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Publications (10 of 97) Show all publications
Tjostheim, I. & Waterworth, J. (2024). Exploring susceptibility to phishing: the cognitive reflection test and other possible predictors. In: : . Paper presented at The 57th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring susceptibility to phishing: the cognitive reflection test and other possible predictors
2024 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The research objective of this study was to investigate factors contributing to phishing susceptibility, expanding on findings from previousstudies. We report results based on five, large-scale surveys of national populations from which we collecteddata about cognitive strategies using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), privacy attitudes, data disclosure behaviors, and demographic variables. We used binary logistic regression to analyze the relationship between these factors and susceptibility to phishing attacks. Wefound that willingness to share personal data and CRTscores significantly predicted phishing susceptibility.Younger people were somewhat more susceptible than older age-groups. as were males than females. Importantly, these findings suggest that phishing susceptibility is not simply a function of cognitivea bility, but also of individual differences in privacy attitudes and data disclosure behaviors. Their credibility is enhanced by the use of five large-scale studies with national populations, unlike earlier studies primarily relying on smaller-scale student populations.

Keywords
susceptibility to phishing, cognitive reflection test, data disclosure, privacy attitudes
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218760 (URN)
Conference
The 57th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2024
Available from: 2023-12-31 Created: 2023-12-31 Last updated: 2024-01-02Bibliographically approved
Tjostheim, I. & Waterworth, J. (2024). Is there a market for digital travel?: Travellers' views on digital travel and willingness to pay. In: José Luís Reis; Marisa Del Rio Araujo; Luís Paulo Reis; José Paulo Marques dos Santos (Ed.), Marketing and smart technologies: proceedings of ICMarkTech 2022, volume 1. Paper presented at ICMarkTech'22 – International Conference on Marketing and Technologies, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, December 1-3, 2022 (pp. 635-645). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there a market for digital travel?: Travellers' views on digital travel and willingness to pay
2024 (English)In: Marketing and smart technologies: proceedings of ICMarkTech 2022, volume 1 / [ed] José Luís Reis; Marisa Del Rio Araujo; Luís Paulo Reis; José Paulo Marques dos Santos, Springer, 2024, p. 635-645Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, digital alternatives to office-work, classroom teaching, business meetings and leisure activities etc. were seen by most as a supplement to, not a replacement for, meeting people face-to-face. With the experiences many have had these last two years, including travel restrictions, vacationers' views of digital travel might be expected to have changed. This study is based on surveys of views on digital travel in the summers of 2021 and 2022. We presented vacationers with descriptions of digital travel products and activities, followed by questions about willingness to pay for these. We identified a small segment of vacationers who see digital travel as a substitute for physical travel, and a significant group of vacationers who see the digital travel experience as a pre-taste of actual travel. The vacationers were asked for comparisons of their willingness to pay for digital services with ticket prices that a tourist would normally pay at a destination. Although we could identify a market for digital travel products, it remains to be seen whether players in the travel industry can offer products and services that are attractive enough to raise significant revenue. There is not necessarily a high correlation between intention to pay and actual willingness to make payments, but the study indicates that there is an emergent market that businesses in the travel economy can potentially utilize.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Series
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST), ISSN 2190-3018, E-ISSN 2190-3026 ; 344
Keywords
vacation travel, digital travel products, willingness to pay, future travel
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201591 (URN)10.1007/978-981-99-0333-7_46 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171833083 (Scopus ID)9789819903320 (ISBN)9789819903337 (ISBN)
Conference
ICMarkTech'22 – International Conference on Marketing and Technologies, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, December 1-3, 2022
Note

 First Online: 05 September 2023

Available from: 2022-12-10 Created: 2022-12-10 Last updated: 2023-10-18Bibliographically approved
Tjostheim, I., Wales, C. & Waterworth, J. (2024). Sexting, age and digital vulnerabilities. In: : . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Human Interaction and Emerging Technologies (IHIET 2024), Venice, Italy, August 26-28, 2024.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexting, age and digital vulnerabilities
2024 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Despite popular misconception it is not only young people that are sharing nude pictures and videos. There are a number of studies targeted towards the younger generation about their sexting, but few on older age-groups. In general, younger people take more risk than older people, and some seem to care less about possible negative consequences. For this study we commissioned a market research company to collect data from a national population, with a representative sample from 16 to 69 years old, in total 1071 citizens. We used binary logistic regression for the analysis of responses, a method that can be used to predict a categorical dependent variable – in our case whether a person has been sexting the last 12 months or not. In the study we included the following independent variables: gender, education, self-efficacy; the cognitive reflection test (CRT) to distinguish between a intuitive versus analytical decision style; Machiavellianism, to distinguish a personality trait characterized by manipulativeness and deceitfulness; willingness to share personal data, and finally whether the citizens had experience of ID-theft or credit-card misuse within the previous 12 months. Our results show that the ID-theft/credit-card variable was a significant predictor of sexting for the age-groups 16-29, 30-39 and 50-69 years old. For youngest group, the manipulativeness and deceitfulness trait is also a predictor, whereas for the oldest group, the intuitive decision style and a high willingness to share personal data are also significant predictors.

Keywords
Sexting, digital vulnerability, personal traits, the cognitive reflection test, willingness to share personal data
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-224636 (URN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Human Interaction and Emerging Technologies (IHIET 2024), Venice, Italy, August 26-28, 2024
Available from: 2024-05-21 Created: 2024-05-21 Last updated: 2024-05-22
Tjostheim, I., Wales, C. & Waterworth, J. (2024). Uncovering dark patterns: Learning through serious gameplay about the dangers of sharing data. In: Alvaro Rocha; Hojjat Adeli; Gintautas Dzemyda; Fernando Moreira; Valentina Colla (Ed.), Information Systems and Technologies: WorldCIST 2023, Volume 2. Paper presented at WorldCIST23, World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, Pisa, Italy, April 4-6, 2023 (pp. 471-480). Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncovering dark patterns: Learning through serious gameplay about the dangers of sharing data
2024 (English)In: Information Systems and Technologies: WorldCIST 2023, Volume 2 / [ed] Alvaro Rocha; Hojjat Adeli; Gintautas Dzemyda; Fernando Moreira; Valentina Colla, Springer Nature, 2024, p. 471-480Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dark patterns refer to tricks used in websites and apps to make you do things that you do not intend to do. This paper presents the board-game Dark Pattern, in which players install apps, draw dark patterns cards, and make choices about the sharing of personal data. To win the game, a player must share as little data as possible and play cards that punish other play-ers. Two groups, the first with 56 students and the second with 45 students, played the game and then answered a survey with questions controlling their knowledge about the dark patterns types featured in the game. In addi-tion, a further 50 students answered the same survey without playing the game. In this paper we present key findings about the dark patterns knowledge generated by playing the game. Then we present an exploratory analysis using Partial Least Square – Structural Equation modelling (PLS-SEM). We analysed whether dark patterns knowledge and risk perception, the likelihood of negative incidents due to data sharing, could predict the players behavioural intention to take proactive privacy steps. The two PLS-SEM models have a variance explained (R2) of 0.34 and 0.35 indicating that approximately 35% of the variance could be accounted for by the two vari-ables included in the model. Taken together, the analyses indicated that playing the Dark Pattern game had a positive effect on behavioural inten-tion to proactive privacy steps as a result of by playing the game.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Series
Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, ISSN 2367-3370, E-ISSN 2367-3389 ; 800
Keywords
Serious games, learning, user-test, exploratory study, dark patterns, sharing of personal data, partial least square modelling
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences Other Social Sciences
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206489 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-45645-9_45 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186769697 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-45644-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-45645-9 (ISBN)
Conference
WorldCIST23, World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, Pisa, Italy, April 4-6, 2023
Available from: 2023-04-06 Created: 2023-04-06 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Tjostheim, I. & Waterworth, J. A. (2023). Digital travel: a study of travellers' views of a digital visit to Mexico. In: Álvaro Rocha; Carlos Ferrás; Waldo Ibarra (Ed.), Álvaro Rocha; Carlos Ferrás; Waldo Ibarra (Ed.), Information technology and systems: ICITS 2023, volume 1. Paper presented at ICITS’23, the 2023 International conference on information technology and systems, Cusco, Peru, April 24-26, 2023 (pp. 185-194). London: Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital travel: a study of travellers' views of a digital visit to Mexico
2023 (English)In: Information technology and systems: ICITS 2023, volume 1 / [ed] Álvaro Rocha; Carlos Ferrás; Waldo Ibarra, London: Springer Nature, 2023, p. 185-194Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, we invited members of a Norwegian national survey-panel to give their views on digital travel applications and digital travel experiences, and to consider Mexico as a travel destination. We presented vacationers with descriptions of digital travel products and activities, and a video about Mexico made from the game Horizon Forza 5. We used Partial Least Square-Structural Equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyse whether digital presentations, sense of place, and travel motivation could predict intention to visit Mexico. The analysis showed that vicarious sense of place was the best predictor of future intentions. As the study is based on survey data from a national population, a reasonable degree of generalisability, at least for Norway and other Scandinavian countries, is to be expected. It shows that there is a small but emergent market for digital travel and virtual tourism. More importantly, the study indicates that a digital experience in a virtual environment - specifically, that of a vicarious sense of place - can stimulate and motivate vacationers to travel to a tourist destination and hence that there are opportunities which businesses in the travel economy can potentially utilize.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, ISSN 2367-3370, E-ISSN 2367-3389 ; 691
Keywords
Digital travel, Virtual tourism, tourism marketing, Sense of place, Intention to visit a destination
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Business Administration
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-210400 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-33258-6_17 (DOI)2-s2.0-85169049944 (Scopus ID)9783031332579 (ISBN)9783031332586 (ISBN)
Conference
ICITS’23, the 2023 International conference on information technology and systems, Cusco, Peru, April 24-26, 2023
Available from: 2023-06-21 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2023-09-11Bibliographically approved
Webster, M., Norwood, K., Waterworth, J. & Leavey, G. (2023). Effectiveness of intergenerational exchange programs between adolescents and older adults: a systematic review. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of intergenerational exchange programs between adolescents and older adults: a systematic review
2023 (English)In: Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, ISSN 1535-0770, E-ISSN 1535-0932Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Communities are aging and becoming more segregated, leading to fractured relationships between generations. Intergenerational exchange has improved cohesion, particularly when different generations engage as equal partners. This paper presents a systematic review of intergenerational studies between adolescents and older adults. Thirteen papers were reviewed using PRISMA guidelines, and outcomes, methodological quality, facilitators, and barriers identified, to better understand effectiveness and inform recommendations for future practice. The framework informed quality assessment, and the papers were rated moderate or high quality. Unfortunately, heterogeneity across studies rendered comparison challenging. Further attention is required to elucidate guidelines for implementing and reporting intergenerational studies.Contribution to the Field 

This review demonstrated how non-familial intergenerational programs involving adolescents and older adults provided benefits to both. Benefits for older adults included improved wellbeing, cognitive, and social engagement.Benefits for adolescents were identity formation and skill development. Shared outcomes for both generations were improved attitudes and stereotypes, reduced generational gap, and solidarity.High variability in program design, methodology, and sample size was evident across studies. However, it highlighted the suitability of IG engagement across differing contexts.Future recommendations included facilitator training, diverse samples, and longitudinal methodological designs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Intergenerational relations, adolescent, older adult, systematic review
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
health services research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-216400 (URN)10.1080/15350770.2023.2267532 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-11-10 Created: 2023-11-10 Last updated: 2023-11-10
Waterworth, J. & Tjostheim, I. (2023). Guest editorial: special issue on digital travel. CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 26(9), 670-671
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guest editorial: special issue on digital travel
2023 (English)In: CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, ISSN 2152-2715, E-ISSN 2152-2723, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 670-671Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite limitations in the way digital travel is currently realized, more and more encounters with other people and, to a lesser but significant extent, other places are already digital. Meeting applications such as Zoom and Teams are the most obvious, albeit that they are very weak examples of digital travel, since almost no sense of traveling is experienced by participants. Many people enjoy computer games that take them to sometimes very realistic 3D places, which may be fictional, fantasy, or actual places. In addition to the public health benefits of reduced physical travel, these changes have had a positive environmental impact by lowering the consumption of fossil fuels, especially by cars and planes. Since the end of pandemic restrictions, there has been a partial “bounce back” in numbers of international tourists. Current forms of digital travel do not fully match the psychosocial appeal of physical travel. The key question behind all the papers selected for publication in this special issue is: How can digital travel be improved to meet the psychosocial needs of participants better so that its areas of acceptable and beneficial use are expanded?

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Mary Ann Liebert, 2023
Keywords
digital travel, virtual tourism, computer games, mediated presence
National Category
Other Social Sciences Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214464 (URN)10.1089/cyber.2023.29291.editorial (DOI)37646718 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85171600812 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-17 Created: 2023-09-17 Last updated: 2023-09-28Bibliographically approved
Ingvar, T. & Waterworth, J. (2023). Tomorrow’s digital travellers – who are they?. In: João Vidal Carvalho; António Abreu; Pedro Liberato; Alejandro Peña (Ed.), Advances in tourism, technology and systems: selected papers from ICOTTS 2022, volume 1. Paper presented at ICOTTS'22 - 4th International Conference on Tourism Technology & Systems, Santiago, Chile, November 3-5, 2022 (pp. 381-391).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tomorrow’s digital travellers – who are they?
2023 (English)In: Advances in tourism, technology and systems: selected papers from ICOTTS 2022, volume 1 / [ed] João Vidal Carvalho; António Abreu; Pedro Liberato; Alejandro Peña, 2023, p. 381-391Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The covid-19 pandemic, and the restrictions on physical meetings and travel that came with it, have had an impact on how people think about travel and digital alternatives to physical travel. In this study, we asked what the characteristics of tomorrow’s digital travellers might be. 100 members of survey panels were invited to give their views on digital travel applications and digital travel experiences. We used binary logistics to analyse the data that contained both demographics and personal characteristics of the travellers. We distinguish between two groups: the travellers with a positive view of digital travel vs. the travellers who did not share this view. The positive-to-digital travellers were those that stated that a digital travel experience could be similar to the physical experience or that it can substitute for a visit to a tourist destination. The analysis showed that two individual characteristics were more common among those positive to digital travel: optimism, as measured with the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and resistance to peer influence, measured with the Steinberger and Monahan RPI questionnaire.

Series
Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies, ISSN 2190-3018, E-ISSN 2190-3026 ; 345
Keywords
digital travel, personal characteristics, travel 2.0
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200755 (URN)10.1007/978-981-99-0337-5_32 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174448778 (Scopus ID)978-981-99-0336-8 (ISBN)978-981-99-0339-9 (ISBN)978-981-99-0337-5 (ISBN)
Conference
ICOTTS'22 - 4th International Conference on Tourism Technology & Systems, Santiago, Chile, November 3-5, 2022
Available from: 2022-11-05 Created: 2022-11-05 Last updated: 2023-10-30Bibliographically approved
Waterworth, J. & Tjostheim, I. (2022). Digital travel - defying distance and reality?. Psychologist (Leicester), 35(10), 46-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital travel - defying distance and reality?
2022 (English)In: Psychologist (Leicester), ISSN 0952-8229, E-ISSN 2398-1598, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
British Psychological Society, 2022
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201420 (URN)2-s2.0-85142508922 (Scopus ID)
Note

Web full text published 2022-01-11

Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2022-12-01Bibliographically approved
Waterworth, J. (2022). Digital travel trends and future possibilities.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital travel trends and future possibilities
2022 (English)Other (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
human-computer interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192299 (URN)
Note

Keynote speech at Masters Programme in User Experience Psychology Welcome Day,  Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan.

Available from: 2022-02-08 Created: 2022-02-08 Last updated: 2022-02-08Bibliographically approved
Projects
AGNES AAL [2009-01612_Vinnova]; Umeå Universityelf@home [2013-01444_Vinnova]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9419-0682

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