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Palmberg, B., Granberg, C., Andersson, C. & Palm, T. (2024). A multi-approach formative assessment practice and its potential for enhancing student motivation: a case study. Cogent Education, 11(1), Article ID 2371169.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multi-approach formative assessment practice and its potential for enhancing student motivation: a case study
2024 (English)In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 2371169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study we investigate one 7th-grade mathematics teacher’s eight-month long implementation of a comprehensive multi-approach formative assessment practice. Based on an analysis of classroom observations, interviews and written teacher logbooks, this classroom practice is described in detail to illustrate how multi-approach formative assessments may be enacted in practice. Furthermore, based on the same data, we identify characteristics of formative assessment practices that have been argued to influence student motivational characteristics that affect motivation manifested as behavioural engagement and autonomous types of motivation. We also demonstrate that while the students in the two control classes (n = 9 in both classes) decreased their engagement in learning activities and became less autonomous in their motivation during this period, the students in the intervention class (n = 14) became more engaged and did not become less autonomous in their motivation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2024
Keywords
autonomous motivation, behavioural engagement, Classroom Practice, Education–Social Sciences, Formative assessment, Motivation, relative autonomy index, Sammy King Fai Hui, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Secondary Education
National Category
Pedagogical Work Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-227893 (URN)10.1080/2331186X.2024.2371169 (DOI)001262145100001 ()2-s2.0-85197514314 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-07-15 Created: 2024-07-15 Last updated: 2024-07-15Bibliographically approved
Säfström, A. I., Lithner, J., Palm, T., Palmberg, B., Sidenvall, J., Andersson, C., . . . Granberg, C. (2024). Developing a diagnostic framework for primary and secondary students’ reasoning difficulties during mathematical problem solving. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 115(2), 125-149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a diagnostic framework for primary and secondary students’ reasoning difficulties during mathematical problem solving
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2024 (English)In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 115, no 2, p. 125-149Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well-known that a key to promoting students’ mathematics learning is to provide opportunities for problem solving and reasoning, but also that maintaining such opportunities in student–teacher interaction is challenging for teachers. In particular, teachers need support for identifying students’ specific difficulties, in order to select appropriate feedback that supports students’ mathematically founded reasoning without reducing students’ responsibility for solving the task. The aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic framework that is functional for identifying, characterising, and communicating about the difficulties students encounter when trying to solve a problem and needing help from the teacher to continue the construction of mathematically founded reasoning. We describe how we reached this aim by devising iterations of design experiments, including 285 examples of students’ difficulties from grades 1–12, related to 110 tasks, successively increasing the empirical grounding and theoretical refinement of the framework. The resulting framework includes diagnostic questions, definitions, and indicators for each diagnosis and structures the diagnostic process in two simpler steps with guidelines for difficult cases. The framework therefore has the potential to support teachers both in eliciting evidence about students’ reasoning during problem solving and in interpreting this evidence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Problem solving, Mathematical reasoning, Diagnostic framework, Students’ reasoning difficulties, Formative assessment, Design research
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218518 (URN)10.1007/s10649-023-10278-1 (DOI)001126319800002 ()2-s2.0-85180228692 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03663Swedish Institute for Educational Research, 2019-00038
Available from: 2023-12-20 Created: 2023-12-20 Last updated: 2024-03-05Bibliographically approved
Brown, G. T. L., Andersson, C., Winberg, M. T., Palmberg, B. & Palm, T. (2024). Swedish teacher conceptions of assessment: a focus on improving outcomes. Education Inquiry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish teacher conceptions of assessment: a focus on improving outcomes
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2024 (English)In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Understanding teachers’ conceptions of assessment is a key objective in supporting assessment practices that lead to improved learning outcomes. Thus, inventories capable of identifying teachers’ assessment conceptions are important. The Teachers Conceptions of Assessment (TCoA) inventory was an early and influential measure of teacher assessment conceptions, but replication studies have shown that the model may be affected by policy and practice context. In the present study, a Swedish adaptation of the TCoA was administered twice, 18 months apart. A sample of 249 teachers were matched across the 2 time-points and their self-reported scores were analysed with confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing. With good correspondence to the data, six of the nine factors in the TCoA were completely replicated and one factor was partially replicated. The model had sufficient similarity between time points to permit mean score comparisons, which were largely equivalent between times. The study indicates that the Swedish Teacher Conceptions of Assessment adaptation can be used reliably in Swedish primary and lower secondary schools as measure of teacher conceptions of the uses of assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
Keywords
conceptions of assessment, confirmatory factor analysis, invariance, Sweden, teachers
National Category
Didactics Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-227886 (URN)10.1080/20004508.2024.2375111 (DOI)2-s2.0-85197790759 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-07-15 Created: 2024-07-15 Last updated: 2024-07-15
Palm, T., Andersson, C., Palmberg, B. & Winberg, M. T. (2023). Mechanisms underlying effects of formative assessment on student achievement: a proposed framework to ignite future research. CADMO (2), 9-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms underlying effects of formative assessment on student achievement: a proposed framework to ignite future research
2023 (English)In: CADMO, ISSN 1122-5165, E-ISSN 1972-5019, no 2, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has shown that formative assessment can have large positive effects on student achievement, but the effects vary substantially and are not always positive. In addition, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the learning effects are not well understood. We present a framework developed to support research efforts to identify these mechanisms. The framework includes formative assessment processes as well as students’ learning processes, defines and exemplifies the term mechanisms in relevant contexts, indicates possible mechanisms, and identifies aspects that require further research to characterise and explain the mechanisms through which formative assessment affects student achievement. Finally, we exemplify how the framework may be used to design studies capable of providing the robust evidence required for drawing conclusions about the mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edizioni Franco Angeli, 2023
Keywords
Formative assessment, Assessment for learning, Framework, Mechanisms, Mathematics.
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220375 (URN)10.3280/CAD2023-00200 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-02-02 Created: 2024-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-02Bibliographically approved
Brown, G. T. L., Andersson, C., Winberg, M. T. & Palm, T. (2023). Predicting formative feedback practices: improving learning and minimising a tendency to ignore feedback. Frontiers in Education, 8, Article ID 1241998.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting formative feedback practices: improving learning and minimising a tendency to ignore feedback
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 8, article id 1241998Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Teacher conceptions of feedback ideally predict their feedback practices, but little robust evidence identifies which beliefs matter to practices. It is logical to presume that teacher conceptions of feedback would align with the policy framework of an educational jurisdiction. The Teacher Conceptions of Feedback (TCoF) inventory was developed in New Zealand which has a relatively low-stakes, formative policy framework. Methods: This study surveyed 451 Swedish teachers working in Years 1-9, a policy context that prioritises teachers using multiple data sources to help students learn. The study used a translated version of the TCoF inventory, but isolated six items related to formative feedback practices from various factors. Results: A six-factor TCoF was recovered (Praise, Improvement, Ignore, Required, PASA, and Timely), giving partial replication to the previous study. A well-fitting structural equation model showed formative practices were predicted by just two conceptions of feedback (i.e., feedback improves learning and students may ignore feedback). Discussion: This study demonstrates that the TCoF inventory can be used to identify plausible relations from feedback beliefs to formative feedback practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
beliefs, classroom teachers, conceptions, feedback, formative practices, perceptions, Sweden
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215739 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2023.1241998 (DOI)001076166700001 ()2-s2.0-85173791757 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-04349
Available from: 2023-11-02 Created: 2023-11-02 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Boström, E. & Palm, T. (2023). The effect of a formative assessment practice on student achievement in mathematics. Frontiers in Education, 8, Article ID 1101192.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of a formative assessment practice on student achievement in mathematics
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 8, article id 1101192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has shown that formative assessment can enhance student learning. However, it is conceptualised and implemented in different ways, and its effects on student achievement vary. A need has been identified for experimental studies to carefully describe both the characteristics of implemented formative assessment practices and their impact on student achievement. We examined the effects on student achievement of changes in formative assessment of a random sample of 14 secondary school mathematics teachers after a professional development programme. This study describes practices implemented and students’ achievement as measured by pre-tests and post-tests. We found no significant differences in achievement on the post-test, after controlling for pre-test scores, between the intervention group and control group, and no significant correlation between the number of formative assessment activities implemented and the post-test scores (controlled for the pre-test scores). We discuss characteristics of formative assessment implementations that may be critical for enhancing student achievement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
assessment for learning, effect, formative assessment, mathematics, student achievement
National Category
Learning Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206784 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2023.1101192 (DOI)000959119500001 ()2-s2.0-85151981253 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Effekter av ett omfattande lärarfortbildningsprogrami formativ bedömning på lärares undervisning och elevers motivation och kunskapsutveckling i matematik
Note

This article is based on parts of a doctoral dissertation by Boström (2017).

Available from: 2023-04-24 Created: 2023-04-24 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Hofverberg, A., Winberg, M. T., Palmberg, B., Andersson, C. & Palm, T. (2022). Relationships Between Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Regulations, and Behavioral Engagement in Mathematics. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article ID 829958.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationships Between Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Regulations, and Behavioral Engagement in Mathematics
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 829958Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Behavioral engagement is a key determinant of students’ learning. Hence, knowledge about mechanisms affecting engagement is crucial for educators and stakeholders. Self-determination theory (SDT) offers a framework to understand one of these mechanisms. However, extant studies mostly consider only parts of SDT’s theoretical paths from basic psychological need satisfaction via regulations to student engagement. Studies that investigate the full model are rare, especially in mathematics, and results are inconclusive. Moreover, constructs are often merged in ways that may preclude detailed understanding. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to test several hypothesized paths between the individual variables that make up higher-order constructs of need satisfaction, regulations, and behavioral engagement. Satisfaction of the need for competence had a dominating effect on engagement, both directly and via identified regulation. Similarly, satisfaction of the need for relatedness predicted identified regulation, that in turn predicted engagement. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy predicted intrinsic regulation as expected but, in contrast to theory, was also positively associated with controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation). Neither intrinsic nor controlled regulation predicted engagement. Theoretical and method-related reasons for this unexpected pattern are discussed, as well as implications for research and teaching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
Engagement, self-determination theory, Mathematics, Basic psychological need, Regulation, Structural equation modeling
National Category
Didactics Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193752 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2022.829958 (DOI)000791216300001 ()2-s2.0-85128903838 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-04349
Available from: 2022-04-12 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Granberg, C., Palm, T. & Palmberg, B. (2021). A case study of a formative assessment practice and the effects on students’ self-regulated learning. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 68, Article ID 100955.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of a formative assessment practice and the effects on students’ self-regulated learning
2021 (English)In: Studies in Educational Evaluation, ISSN 0191-491X, E-ISSN 1879-2529, Vol. 68, article id 100955Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study investigates one mathematics teacher’s implementation of formative assessment and its effects on students’ self-regulated learning (SRL). A questionnaire administered before and after the eight-month long intervention shows a significant effect, compared to two control classes, on students’ motivational beliefs involved in SRL. Qualitative data shows a notable enhancement of the students’ SRL behavior in the classroom. Analysis of the teacher’s implemented formative assessment shows a practice integrating several aspects of formative assessment, and provides empirical evidence of what formative assessment with large effects on students’ SRL may look like and how it fits with models of SRL development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Formative assessment, Assessment for learning, Self-regulated learning, Self-efficacy, Perceived autonomy
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-178182 (URN)10.1016/j.stueduc.2020.100955 (DOI)000653057800010 ()2-s2.0-85097222052 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-05 Created: 2021-01-05 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Winberg, M. T. & Palm, T. (2021). Antecedents and Relative Importance of Student Motivation for Science and Mathematics Achievement in TIMSS. Frontiers in Education, 6(97), Article ID 575926.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antecedents and Relative Importance of Student Motivation for Science and Mathematics Achievement in TIMSS
2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 6, no 97, article id 575926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although motivation has been shown to have substantial influence on learning, the relative significance of Students’ motivational characteristics, compared to other school-related factors, for student learning and performance is still unclear. Furthermore, knowledge about the relative importance of different situational variables for predicting these motivational characteristics is crucial for educational decisions about how to enhance student motivation. This study examined (1) the relative importance of motivational characteristics derived from five different theories on motivation and epistemic beliefs, compared to almost 300 situational factors, for predicting student performance on the TIMSS 2011 achievement tests in science and mathematics, and (2) how student motivational characteristics can be predicted by the background variables in the TIMSS 2011 questionnaires and an additional questionnaire about motivation accompanying TIMSS in Sweden. Up to 52% of the variation in student performance could be predicted by models containing all background variables, and student motivational characteristics were among the most important variables in the model. Models that comprised only student motivational characteristics from several motivation theories predicted up to 27% of student performance on the achievement test, while models using only single motivational characteristics predicted, on average, 7%. Results emphasize teachers’ importance for student motivation. Five teacher features were consistently among the most important variables in predicting Students’ motivational characteristics. These five variables predicted as much of the variation in important student motivational characteristics as the remaining 300 situational variables together.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lausanne, Switzerland: Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
Achievement, Mathematics, Science, achievement goals, epistemological beliefs, self-determination theory, Comprehensive models, Learning environment, OPLS
National Category
Didactics Pedagogical Work
Research subject
didactics of chemistry; didactics of mathematics; didactics of natural science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181903 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2021.575926 (DOI)000682683200001 ()2-s2.0-85104022516 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Interaction between the learner and the learning environment: Effects on the learner’s affective experiences and learning outcomes
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-3216
Available from: 2021-03-31 Created: 2021-03-31 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Näsström, G., Andersson, C., Granberg, C., Palm, T. & Palmberg, B. (2021). Changes in Student Motivation and Teacher Decision Making When Implementing a Formative Assessment Practice. Frontiers in Education, 6, 1-17, Article ID 616216.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in Student Motivation and Teacher Decision Making When Implementing a Formative Assessment Practice
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 6, p. 1-17, article id 616216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Motivation is a prerequisite for students’ learning, and formative assessment has been suggested as a possible way of supporting students’ motivation. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence corroborating the hypothesis of large effects from formative assessment interventions on students’ autonomous forms of motivation and motivation in terms of behavioral engagement in learning activities. In addition, formative assessment practices that do have an impact on students’ motivation may put additional requirements on teachers than more traditional teaching practices. Such requirements include decisions teachers need to make in classroom practice. The requirements on teachers’ decision-making in formative assessment practices that have a positive impact on students’ autonomous forms of motivation and behavioral engagement have not been investigated. This study describes one teacher’s formative assessment practice during a sociology course in upper secondary school, and it identifies the requirements for the teacher’s decision-making. The teacher had participated in a professional development program about formative assessment just prior to this study. This study also investigated changes in the students’ motivation when the teacher implemented the formative assessment practice. The teacher’s practice was examined through observations, weekly teacher logs, the teacher’s teaching descriptions, and an interview with the teacher. Data on changes in the students’ type of motivation and engagement were collected in the teacher’s class and in five comparison classes through a questionnaire administered in the beginning and the end of the course. The students responded to the questionnaire items by choosing the extent to which they agreed with the statements on a scale from 1–7. The teacher’s formative assessment practice focused on collecting information about the students’ knowledge and skills and then using this information to make decisions about subsequent instruction. Several types of decisions, and the knowledge and skills required to make them that exceed those required in more traditional teaching practices, were identified. The students’ in the intervention teacher’s class increased their controlled and autonomous forms of motivation as well as their engagement in learning activities more than the students in the comparison classes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
formative assessment, student motivation, teacher decision-making, student engagement, classroom practice
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182930 (URN)10.3389/feduc.2021.616216 (DOI)000682647500001 ()2-s2.0-85106193966 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-10 Created: 2021-05-10 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Projects
Development of formative assessment practices and their effects on students´ motivation and achievement [2019-04349_VR]; Umeå University; Publications
Hofverberg, A., Winberg, M. T., Palmberg, B., Andersson, C. & Palm, T. (2022). Relationships Between Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Regulations, and Behavioral Engagement in Mathematics. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article ID 829958.
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0895-8232

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