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Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Davis, P. A., Trotter, M., Åström, E. & Rönnlund, M. (2024). Balancing time for health behaviors: associations of time perspective with physical activity and weight management in older adults. American Journal of Health Promotion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Balancing time for health behaviors: associations of time perspective with physical activity and weight management in older adults
2024 (English)In: American Journal of Health Promotion, ISSN 0890-1171, E-ISSN 2168-6602Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To examine associations between time perspective and health promotion behaviors of physical activity and weight management.

Design: Quantitative cross-sectional.

Setting: This study is part of the Betula project on aging, memory, and dementia in Northern Sweden.

Subjects: 417 older adults aged between 55 and 85 years.

Measures: Swedish-Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; Physical Activity in the past year, past week, and in comparison with others of similar age; Weight Management = Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2).

Results: After controlling for age, sex, and years of education, hierarchical linear regression indicated a Balanced Time Perspective was significantly associated with more physical activity in the past year (P =.04), the past week (P <.001), and in comparison with others (P <.01). Past Negative time perspective was associated with less physical activity in the past year (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Present Fatalistic was associated with less physical activity during the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.01). Present Hedonistic was associated with more physical activity the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Past Negative was associated with higher BMI (P =.02), and Future Negative were associated with lower BMI (P =.01). Taken collectively, greater positivity and flexibility across time perspectives was associated with more physical activity, whereas negative oriented time perspectives related with less physical activity and poorer weight management.

Conclusion: Time perspective can be associated with health behaviors in older adults and have implications for health across the lifespan. Health promotion interventions may target older adults’ enjoyment of exercise and weight management in the present, rather than highlight potential negative health outcomes in the future. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2024
Keywords
time perspective, exercise, health behavior, healthy aging, diet, nutrition
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223521 (URN)10.1177/08901171241242546 (DOI)001196225600001 ()38566500 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85189956200 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-18 Created: 2024-04-18 Last updated: 2024-04-18
Pyszkowska, A., Åström, E. & Rönnlund, M. (2024). Deviations from the balanced time perspective, cognitive fusion, and self-compassion in individuals with or without a depression diagnosis: different mean profiles but common links to depressive symptoms. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1290676.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deviations from the balanced time perspective, cognitive fusion, and self-compassion in individuals with or without a depression diagnosis: different mean profiles but common links to depressive symptoms
2024 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1290676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Prior research indicates that depressive symptoms in unselected or sub-clinical samples are associated with time perspective biases, including a more negative view of the past and a more fatalistic attitude toward the present. In the current study, we compared time perspective profiles for a clinical sample, with a depression diagnosis with that of a control group. Additionally, we considered a measure known as deviations from the balanced time perspective (DBTP) that capture deviations across time frames, not considered in previous studies. A second obejctive was to test a model involving DPTP as a mediator of the links between cognitive fusion and self-compassion with depressive symptoms.

Method: In total, 300 individuals participated in the study, 150 participants with a depression diagnosis and 150 without a depression diagnoses. All participants filled in questions regarding background variables together with Polish adaptations of ZTPI, CFQ, SCS-S, and DASS-21 using a web-survey.

Results: The results showed significantly higher scores on Past Negative and Present Fatalistic in the clinical sample. In line with the hypothesis the clinical group also displayed elevated DBTP scores (d = 0.75), a difference that remained significant when current symptoms were adjusted for. The results of structural equation modeling moreover indicate a major role of cognitive fusion (which, as expected, was strongly associated with DBTP) in predicting symptom burden, regardless of the clinical/non-clinical distinction, but. Still, DBTP accounted for significant (unique) variance in depressive symptoms. By contrast, the inclusion of cognitive fusion and DBTP eliminated the association of self-compassion and depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Taken together, the results indicate that levels of DBTP/fusion for persons with depression diagnosis is present regardless of current symptom burden. Thus, DBTP could be regarded as a risk factor of developing depression. Prospective research designs are needed to further evaluate the associations of the main constructs in this study and the extent to which they are predictive of future diagnosis and changes in symptom level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2024
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-219300 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1290676 (DOI)001144525500001 ()38250112 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85182625858 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
Eriksson Sörman, D., Åström, E., Ahlström, M., Adolfsson, R. & Körning Ljungberg, J. (2024). The influence of personality traits on engagement in lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of personality traits on engagement in lifelong learning
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2024 (English)In: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Today, adult individuals must be able to continuously learn and adapt to the rapid changes occurring in society. However, little is known about the individual characteristics, particularly personality traits, that make adults more likely to engage in learning activities. Moreover, few studies have longitudinally and objectively investigated the influence of personality on engagement in lifelong learning throughout working age. This study therefore used longitudinal data (15 years) to examine which personality traits predicted level and long-term changes in learning activities among 1329 Swedish adults aged 30–60. The results from growth curve modelling showed that over the follow-up period, novelty seeking and self-transcendence were both positively related to overall level of engagement in learning activities, although not to rate of change. Regarding specific activities, novelty seeking was related to higher levels of engagement in attending courses, taking on new education, and making occupational changes, while harm avoidance was negatively related to the likelihood of changing occupation. The results of this study underscore the importance of considering personality in relation to engagement in lifelong learning activities. Insights from this study can potentially increase the likelihood of finding methods to promote lifelong learning, which can be beneficial for educators, policymakers, and companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
Keywords
Lifelong learning, personality, working age
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223775 (URN)10.1080/02601370.2024.2343013 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2021- 02361
Available from: 2024-04-25 Created: 2024-04-25 Last updated: 2024-04-25
Åström, E., Sundström, A. & Lyrén, P.-E. (2023). Examining the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a clinical sample using classical test theory and item response theory. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 30(2), 398-409
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examining the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a clinical sample using classical test theory and item response theory
2023 (English)In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) using classical test theory and item response theory (IRT). The CORE-OM is a commonly used 34-item self-report instrument measuring psychological problems/distress covering four domains: subjective well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk. Despite its broad application, only a few studies have used IRT to examine the psychometric properties, and the properties of the Swedish version have only been examined in one initial study. The present study included 1,011 clients with mild to moderate symptoms of distress, applying for psychotherapy at an outpatient training clinic in Sweden. Clients' responses were subjected to classical item analyses as well as IRT (Rasch) analysis using the partial credit model. The classical analyses demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and acceptable levels of item discrimination for the majority of the items, although lower for some items, particularly in the Risk domain. IRT analyses showed that there was a rather good match between item and respondent locations and the measurement precision was high. Disordered step and average measures for some of the items in the Risk domain indicate that these items were problematic from a psychometric point of view and only applicable for a minority of the participants. Differential item functioning for gender in some of the items suggests that they might need to be revised to minimise potential gender bias.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
classical test theory, CORE-OM, item response theory, Rasch analysis
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-202006 (URN)10.1002/cpp.2808 (DOI)000898411300001 ()36480132 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85144139731 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-29 Created: 2022-12-29 Last updated: 2023-12-01Bibliographically approved
M. Gavelin, H., Domellöf, M. E., Åström, E., Nelson, A., Launder, N. H., Stigsdotter Neely, A. & Lampit, A. (2022). Cognitive function in clinical burnout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Work & Stress, 36(1), 86-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive function in clinical burnout: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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2022 (English)In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 86-104Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clinical burnout has been associated with impaired cognitive functioning; however, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the pattern and magnitude of cognitive deficits. The aim of this systematic review and multivariate meta-analysis was to assess cognitive function in clinical burnout as compared to healthy controls and identify the pattern and severity of cognitive dysfunction across cognitive domains. We identified 17 studies encompassing 730 patients with clinical burnout and 649 healthy controls. Clinical burnout was associated with impaired performance in episodic memory (g = −0.36, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.15), short-term and working memory (g = −0.36, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.20), executive function (g = −0.39, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.23), attention and processing speed (g = −0.43, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.29) and fluency (g = −0.53, 95% CI −1.04 to −0.03). There were no differences between patients and controls in crystallized (k = 6 studies) and visuospatial abilities (k = 4). Our findings suggest that clinical burnout is associated with cognitive impairment across multiple cognitive domains. Cognitive dysfunction needs to be considered in the clinical and occupational health management of burnout to optimise rehabilitation and support return-to-work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2022
Keywords
Burnout, cognition, meta-analysis, systematic review
National Category
Neurology
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190615 (URN)10.1080/02678373.2021.2002972 (DOI)000725944400001 ()2-s2.0-85120985253 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2020-01111
Available from: 2021-12-20 Created: 2021-12-20 Last updated: 2022-07-07Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E., Westlin, W., Flodén, L., Unger, A., Papastamatelou, J. & Carelli, M. G. (2021). A Time to Sleep Well and Be Contented: Time Perspective, Sleep Quality, and Life Satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article ID 627836.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Time to Sleep Well and Be Contented: Time Perspective, Sleep Quality, and Life Satisfaction
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 627836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A major aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between time perspective, i.e., habitual ways of relating to the past, present, and future and sleep quality. A second aim was to test a model by which the expected negative relationship between deviation from a balanced time perspective (DBTP), a measure taking temporal biases across all three frames into account, and life satisfaction was mediated by poor sleep quality. To these ends, a sample of young adults (N = 386) completed a version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A measure of chronotype was in addition included for control purposes. Bivariate analyses revealed that the S-ZTPI subscales Past Negative, Future Negative, and Present Fatatlistic were associated with poorer sleep quality (higher PSQI scores), with significant associations in the opposite direction for Past Positive and Future Positive. However, DBTP was the strongest predictor of (poor) sleep quality, suggesting that time perspective biases have and additive effect on sleep quality. Regression analyses with PSQI as the dependent variable and alll six ZTPI subscales as the predictors indicated that time perspective accounted for about 20% of the variance in sleep quality (17% beyond chronotype), with Past Negative, Past Positive, and Future Negative as the unique predictors. The results additionally confirmed a strong relation between DBTP and life satisfaction. Finally, data were consistent with the hypothesis that the association of DBTP and life satisfaction is mediated, in part, by sleep quality. Taken together, the results confirmed a substantial link between time perspective and sleep-related problems, factors that may have a negative impact on life satisfaction. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
sleep quality, time perspective, balanced time perspective, chronotype, life satisfaction
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182529 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2021.627836 (DOI)000645542500001 ()2-s2.0-85105142936 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Individuellt tidsperspektiv
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2021-04-25 Created: 2021-04-25 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Andersson, L., Sandberg, P., Åström, E., Lillqvist, M. & Claeson, A.-S. (2020). Chemical Intolerance Is Associated With Altered Response Bias, not Greater Sensory Sensitivity. i-Perception, 11(6), Article ID 2041669520978424.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical Intolerance Is Associated With Altered Response Bias, not Greater Sensory Sensitivity
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2020 (English)In: i-Perception, E-ISSN 2041-6695, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 2041669520978424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical intolerance is a surprisingly prevalent condition or affliction characterized by adverse reactions to low levels of chemical, often odorous stimulation. Sufferers often assume that their plight is due to an uncommon sensory acuteness, yet studies repeatedly fail to reveal altered detection thresholds. Here, we investigated whether self-reported chemical intolerance is associated with altered sensory sensitivity or response bias. The sensory acuity (sensitivity; A) and sensory decision rule (criterion; B) to n-butanol was assessed using the method of constant stimuli in 82 participants with different degrees of chemical intolerance (low to high). Higher self-reported chemical intolerance was associated with a lower criterion, but not with sensitivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2020
Keywords
chemical intolerance, chemosensory, idiopathic environmental intolerance, multiple chemical sensitivity, signal detection theory, smell
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-178526 (URN)10.1177/2041669520978424 (DOI)000601264400001 ()33425314 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85097893220 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M14-0375:1
Available from: 2021-01-15 Created: 2021-01-15 Last updated: 2023-11-15Bibliographically approved
Marco, F., Åström, E. & Wittmann, M. (2020). Editorial to the Special Issue on Psychological and Biological Time: The Role of Personality. Timing & Time Perception, 8(1), 1-4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial to the Special Issue on Psychological and Biological Time: The Role of Personality
2020 (English)In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brill Academic Publishers, 2020
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170708 (URN)10.1163/22134468-20190001 (DOI)2-s2.0-85080869975 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-13 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Åström, E., Rönnlund, M., Adolfsson, R. & Carelli, M. G. (2019). Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults: associations beyond personality and negative life events. Aging & Mental Health, 23(12), 1674-1683
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults: associations beyond personality and negative life events
2019 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1674-1683Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
Depressive symptoms, time perspective, older adults, personality, negative life events
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153376 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2018.1506743 (DOI)000492447600008 ()30450950 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057326014 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-19 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Rönnlund, M., Koudriavtseva, A., Germundsjö, L., Eriksson, T., Åström, E. & Carelli, M. G. (2019). Mindfulness Promotes a More Balanced Time Perspective: Correlational and Intervention-Based Evidence. Mindfulness, 10(8), 1579-1591
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mindfulness Promotes a More Balanced Time Perspective: Correlational and Intervention-Based Evidence
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2019 (English)In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1579-1591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mindfulness and aspects of time perspective (TP, i.e., habitual views of past, present, future).

Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between an established measure of mindfulness (FFMQ) and an extended version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Swedish ZTPI; S-ZTPI) in a sample with little experience of mindfulness training (n = 212). In addition, we evaluated the effects of two mindfulness-based interventions (a mindfulness instructor course involving 29 participants and a mindful self-compassion program, n = 40 for the intervention group, n = 41 for controls) on mindfulness and measures of TP including an aggregate measure of deviations from a proposed optimal, or balanced, time perspective (DBTP).

Results: Cross-sectional data were consistent with a model by which part of the relationship between mindfulness and perceived stress is mediated by reduced DBTP. Global mindfulness scores showed the strongest (negative) associations with the S-ZTPI scales Future Negative and Past Negative. Comparisons of pre/post-intervention data revealed significant mindfulness-based intervention-related reductions of DBTP (Cohen’s d = − 0.46), with lowered scores on Past Negative and Future Negative and a small increase on Past Positive.

Conclusions: The results support the notion that a higher level of mindfulness promotes a more balanced time perspective, with a reduced focus on negative aspects of the past and negative anticipations of the future. Relations to repetitive negative thought processes (rumination, worry) and a potential bidirectional influence of mindfulness and aspects of time perspective are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2019
Keywords
Mindfulness, Time perspective, Stress, MBI, Balanced time perspective
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158555 (URN)10.1007/s12671-019-01113-x (DOI)000473450900011 ()2-s2.0-85065041794 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02199
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-05-02 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2906-5409

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