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Fors Connolly, F., Olofsson, J. & Josefsson, M. (2024). Do reductions of daily activities mediate the relationship between COVID-19 restrictions and mental ill-health among older persons in Europe?. Aging & Mental Health
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do reductions of daily activities mediate the relationship between COVID-19 restrictions and mental ill-health among older persons in Europe?
2024 (English)In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objective: Previous research has shown that daily activities are crucial for mental health among older people, and that such activities declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. While previous studies have confirmed a link between stringent restrictions and an increase in mental ill-health, the role of daily activities as a mediator in this relationship remains underexplored. We analyzed whether reductions in daily activities mediated the impact of these COVID-19 restrictions on mental ill-health during the pandemic’s initial phase.

Methods: We used data from Wave 8 SHARE Corona Survey covering 41,409 respondents from 25 European countries and Israel as well as data on COVID-19 restrictions from the Oxford Government Response  Tracker  (OxCGRT).  Multilevel  regression  and  multilevel-mediation  analysis  were  used  to  examine the relationships between restrictions, daily activities and mental ill-health.

Results: Reductions in walking and shopping showed a notably stronger association with increases in mental ill-health compared to social activities. Furthermore, declines in walking could account for about  a  quarter  of  the  relationship  between  restrictions  and  increased  mental  ill-health,  but  the  mediating effects of the other activates were negligible.

Conclusions: The study highlights the essential role of maintaining daily activities, particularly walking, to  mitigate  the  negative  psychological  effects  of  pandemic-related  restrictions  among  older  populations in Europe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
Keywords
Mental health, restrictions, COVID-19, ageing, Europe, SHARE
National Category
Sociology Social and Economic Geography Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221460 (URN)10.1080/13607863.2024.2313726 (DOI)2-s2.0-85184882889 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101015924
Available from: 2024-02-23 Created: 2024-02-23 Last updated: 2024-02-23
Josefsson, M., Daniels, M. J. & Pudas, S. (2023). A Bayesian semiparametric approach for inference on the population partly conditional mean from longitudinal data with dropout. Biostatistics, 24(2), 372-387
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Bayesian semiparametric approach for inference on the population partly conditional mean from longitudinal data with dropout
2023 (English)In: Biostatistics, ISSN 1465-4644, E-ISSN 1468-4357, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 372-387Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of memory trajectories using longitudinal data often result in highly non-representative samples due to selective study enrollment and attrition. An additional bias comes from practice effects that result in improved or maintained performance due to familiarity with test content or context. These challenges may bias study findings and severely distort the ability to generalize to the target population. In this study we propose an approach for estimating the finite population mean of a longitudinal outcome conditioning on being alive at a specific time point. We develop a flexible Bayesian semi-parametric predictive estimator for population inference when longitudinal auxiliary information is known for the target population. We evaluate sensitivity of the results to untestable assumptions and further compare our approach to other methods used for population inference in a simulation study. The proposed approach is motivated by 15-year longitudinal data from the Betula longitudinal cohort study. We apply our approach to estimate lifespan trajectories in episodic memory, with the aim to generalize findings to a target population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
BART, Memory, MNAR, Nonignorable dropout, Population inference, Sensitivity analysis, Truncationby death
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181637 (URN)10.1093/biostatistics/kxab012 (DOI)000755883800001 ()33880509 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85139431191 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-22 Created: 2021-03-22 Last updated: 2023-06-16Bibliographically approved
Wallmark, J., Josefsson, M. & Wiberg, M. (2023). Efficiency analysis of item response theory kernel equating for mixed-format tests. Applied psychological measurement, 47(7-8), 496-512
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency analysis of item response theory kernel equating for mixed-format tests
2023 (English)In: Applied psychological measurement, ISSN 0146-6216, E-ISSN 1552-3497, Vol. 47, no 7-8, p. 496-512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aims to evaluate the performance of Item Response Theory (IRT) kernel equating in the context of mixed-format tests by comparing it to IRT observed score equating and kernel equating with log-linear presmoothing. Comparisons were made through both simulations and real data applications, under both equivalent groups (EG) and non-equivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) sampling designs. To prevent bias towards IRT methods, data were simulated with and without the use of IRT models. The results suggest that the difference between IRT kernel equating and IRT observed score equating is minimal, both in terms of the equated scores and their standard errors. The application of IRT models for presmoothing yielded smaller standard error of equating than the log-linear presmoothing approach. When test data were generated using IRT models, IRT-based methods proved less biased than log-linear kernel equating. However, when data were simulated without IRT models, log-linear kernel equating showed less bias. Overall, IRT kernel equating shows great promise when equating mixed-format tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2023
Keywords
item response theory, kernel equating, log-linear models, presmoothing, simulation
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215929 (URN)10.1177/01466216231209757 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174542085 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2019.0129
Available from: 2023-11-02 Created: 2023-11-02 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Wallmark, J., Josefsson, M. & Wiberg, M. (2023). Kernel equating presmoothing methods: an empirical study with mixed-format test forms. In: Marie Wiberg; Dylan Molenaar; Jorge González; Jee-Seon Kim; Heungsun Hwang (Ed.), Quantitative psychology: The 87th annual meeting of the psychometric society, Bologna, Italy, 2022. Paper presented at 87th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, IMPS 2022, Bologna, Italy, July 11-15, 2022 (pp. 49-59). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kernel equating presmoothing methods: an empirical study with mixed-format test forms
2023 (English)In: Quantitative psychology: The 87th annual meeting of the psychometric society, Bologna, Italy, 2022 / [ed] Marie Wiberg; Dylan Molenaar; Jorge González; Jee-Seon Kim; Heungsun Hwang, Springer, 2023, p. 49-59Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

When equating test forms, it is common to presmooth the test score distributions before conducting the equating. In this study, the log-linear and item response theory (IRT) presmoothing methods were compared when equating mixed-format test forms using kernel equating. Test forms from two different high-stakes tests were equated: The Swedish national test in mathematics, using the equivalent group sampling design, and the verbal part of the Swedish SAT test, using the nonequivalent groups with anchor test sampling design. In both cases, the analytical equating standard errors were lower for high and low performing test takers when using IRT presmoothing compared to log-linear presmoothing. Both presmoothing methods resulted in reasonable equated curves. As no true equating transformation is known in a practical setting, using IRT models for presmoothing appears to be a viable alternative to log-linear models when equating mixed-format tests such as the Swedish SAT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics, ISSN 2194-1009, E-ISSN 2194-1017 ; 422
Keywords
Item response theory, Kernel equating, Presmoothing
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212317 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-27781-8_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85164740918 (Scopus ID)9783031277801 (ISBN)
Conference
87th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, IMPS 2022, Bologna, Italy, July 11-15, 2022
Available from: 2023-07-25 Created: 2023-07-25 Last updated: 2023-07-25Bibliographically approved
Weidung, B., Josefsson, M., Lyttkens, P., Olsson, J., Elgh, F., Lind, L., . . . Lövheim, H. (2023). Longitudinal Effects of Herpesviruses on Multiple Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Elderly Adults. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 94(2), 751-762
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal Effects of Herpesviruses on Multiple Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Elderly Adults
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 751-762Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses have been proposed to be involved in Alzheimer's disease development as potentially modifiable pathology triggers.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of serum antibodies for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) and anti-herpesvirus treatment with cognitive outcomes in relation to interactions with APOE ɛ4.

METHODS: The study included 849 participants in the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study. Cognitive performance at the ages of 75 and 80 years was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), trail-making test (TMT) A and B, and 7-minute screening test (7MS).

RESULTS: Anti- HSV-1 IgG positivity was associated cross-sectionally with worse performance on the MMSE, TMT-A, TMT-B, 7MS, enhanced free recall, and verbal fluency tests (p = 0.016, p = 0.016, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.033, and p < 0.001, respectively), but not orientation or clock drawing. Cognitive scores did not decline over time and longitudinal changes did not differ according to HSV-1 positivity. Anti- CMV IgG positivity was not associated cross-sectionally with cognition, but TMT-B scores declined more in anti- CMV IgG carriers. Anti- HSV-1 IgG interacted with APOE ɛ4 in association with worse TMT-A and better enhanced cued recall. Anti- HSV IgM interacted with APOE ɛ4 and anti-herpesvirus treatment in association with worse TMT-A and clock drawing, respectively.

CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that HSV-1 is linked to poorer cognition in cognitively healthy elderly adults, including impairments in executive function, memory, and expressive language. Cognitive performance did not decline over time, nor was longitudinal decline associated with HSV-1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2023
Keywords
Aged 80 and over, Alzheimer’s disease, Apolipoproteins E, cognition disorders, cohort studies, cytomegalovirus, dementia, Herpes simplex, herpesvirus 1 human, neurocognitive disorders
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212502 (URN)10.3233/JAD-221116 (DOI)37334589 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165546399 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-01 Created: 2023-08-01 Last updated: 2023-08-01Bibliographically approved
Josefsson, M., Sundström, A., Pudas, S., Nordin Adolfsson, A., Nyberg, L. & Adolfsson, R. (2023). Memory profiles predict dementia over 23–28 years in normal but not successful aging. International psychogeriatrics, 35(7), 351-359
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Memory profiles predict dementia over 23–28 years in normal but not successful aging
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2023 (English)In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 351-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Prospective studies suggest that memory deficits are detectable decades before clinical symptoms of dementia emerge. However, individual differences in long-term memory trajectories prior to diagnosis need to be further elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate long-term dementia and mortality risk for individuals with different memory trajectory profiles in a well-characterized population-based sample.

Methods: 1062 adults (aged 45–80 years) who were non-demented at baseline were followed over 23–28 years. Dementia and mortality risk were studied for three previously classified episodic memory trajectory groups: maintained high performance (Maintainers; 26%), average decline (Averages; 64%), and accelerated decline (Decliners; 12%), using multistate modeling to characterize individuals’ transitions from an initial non-demented state, possibly to a state of dementia and/or death.

Results: The memory groups showed considerable intergroup variability in memory profiles, starting 10–15 years prior to dementia diagnosis, and prior to death. A strong relationship between memory trajectory group and dementia risk was found. Specifically, Decliners had more than a fourfold risk of developing dementia compared to Averages. In contrast, Maintainers had a 2.6 times decreased dementia risk compared to Averages, and in addition showed no detectable memory decline prior to dementia diagnosis. A similar pattern of association was found for the memory groups and mortality risk, although only among non-demented.

Conclusion: There was a strong relationship between accelerated memory decline and dementia, further supporting the prognostic value of memory decline. The intergroup differences, however, suggest that mechanisms involved in successful memory aging may delay symptom onset.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2023
Keywords
memory decline, episodic memory, death, competing risk, multistate model
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165499 (URN)10.1017/S1041610219001844 (DOI)31762427 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85163913454 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
M. Gavelin, H., Stigsdotter Neely, A., Aronsson, I., Josefsson, M. & Andersson, L. (2023). Mental fatigue, cognitive performance and autonomic response following sustained mental activity in clinical burnout. Biological Psychology, 183, Article ID 108661.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental fatigue, cognitive performance and autonomic response following sustained mental activity in clinical burnout
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2023 (English)In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 183, article id 108661Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To investigate the effects of sustained mental activity on perceptions of mental fatigue, cognitive performance, and autonomic response in patients with clinical burnout as compared to a healthy control group.

Methods: Patients with clinical burnout (n = 30) and healthy control participants (n = 30) completed a 3-hour test session, in which they were administered a set of cognitive tests before and after an effortful cognitive task with concurrent sound exposure. Perceptions of mental fatigue and task demands (mental effort and concentration difficulties) were assessed repeatedly over the course of the test session. Heart rate variability was recorded to index autonomic response.

Results: In comparison with controls, perceived mental fatigue increased earlier in the session for the clinical burnout group and did not recover following a short rest period. Throughout the session, patients rated the tasks as more demanding and showed less improvement on measures of attention and processing speed, inhibition and working memory. While autonomic responses were initially comparable, there was a unique decrease in high-frequency heart rate variability in the clinical burnout group after extended testing and exposure.

Conclusion: Patients with clinical burnout are affected differently than healthy controls by sustained mental activity, as reflected by ratings of perceived mental fatigue, aspects of cognitive performance and autonomic response. Further investigation into the role of autonomic regulation in relation to cognitive symptoms in clinical burnout is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Burnout, Cognition, Exhaustion disorder, Heart rate variability, Mental fatigue
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214032 (URN)10.1016/j.biopsycho.2023.108661 (DOI)001067177400001 ()37598882 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168840567 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2020-01111
Available from: 2023-09-07 Created: 2023-09-07 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Panes Lundmark, V., Josefsson, M. & Rieckmann, A. (2023). Predictors of loneliness onset and maintenance in European older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1172552.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of loneliness onset and maintenance in European older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1172552Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Loneliness is a major public health concern. Duration of loneliness is associated with severity of health outcomes, and further research is needed to direct interventions and social policy. This study aimed to identify predictors of the onset vs. the maintenance of loneliness in older adults before and during the pandemic using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Age, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

Methods: Groupings of persistent, situational, and no loneliness were based on self-reports from an ordinary pre-pandemic SHARE wave and a peri-pandemic telephone interview. Predictors were identified and compared in three hierarchical binary regression analyses, with independent variables added in blocks of geographic region, demographics, pre-pandemic social network, pre-pandemic health, pandemic-related individual, and country level variables.

Results: Self-reported loneliness levels for the persistent, situational, and no loneliness groups were stable and distinct through 7 years preceding the pre-pandemic baseline measure. Shared predictors were chronic diseases, female sex, depression, and no cohabitant partner. Persistent loneliness was uniquely predicted by low network satisfaction (OR: 2.04), functional limitations (OR: 1.40), and a longer country-level isolation period for older adults (OR: 1.24).

Conclusion: Interventions may target persons with depression, functional limitations, chronic health issues, and no cohabitant partner. The added burden of the length of isolation on those who are already lonely should be taken into account when employing social policies that target older adults. Further research should distinguish between situational and persistent loneliness, and seek to identify predictors of chronic loneliness onset.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
chronic loneliness, COVID-19, loneliness, longitudinal, pandemic, persistent loneliness, predictors, transient loneliness
National Category
Applied Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-211163 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1172552 (DOI)001008488100001 ()37333579 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85162181573 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, SHARE-COVID-19: GA No. 101015924EU, Horizon 2020, SHARE-DEV3: GA No. 676536EU, Horizon 2020, SHARE-COHESION: GA No. 870628EU, Horizon 2020, SERISS: GA No. 654221EU, Horizon 2020, SSHOC: GA No. 823782EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, SHARE-PREP: GA No. 211909EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, SHARE-LEAP: GA No. 227822EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, SHARE M4: GA No. 261982EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, DASISH: GA No. 283646EU Sixth Framework Programme for Research, SHARE-I3: RII-CT-2006-062193EU Sixth Framework Programme for Research, COMPARE: CIT5-CT-2005-028857EU Sixth Framework Programme for Research, SHARELIFE: CIT4-CT-2006-028812European Commission, QLK6-CT-2001-00360
Available from: 2023-07-04 Created: 2023-07-04 Last updated: 2023-07-04Bibliographically approved
Schäfer Hackenhaar, F., Josefsson, M., Nordin Adolfsson, A., Landfors, M., Kauppi, K., Porter, T., . . . the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study, . (2023). Sixteen-year longitudinal evaluation of blood-based DNA methylation biomarkers for early prediction of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 94(4), 1443-1464
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sixteen-year longitudinal evaluation of blood-based DNA methylation biomarkers for early prediction of Alzheimer’s disease
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 94, no 4, p. 1443-1464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: DNA methylation (DNAm), an epigenetic mark reflecting both inherited and environmental influences, hasshown promise for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prediction.Objective: Testing long-term predictive ability (>15 years) of existing DNAm-based epigenetic age acceleration (EAA)measures and identifying novel early blood-based DNAm AD-prediction biomarkers.

Methods: EAA measures calculated from Illumina EPIC data from blood were tested with linear mixed-effects models(LMMs) in a longitudinal case-control sample (50 late-onset AD cases; 51 matched controls) with prospective data up to 16years before clinical onset, and post-onset follow-up. NovelDNAmbiomarkers were generated with epigenome-wide LMMs,and Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis applied at pre- (10–16 years), and post-AD-onset time-points.

Results: EAA did not differentiate cases from controls during the follow-up time (p > 0.05). Three new DNA biomarkersshowed in-sample predictive ability on average 8 years pre-onset, after adjustment for age, sex, and white blood cell proportions(p-values: 0.022-<0.00001). Our longitudinally-derived panel replicated nominally (p = 0.012) in an external cohort (n = 146cases, 324 controls). However, its effect size and discriminatory accuracy were limited compared to APOE 4-carriership(OR = 1.38 per 1 SD DNAmscore increase versus OR= 13.58 for 4-allele carriage; AUCs = 77.2% versus 87.0%). Literaturereview showed low overlap (n = 4) across 3275 AD-associated CpGs from 8 published studies, and no overlap with ouridentified CpGs.

Conclusion: The limited predictive value of EAA for AD extends prior findings by considering a longer follow-up time, andwith appropriate control for age, sex, APOE, and blood-cell proportions. Results also highlight challenges with replicatingdiscriminatory or predictive CpGs across studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2023
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, biomarkers, DNA methylation, epigenomics, longitudinal studies
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214007 (URN)10.3233/jad-230039 (DOI)37393498 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168428453 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-01729The Kempe Foundations, JCK-1922.1
Available from: 2023-09-02 Created: 2023-09-02 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J., Fors Connolly, F., Malmberg, G., Josefsson, M. & Stattin, M. (2023). Sociodemographic factors and adjustment of daily activities during the COVID-19 pandemic – findings from the SHARE Corona Survey. Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sociodemographic factors and adjustment of daily activities during the COVID-19 pandemic – findings from the SHARE Corona Survey
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Aging & Social Policy, ISSN 0895-9420, E-ISSN 1545-0821Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, older people across Europe have adjusted their daily activities as personal risk avoidance and as an amendment to policy recommendations and restrictions. In this study, we use multilevel logistic regressions to examine to what extent sociodemographic factors are associated with activity reduction among the older population (50+) in Europe and whether these associations are moderated by governmental policy responses to COVID-19. By combining data for~35,000 respondents from the SHARE Corona Survey on reported changes in daily activities and stringency of restrictions at the national level, we find that older age, poorer health and being female versus male were (consistently) associated with greater activity reduction across all activities both in countries with weak and in those with strong restrictions. Associations between education, employment and living situation, on the one hand, and activity reduction, on the other, were weaker and less consistent. We conclude that differences between sociodemographic groups are rather similar for countries with weak and those with strong restrictions and hence argue that group-specific policy recommendation are relevant independent of stringency recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Activity adjustment, COVID-19, cross-national comparisons, daily activities, Europe, government response stringency, SHARE Corona Survey
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-202459 (URN)10.1080/08959420.2023.2206077 (DOI)000979698800001 ()37125862 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85158868645 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 676536EU, Horizon 2020, 101015924
Available from: 2023-01-10 Created: 2023-01-10 Last updated: 2023-06-02
Projects
Attrition and Generalizability of Cognitive Aging Studies - A Population-Based Perspective [P17-0196:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Josefsson, M., Daniels, M. J. & Pudas, S. (2023). A Bayesian semiparametric approach for inference on the population partly conditional mean from longitudinal data with dropout. Biostatistics, 24(2), 372-387Josefsson, M. & Daniels, M. J. (2021). Bayesian semi-parametric G-computation for causal inference in a cohort study with MNAR dropout and death. The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C: Applied Statistics, 70(2), 398-414
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1812-3581

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