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Bäcklund, N., Lundstedt, S., Tornevi, A., Wihlbäck, A.-C., Olsson, T., Dahlqvist, P. & Brattsand, G. (2024). Salivary cortisol and cortisone can circumvent confounding effects of oral contraceptives in the short synacthen test. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 109(7), 1899-1906
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salivary cortisol and cortisone can circumvent confounding effects of oral contraceptives in the short synacthen test
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 1899-1906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is usually diagnosed by low plasma cortisol levels following a short Synacthen test (SST). Most plasma cortisol is bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin, which is increased by estrogen in combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (COCs). Women with AI using COCs are therefore at risk of having an apparently normal plasma cortisol level during SST, which would not adequately reflect AI.

Objective: To test whether salivary cortisol or cortisone during SST is more robust against the COC effect and to calculate the lower reference limits (LRLs) for these to be used as tentative diagnostic cutoffs to exclude AI.

Methods: Forty-one healthy women on COCs and 46 healthy women without exogenous estrogens performed an SST with collection of plasma and salivary samples at 0, 30, and 60 min after Synacthen injection. The groups were compared using regression analysis with age as covariate and the LRLs were calculated parametrically.

Results: SST-stimulated plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the COC group versus controls, while mean salivary cortisol and cortisone levels were slightly lower in the COC group. Importantly, COC use did not significantly alter LRLs for salivary cortisol or cortisone. The smallest LRL difference between groups was seen for salivary cortisone.

Conclusion: Salivary cortisol and especially salivary cortisone are considerably less affected by COC use than plasma cortisol during SST. Due to similar LRLs, a common cutoff for salivary cortisol and cortisone during SST can be used to exclude AI in premenopausal women irrespective of COC use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024
Keywords
short Synacthen test, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, oral contraceptives, adrenal insufficiency, reference limits
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222629 (URN)10.1210/clinem/dgad763 (DOI)001140071500001 ()38173358 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85196301347 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenUmeå University
Available from: 2024-03-22 Created: 2024-03-22 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Imamovic, M., Bäcklund, N., Lundstedt, S., Brattsand, G., Aardal, E., Olsson, T. & Dahlqvist, P. (2023). Confounding effects of liquorice, hydrocortisone, and blood contamination on salivary cortisol but not cortisone. Endocrine Connections, 12(1), Article ID e220324.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Confounding effects of liquorice, hydrocortisone, and blood contamination on salivary cortisol but not cortisone
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2023 (English)In: Endocrine Connections, E-ISSN 2049-3614, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e220324Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To determine the effects of liquorice consumption, topical hydrocortisone, and blood contamination on salivary cortisol and cortisone concentrations.

Design and methods: Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized to a low, medium, or high dose of liquorice. Late-night saliva samples were collected using a Salivette® collection device at baseline, during 1 week of daily liquorice consumption, and during 4 weeks' washout. Saliva sampling was also performed before and after the application of topical hydrocortisone on the skin. Furthermore, in a subgroup (n  = 16), saliva and venous blood were collected from each individual and mixed to achieve graded blood contamination in saliva. Salivary cortisol and cortisone were analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: Significant increases in salivary cortisol concentrations were observed during medium- (+49%) and high-dose (+97%) liquorice intake, which returned to baseline 4 days after liquorice withdrawal. Topical hydrocortisone on fingers holding the collection swab increased salivary cortisol concentrations >1000-fold with concomitant pronounced elevation of the cortisol:cortisone ratio. Salivary cortisol increased significantly after contamination with blood ≥0.5%. Visual examination could safely detect these samples. Salivary cortisone concentrations were unaffected by liquorice consumption and blood contamination, and only marginally affected by topical hydrocortisone.

Conclusion: Liquorice, topical hydrocortisone, and blood contamination may all cause elevated salivary cortisol concentrations. Improved sampling instructions and visual examination of the sample may minimize these risks. Salivary cortisone is essentially unaffected by the different preanalytical confounders and may be used as a first-line screening test for Cushing's syndrome.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioscientifica, 2023
Keywords
Cushing’s syndrome, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, liquorice, sample contamination
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208130 (URN)10.1530/ec-22-0324 (DOI)000971893300001 ()36383173 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151875249 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västerbotten
Available from: 2023-05-10 Created: 2023-05-10 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Bäcklund, N., Brattsand, G., Lundstedt, S., Aardal, E., Bartuseviciene, I., Berinder, K., . . . Dahlqvist, P. (2023). Salivary cortisol and cortisone in diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: a comparison of six different analytical methods. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 61(10), 1780-1791
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salivary cortisol and cortisone in diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: a comparison of six different analytical methods
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2023 (English)In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 1780-1791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Salivary cortisol and cortisone at late night and after dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are increasingly used for screening of Cushing’s syndrome (CS). We aimed to establish reference intervals for salivary cortisol and cortisone with three liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques and for salivary cortisol with three immunoassays (IAs), and evaluate their diagnostic accuracy for CS.

Methods: Salivary samples at 08:00 h, 23:00 h and 08:00 h after a 1-mg DST were collected from a reference population (n=155) and patients with CS (n=22). Sample aliquots were analyzed by three LC-MS/MS and three IA methods. After establishing reference intervals, the upper reference limit (URL) for each method was used to calculate sensitivity and specificity for CS. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by comparing ROC curves.

Results: URLs for salivary cortisol at 23:00 h were similar for the LC-MS/MS methods (3.4–3.9 nmol/L), but varied between IAs: Roche (5.8 nmol/L), Salimetrics (4.3 nmol/L), Cisbio (21.6 nmol/L). Corresponding URLs after DST were 0.7–1.0, and 2.4, 4.0 and 5.4 nmol/L, respectively. Salivary cortisone URLs were 13.5–16.6 nmol/L at 23:00 h and 3.0–3.5 nmol/L at 08:00 h after DST. All methods had ROC AUCs ≥0.96.

Conclusions: We present robust reference intervals for salivary cortisol and cortisone at 08:00 h, 23:00 h and 08:00 h after DST for several clinically used methods. The similarities between LC-MS/MS methods allows for direct comparison of absolute values. Diagnostic accuracy for CS was high for all salivary cortisol and cortisone LC-MS/MS methods and salivary cortisol IAs evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2023
Keywords
Cushing's syndrome, immunoassay, LC-MS/MS, method comparison, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206793 (URN)10.1515/cclm-2023-0141 (DOI)000964106600001 ()37013440 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151863068 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västerbotten
Available from: 2023-04-24 Created: 2023-04-24 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Dreij, K., Lundin, L., Le Bihanic, F. & Lundstedt, S. (2020). Polycyclic aromatic compounds in urban soils of Stockholm City: Occurrence, sources and human health risk assessment. Environmental Research, 182, Article ID 108989.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polycyclic aromatic compounds in urban soils of Stockholm City: Occurrence, sources and human health risk assessment
2020 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 182, article id 108989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are ubiquitous pollutants that are found everywhere in our environment, including air, soil and water. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations, distribution, sources and potential health risk of 43 PACs in soils collected from 25 urban parks in Stockholm City, Sweden. These PACs included 21 PAHs, 11 oxygenated PAHs, 7 methylated PAHs, and 4 azaarenes whose concentrations ranged between 190 and 54 500, 30.5-5 300, 14.9-680, and 4.17-590 ng/g soil, respectively. Fluoranthene was found at the highest levels ranging between 17.7 and 9800 ng/g, benzo[a]pyrene between 9.64 and 4600 ng/g, and the highly potent carcinogen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene up to 740 ng/g. The most abundant oxy-PAH was 6H-benzo[cd] pyren-6-one (2.09-2300 ng/g). Primary sources of PAHs were identified by use of diagnostic ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization modelling and found to be pyrogenic including vehicle emissions and combustion of biomass. Estimating the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRS) associated with exposure to PAHs in these soils indicated that the PAH levels in some parks constitute a considerable increased risk level for adults and children (total ILCR > 1 x 10(-4)). Compared to worldwide urban parks contamination, we conclude that the PAC soil levels in parks of Stockholm City in general are low, but that some parks are more heavily contaminated and should be considered for clean-up actions to limit human health risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
PAHs, Oxy-PAHs, Urban soil pollution, Source apportionment, Human health risk assessment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170804 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2019.108989 (DOI)000516094400128 ()31835119 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076036363 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-27 Created: 2020-05-27 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Nyström, R., Lindgren, R., Avagyan, R., Westerholm, R., Lundstedt, S. & Boman, C. (2017). Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove. Energy & Fuels, 31(5), 5514-5524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Wood Species and Burning Conditions on Particle Emission Characteristics in a Residential Wood Stove
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2017 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 5514-5524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Emissions from small-scale residential biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the performance of stoves, boilers, and fireplaces have been shown to be influenced both by fuel properties, technology, and user behavior (firing procedures). Still, rather scarce information is available regarding the relative importance of these variables for the particle characteristics and emissions of different particulate components, e.g., soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAH, and metals. In particular, the behavior of different wood fuels under varying firing procedures and combustion conditions has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, the objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of wood species and combustion conditions on particle emission characteristics in a typical Nordic residential wood stove. The emissions from four different wood species were investigated at two controlled combustion conditions, including nominal and high burn rates, with a focus on physical and chemical properties of the fine particulate matter. Considerably elevated carbonaceous particle emissions (soot and organics) were found during high burn rate conditions, which were associated with a shift in particle number size distribution toward a higher fraction of larger particles. In some cases, as here seen for pine, the specific fuel properties can affect the combustion performance and thereby also influence particle and PAH emissions. For the inorganic ash particles, the content in the fuel, and not burning conditions, was found to be the main determining factor, as seen by the increased emissions of alkali salts for aspen. Wood stove emission data on 11 specific oxy-PAHs, together with 45 PAHs, were combined with controlled variations of burning conditions and fuels. The oxy-PAH/PAH ratio during a high burn rate was observed to increase, suggesting an enrichment of particulate oxy-PAH. Accordingly, the main influence on emission performance and particle characteristics was seen between different burn rates, and this study clearly illustrates the major importance of proper operation to avoid unfavorable burning condition, regardless of the wood species used.

National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-136337 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02751 (DOI)000402023600098 ()2-s2.0-85020511222 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2012-3802Bio4Energy
Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Weidemann, E., Andersson, P. L., Bidleman, T., Boman, C., Carlin, D. J., Collina, E., . . . Jansson, S. (2016). 14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(8), 8141-8159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources
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2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 8141-8159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the "Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources". The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

Keywords
Products of incomplete combustion, Human health, Soot, Particles, Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated dibenzofurans, Congress paper
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121585 (URN)10.1007/s11356-016-6308-y (DOI)000374994600105 ()26906006 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84959117548 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Enell, A., Lundstedt, S., Arp, H. P., Josefsson, S., Cornelissen, G., Wik, O. & Kleja, D. B. (2016). Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(21), 11797-11805
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil
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2016 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 11797-11805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

National Category
Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129902 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b02774 (DOI)000386991100042 ()27696834 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84994318995 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-13 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Wincent, E., Jonsson, M. E., Bottai, M., Lundstedt, S. & Dreij, K. (2015). Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish in Response to Soil Extracts Containing Unsubstituted and Oxygenated PAHs. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(6), 3869-3877
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish in Response to Soil Extracts Containing Unsubstituted and Oxygenated PAHs
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 3869-3877Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many industrial sites are polluted by complex mixtures of polycydic aromatic compounds (PACs). Besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), these mixtures often contain significant amounts of more polar PACs including oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). The effects of oxy-PAHs are, however, poorly known. Here we used zebrafish embryos to examine toxicities and transcriptional changes induced by PAC containing soil extracts from three different industrial sites: a gasworks (GAS), a former wood preservation site (WOOD), and a coke oven (COKE), and to PAR and oxy-PAH containing fractions of these. All extracts induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr)-regulated mRNAs, malformations, and mortality. The WOOD extract was most toxic and the GAS extract least toxic. The extracts induced glutathione transferases and heat shock protein 70, suggesting that the toxicity also involved oxidative stress. With all extracts, Ahr2-knock-down reduced the toxicity, indicating a significant Ahr2-dependence on the effects. Ahr2-knock-down was most effective with the PAH fraction of the WOOD extract and with the oxy-PAH fraction of the COKE extract. Our results indicate that oxy-PAH containing mixtures can be as potent Ahr activators and developmental toxicants as PAHs. In addition to Ahr activating potency, the profile of cytochrome P4501 inhibitors may also determine the toxic potency of the extracts.

National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102364 (URN)10.1021/es505588s (DOI)000351324400071 ()25715055 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84924944090 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Lemieux, C. L., Long, A. S., Lambert, I. B., Lundstedt, S., Tysklind, M. & White, P. A. (2015). Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Determined Using Bioassay-Derived Levels of Benzo[a]pyrene Equivalents. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(3), 1797-1805
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils Determined Using Bioassay-Derived Levels of Benzo[a]pyrene Equivalents
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2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1797-1805Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here we evaluate the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) posed by 10 PAH-contaminated soils using (i) the currently advocated, targeted chemical-specific approach that assumes dose additivity for carcinogenic PAHs and (ii) a bioassay-based approach that employs the in vitro mutagenic activity of the soil fractions to determine levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents and, by extension, ELCR. Mutagenic activity results are presented in our companion paper.1 The results show that ELCR values for the PAH-containing fractions, determined using the chemical-specific approach, are generally (i.e., 8 out of 10) greater than those calculated using the bioassay-based approach; most are less than 5-fold greater. Only two chemical-specific ELCR estimates are less than their corresponding bioassay-derived values; differences are less than 10%. The bioassay-based approach, which permits estimation of ELCR without a priori knowledge of mixture composition, proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the chemical-specific approach. The results suggest that ELCR estimates for complex PAH mixtures determined using a targeted, chemical-specific approach are reasonable, albeit conservative. Calculated risk estimates still depend on contentious PEFs and cancer slope factors. Follow-up in vivo mutagenicity assessments will be required to validate the results and their relevance for human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100344 (URN)10.1021/es504466b (DOI)000349060300068 ()2-s2.0-84964270626 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-01 Created: 2015-03-01 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Josefsson, S., Arp, H. P., Kleja, D. B., Enell, A. & Lundstedt, S. (2015). Determination of polyoxymethylene (POM) - water partition coefficients for oxy-PAHs and PAHs. Chemosphere, 119, 1268-1274
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of polyoxymethylene (POM) - water partition coefficients for oxy-PAHs and PAHs
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2015 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, p. 1268-1274Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are a class of ubiquitously occurring pollutants of which little is known. They can be co-emitted with PAHs or formed from PAHs in the environment. The environmental fate and risk of oxy-PAHs are difficult to assess due to a lack of methods to quantify their pore water concentrations. One sampler that can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants is polyoxymethylene (POM). In this study, POM - water partition coefficients (K-POM) were determined for 11 oxy-PAHs. K-POM values of 8 PAHs with similar hydrophobicities as the oxy-PAHs were determined for comparison. Results showed that log K-POM values ranged from 2.64 to 4.82 for the PAHs (2-4 rings), similar to previously determined values. LogK(pom) values for investigated oxy-PAHs ranged from 0.96 to 5.36. The addition of carbonylic oxygen on a parent PAH generally lowered K-POM by 0.5 to 1.0 log units, which is attributable to the presence of carbonylic oxygens increasing water solubility. The K-POM values presented here will facilitate simultaneous assessments of freely dissolved water concentrations of oxy-PAHs and PAHs in environmental media.

Keywords
Oxy-PAHs, PAHs, Pore water concentrations, Passive samplers, Polyoxymethylene
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-100979 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.102 (DOI)000347739600172 ()25460771 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84919752889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-16 Created: 2015-03-16 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7765-0413

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