indicates a trend of declining risk of getting infected with these viruses as a childand adolescen (9) (PDF) Time trends in herpesvirus seroepidemiology among Swedish adults. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Herpes, Herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, Seroprevalence, Epidemiology, Time trends, Immunoglobulin G
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Geriatrics Infectious Medicine
Research subject
Infectious Diseases; Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221713 (URN)10.1186/s12879-024-09155-w (DOI)38431567 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85186556771 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenUmeå UniversityThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedAlzheimerfonden
Available from: 2024-03-03 Created: 2024-03-03 Last updated: 2024-03-13Bibliographically approved
Wigren, J., Vikström, L., Rosendal, E., Gröning, R., Gwon, Y.-D., Nilsson, E., . . . Forsell, M. N. E. (2023). At-home sampling to meet geographical challenges for serological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a rural region of northern Sweden, March to May 2021: a retrospective cohort study. Eurosurveillance, 28(13), Article ID 2200432.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>At-home sampling to meet geographical challenges for serological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a rural region of northern Sweden, March to May 2021: a retrospective cohort study
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2023 (English)In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 28, no 13, article id 2200432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted a need for easy and safe blood sampling in combination with accurate serological methodology. Venipuncture for testing is usually performed by trained staff at healthcare centres. Long travel distances to healthcare centres in rural regions may introduce a bias of testing towards relatively large communities with closer access. Rural regions are therefore often not represented in population-based data.

Aim: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to develop and implement a strategy for at-home testing in a rural region of Sweden during spring 2021, and to evaluate its role to provide equal health care for its inhabitants.

Methods: We developed a sensitive method to measure antibodies to the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and optimised this assay for clinical use together with a strategy of at-home capillary blood sampling.

Results: We demonstrated that our ELISA gave comparable results after analysis of capillary blood or serum from SARS-CoV-2-experienced individuals. We demonstrated stability of the assay under conditions that reflected temperature and humidity during winter or summer. By assessment of capillary blood samples from 4,122 individuals, we could show both feasibility of the strategy and that implementation shifted the geographical spread of testing in favour of rural areas.

Conclusion: Implementation of at-home sampling enabled citizens living in remote rural areas access to centralised and sensitive laboratory antibody tests. The strategy for testing used here could therefore enable disease control authorities to get rapid access to information concerning immunity to infectious diseases, even across vast geographical distance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), 2023
Keywords
coronavirus disease (COVID-19), laboratory, surveillance, Sweden
National Category
Infectious Medicine Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206673 (URN)10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.13.2200432 (DOI)000971868200003 ()36995373 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151573640 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-14 Created: 2023-04-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Weidung, B., Josefsson, M., Lyttkens, P., Olsson, J., Elgh, F., Lind, L., . . . Lövheim, H. (2023). Longitudinal Effects of Herpesviruses on Multiple Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Elderly Adults. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 94(2), 751-762
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal Effects of Herpesviruses on Multiple Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Elderly Adults
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 751-762Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses have been proposed to be involved in Alzheimer's disease development as potentially modifiable pathology triggers.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of serum antibodies for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) and anti-herpesvirus treatment with cognitive outcomes in relation to interactions with APOE ɛ4.

METHODS: The study included 849 participants in the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study. Cognitive performance at the ages of 75 and 80 years was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), trail-making test (TMT) A and B, and 7-minute screening test (7MS).

RESULTS: Anti- HSV-1 IgG positivity was associated cross-sectionally with worse performance on the MMSE, TMT-A, TMT-B, 7MS, enhanced free recall, and verbal fluency tests (p = 0.016, p = 0.016, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.033, and p < 0.001, respectively), but not orientation or clock drawing. Cognitive scores did not decline over time and longitudinal changes did not differ according to HSV-1 positivity. Anti- CMV IgG positivity was not associated cross-sectionally with cognition, but TMT-B scores declined more in anti- CMV IgG carriers. Anti- HSV-1 IgG interacted with APOE ɛ4 in association with worse TMT-A and better enhanced cued recall. Anti- HSV IgM interacted with APOE ɛ4 and anti-herpesvirus treatment in association with worse TMT-A and clock drawing, respectively.

CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that HSV-1 is linked to poorer cognition in cognitively healthy elderly adults, including impairments in executive function, memory, and expressive language. Cognitive performance did not decline over time, nor was longitudinal decline associated with HSV-1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2023
Keywords
Aged 80 and over, Alzheimer’s disease, Apolipoproteins E, cognition disorders, cohort studies, cytomegalovirus, dementia, Herpes simplex, herpesvirus 1 human, neurocognitive disorders
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212502 (URN)10.3233/JAD-221116 (DOI)37334589 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165546399 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-01 Created: 2023-08-01 Last updated: 2023-08-01Bibliographically approved
Lopatko Lindman, K., Lockman-Lundgren, J., Weidung, B., Olsson, J., Elgh, F. & Lövheim, H. (2022). Long-term time trends in reactivated herpes simplex infections and treatment in Sweden. BMC Infectious Diseases, 22(1), Article ID 547.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term time trends in reactivated herpes simplex infections and treatment in Sweden
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2022 (English)In: BMC Infectious Diseases, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 547Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Our aim was to describe the annual prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation in relation to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and antiviral drug use in the Swedish adult population.

Methods: The study comprised 2879 anti-HSV-1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G positive subjects from five different cohorts who had donated serum from 1988 to 2010. The sera were analyzed for anti-HSV IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations between the presence of anti-HSV IgM antibodies, the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and the serum sampling year were assessed by logistic regression. Seasonality of anti-HSV IgM was evaluated in a UV radiation model. Data of antiviral drugs for the entire Swedish population were compiled from two different nationwide databases: the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry.

Results: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicated that the prevalence of anti-HSV IgM antibodies declined between 1988 and 2010 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.912, p <.001), while the total annual use of antiviral drugs in Sweden gradually increased from 1984 to 2017. Higher UV radiation was associated with higher prevalence of anti-HSV IgM antibodies (OR = 1.071, p =.043).

Conclusion: The declining time trend of HSV reactivation in a Swedish cohort coincides with a steady increase of antiviral drug use in the Swedish general population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2022
Keywords
Antiviral agents, Apolipoprotein E4, Cohort study, Epidemiology, Herpes simplex, Seroprevalence, Ultraviolet radiation
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203316 (URN)10.1186/s12879-022-07525-w (DOI)000811753500001 ()35705911 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85132163265 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenThe Kempe FoundationsThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedHans-Gabriel och Alice Trolle-Wachtmeisters stiftelse för medicinsk forskningAlzheimerfondenGun och Bertil Stohnes Stiftelse
Available from: 2023-01-18 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Lopatko Lindman, K., Jonsson, C., Weidung, B., Olsson, J., Pandey, J. P., Prokopenko, D., . . . Lövheim, H. (2022). PILRA polymorphism modifies the effect of APOE4 and GM17 on Alzheimer’s disease risk. Scientific Reports, 12(1), Article ID 13264.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PILRA polymorphism modifies the effect of APOE4 and GM17 on Alzheimer’s disease risk
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2022 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 13264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PILRA (rs1859788 A > G) has been suggested to be a protective variant for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is an entry co-receptor for herpes simplex virus-1. We conducted a nested case–control study of 360 1:1-matched AD subjects. Interactions between the PILRA-A allele, APOE risk variants (ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4) and GM17 for AD risk were modelled. The associations were cross-validated using two independent whole-genome sequencing datasets. We found negative interactions between PILRA-A and GM17 (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52–1.00) and between PILRA-A and APOE risk variants (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32–0.98) in the discovery dataset. In the replication cohort, a joint effect of PILRA and PILRA × GM 17/17 was observed for the risk of developing AD (p.02). Here, we report a negative effect modification by PILRA on APOE and GM17 high-risk variants for future AD risk in two independent datasets. This highlights the complex genetics of AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2022
National Category
Medical Genetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198480 (URN)10.1038/s41598-022-17058-6 (DOI)000836651200031 ()35918447 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135234828 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeRegion VästerbottenThe Kempe FoundationsThe Swedish Medical AssociationThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedAlzheimerfondenThe Swedish Brain Foundation
Available from: 2022-08-12 Created: 2022-08-12 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Weidung, B., Hemmingsson, E.-S., Olsson, J., Sundström, T., Blennow, K., Zetterberg, H., . . . Lövheim, H. (2022). VALZ-Pilot: High-dose valacyclovir treatment in patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 8(1), Article ID e12264.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VALZ-Pilot: High-dose valacyclovir treatment in patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease
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2022 (English)In: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, E-ISSN 2352-8737, Vol. 8, no 1, article id e12264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. The antiviral valacyclovir inhibits HSV replication.

Methods: This phase-II pilot trial involved valacyclovir administration (thrice daily, 500 mg week 1, 1000 mg weeks 2–4) to persons aged ≥ 65 years with early-stage AD, anti-HSV immunoglobulin G, and apolipoprotein E ε4. Intervention safety, tolerability, feasibility, and effects on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated.

Results: Thirty-two of 33 subjects completed the trial on full dosage. Eighteen percent experienced likely intervention-related mild, temporary adverse events. CSF acyclovir concentrations were mean 5.29 ± 2.31 μmol/L. CSF total tau and neurofilament light concentrations were unchanged; MMSE score and CSF soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 concentrations increased (P = .02 and .03).

Discussion: Four weeks of high-dose valacyclovir treatment was safe, tolerable, and feasible in early-stage AD. Our findings may guide future trial design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E ε4, feasibility study, herpes simplex, pilot project, valacyclovir
National Category
Neurology Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203082 (URN)10.1002/trc2.12264 (DOI)000908294000001 ()35310522 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85137403065 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018‐02532EU, Horizon 2020, 860197
Available from: 2023-01-16 Created: 2023-01-16 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hemmingsson, E.-S., Hjelmare, E., Weidung, B., Olsson, J., Josefsson, M., Adolfsson, R., . . . Lövheim, H. (2021). Antiviral treatment associated with reduced risk of clinical Alzheimer's disease: A nested case-control study. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 7(1), Article ID e12187.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antiviral treatment associated with reduced risk of clinical Alzheimer's disease: A nested case-control study
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2021 (English)In: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, E-ISSN 2352-8737, Vol. 7, no 1, article id e12187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In this nested case-control study, we investigated if antiviral treatment given prior to onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could influence incident AD.

Methods: From a large population-based cohort study in northern Sweden, 262 individuals that later developed AD were compared to a non-AD matched control group with respect to prescriptions of herpes antiviral treatment. All included subjects were herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) carriers and the matching criteria were age, sex, apolipoprotein E genotype (ε4 allele carriership), and study sample start year.

Results: Among those who developed AD, 6 prescriptions of antivirals were found, compared to 20 among matched controls. Adjusted for length of follow-up, a conditional logistic regression indicated a difference in the risk for AD development between groups (odds ratio for AD with an antiviral prescription 0.287, P = .018).

Discussion: Antiviral treatment might possibly reduce the risk for later development of HSV1-associated AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, antiviral treatment, apolipoprotein E gene, dementia, herpes simplex, major neurocognitive disorder, nested case-control study
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-187310 (URN)10.1002/trc2.12187 (DOI)000750546300053 ()2-s2.0-85114262531 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenThe Dementia Association - The National Association for the Rights of the DementedAlzheimerfondenKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-2056
Available from: 2021-09-07 Created: 2021-09-07 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Lopatko Lindman, K., Hemmingsson, E.-S., Weidung, B., Brännström, J., Josefsson, M., Olsson, J., . . . Lövheim, H. (2021). Herpesvirus infections, antiviral treatment, and the risk ofdementia: a registry-based cohort study in Sweden. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 7(1), Article ID e12119.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Herpesvirus infections, antiviral treatment, and the risk ofdementia: a registry-based cohort study in Sweden
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2021 (English)In: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, E-ISSN 2352-8737, Vol. 7, no 1, article id e12119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Herpesviruses, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and varicella zoster‐virus (VZV), have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. Likewise, antiviral treatment has been suggested to protect against dementia development in herpes‐infected individuals.

Methods: The study enrolled 265,172 subjects aged ≥ 50 years, with diagnoses of VZV or HSV, or prescribed antiviral drugs between 31 December 2005 and 31 December 2017. Controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio by sex and birth year.

Results: Antiviral treatment was associated with decreased risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86 to 0.92), while herpes infection without antiviral drugs increased the risk of dementia (adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.74).

Discussion: Antiviral treatment was associated with a reduced long‐term risk of dementia among individuals with overt signs of herpes infection. This is consistent with earlier findings indicating that herpesviruses are involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, antiviral agents, dementia, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, retrospective cohort study, varicella zoster
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182629 (URN)10.1002/trc2.12119 (DOI)000750546300096 ()2-s2.0-85103930201 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-27 Created: 2021-04-27 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Lopatko Lindman, K., Weidung, B., Olsson, J., Josefsson, M., Johansson, A., Eriksson, S., . . . Lövheim, H. (2021). Plasma Amyloid-β in Relation to Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports, 5(1), 229-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma Amyloid-β in Relation to Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports, E-ISSN 2542-4823, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Amyloid-β (Aβ), the key constituent of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) plaques, has antimicrobial properties.

Objective: To investigate the association between plasma Aβ and antibodies against the AD-related pathogens herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and C. pneumoniae.

Methods: Plasma from 339 AD cases, obtained on average 9.4 years (±4.00) before diagnosis, and their matched controls were analyzed for Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations with Luminex xMAP technology and INNOBIA plasma Aβ-form assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were utilized for analyses of anti-HSV immunoglobulin (Ig) G, anti-HSV1 IgG, anti-HSV2 IgG, anti-CMV IgG, and anti-C. pneumoniae IgG. Follow-up samples were available for 150 of the cases.

Results: Presence and levels of anti-HSV1 IgG, anti-HSV2 IgG, anti-CMV IgG, and anti-C. pneumoniae IgG did not correlate with concentrations of Aβ42 or Aβ40 in cases or controls.

Conclusion: Levels of plasma Aβ were not associated with antibodies against different AD-related pathogens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2021
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-β peptides, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, dementia, Herpes simplex, nested case-control study
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182612 (URN)10.3233/ADR-210008 (DOI)000651079100025 ()2-s2.0-85103991159 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-27 Created: 2021-04-27 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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