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Johansson, U., Öhlund, I., Lindberg, L., Hernell, O., Lönnerdal, B., Venables, M. & Lind, T. (2023). A randomized, controlled trial of a Nordic, protein-reduced complementary diet in infants: effects on body composition, growth, biomarkers, and dietary intake at 12 and 18 months. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 117(6), 1219-1231
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A randomized, controlled trial of a Nordic, protein-reduced complementary diet in infants: effects on body composition, growth, biomarkers, and dietary intake at 12 and 18 months
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2023 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 1219-1231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: High intake of protein and low intake of plant-based foods during complementary feeding can contribute to negative long-term health effects.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of a protein-reduced, Nordic complementary diet on body composition, growth, biomarkers, and dietary intake, compared with current Swedish dietary recommendations for infants at 12 and 18 mo.

Methods: Healthy, term infants (n = 250) were randomly allocated to either a Nordic group (NG) or a conventional group (CG). From 4 to 6 mo, NG participants received repeated exposures of Nordic taste portions. From 6 to 18 mo, NG was supplied with Nordic homemade baby food recipes, protein-reduced baby food products, and parental support. CG followed the current Swedish dietary recommendations. Measurements of body composition, anthropometry, biomarkers, and dietary intake were collected from baseline and at 12 and 18 mo.

Results: Of the 250 infants, 82% (n = 206) completed the study. There were no group differences in body composition or growth. In NG, protein intake, blood urea nitrogen and plasma IGF-1 were lower compared to CG at 12 and 18 mo. Infants in NG consumed 42% to 45% more fruits and vegetables compared to CG at 12 and 18 mo, which was reflected in a higher plasma folate at 12 and 18 mo. There were no between-group differences in EI or iron status.

Conclusions: Introduction of a predominantly plant-based, protein-reduced diet as part of complementary feeding is feasible and can increase fruit and vegetable intake.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02634749.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
complementary feeding, early nutrition, fruit, infancy, infant feeding, Nordic diet, plant-based food, repeated exposure, vegetables
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206971 (URN)10.1016/j.ajcnut.2023.03.020 (DOI)001015232200001 ()36990225 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152423063 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västerbotten, VLL-644531Region Västerbotten, VLL-488901Region Västerbotten, VLL-677921Region Västerbotten, VLL-761381Umeå University
Available from: 2023-04-24 Created: 2023-04-24 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Cashman, K. D., Kiely, M. E., Andersen, R., Grønborg, I. M., Tetens, I., Tripkovic, L., . . . Ritz, C. (2022). Individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to estimate the vitamin D dietary requirements in dark-skinned individuals resident at high latitude. European Journal of Nutrition, 61, 1015-1034
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to estimate the vitamin D dietary requirements in dark-skinned individuals resident at high latitude
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2022 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 61, p. 1015-1034Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context and purpose: There is an urgent need to develop vitamin D dietary recommendations for dark-skinned populations resident at high latitude. Using data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with vitamin D3-supplements/fortified foods, we undertook an individual participant data-level meta-regression (IPD) analysis of the response of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) to total vitamin D intake among dark-skinned children and adults residing at ≥ 40° N and derived dietary requirement values for vitamin D.

Methods: IPD analysis using data from 677 dark-skinned participants (of Black or South Asian descent; ages 5–86 years) in 10 RCTs with vitamin D supplements/fortified foods identified via a systematic review and predefined eligibility criteria. Outcome measures were vitamin D intake estimates across a range of 25(OH)D thresholds.

Results: To maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 25 and 30 nmol/L in 97.5% of individuals, 23.9 and 27.3 µg/day of vitamin D, respectively, were required among South Asian and 24.1 and 33.2 µg/day, respectively, among Black participants. Overall, our age-stratified intake estimates did not exceed age-specific Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for vitamin D. The vitamin D intake required by dark-skinned individuals to maintain 97.5% of winter 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 50 nmol/L was 66.8 µg/day. This intake predicted that the upper 2.5% of individuals could potentially achieve serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 158 nmol/L, which has been linked to potential adverse effects in older adults in supplementation studies.

Conclusions: Our IPD-derived vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of winter 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 25, 30 and 50 nmol/L are substantially higher than the equivalent estimates for White individuals. These requirement estimates are also higher than those currently recommended internationally by several agencies, which are based predominantly on data from Whites and derived from standard meta-regression based on aggregate data. Much more work is needed in dark-skinned populations both in the dose–response relationship and risk characterisation for health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Keywords
Dark-skinned, Dietary reference values, Individual participant data-level meta-regression analyses, Recommended dietary allowance, Vitamin D recommendations
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189126 (URN)10.1007/s00394-021-02699-6 (DOI)000712478600001 ()34705075 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85117929906 (Scopus ID)
Funder
European Commission, 613977
Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2022-07-12Bibliographically approved
Hansson, L., Sandberg, C., Öhlund, I., Lind, T., Sthen Bergdahl, M., Wiklund, U., . . . Rydberg, A. (2022). Vitamin D, liver-related biomarkers, and distribution of fat and lean mass in young patients with Fontan circulation. Cardiology in the Young, 32(6), 861-868
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vitamin D, liver-related biomarkers, and distribution of fat and lean mass in young patients with Fontan circulation
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2022 (English)In: Cardiology in the Young, ISSN 1047-9511, E-ISSN 1467-1107, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 861-868Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction/aim: Young patients with Fontan circulation may have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, an affected liver, and unhealthy body compositions. This study aimed to explore the association between vitamin D intake/levels, liver biomarkers, and body composition in young Fontan patients.

Method: We collected prospective data in 2017 to 2018, obtained with food-frequency questionnaires, biochemical analyses of liver biomarkers, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in 44 children with Fontan circulation. Body compositions were compared to matched controls (n = 38). Linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations of biomarkers, leg pain, and lean mass on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Biomarkers were converted to z scores and differences were evaluated within the Fontan patients.

Results: Our Fontan patients had a daily mean vitamin D intake of 9.9 µg and a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 56 nmol/L. These factors were not associated with fat or lean mass, leg pain, or biomarkers of liver status. The Fontan patients had significantly less lean mass, but higher fat mass than controls. Male adolescents with Fontan circulation had a greater mean abdominal fat mass than male controls and higher cholesterol levels than females with Fontan circulation.

Conclusion: Vitamin D intake and serum levels were not associated with body composition or liver biomarkers in the Fontan group, but the Fontan group had lower lean mass and higher fat mass than controls. The more pronounced abdominal fat mass in male adolescents with Fontan circulation might increase metabolic risks later in life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2022
Keywords
CHD, Fontan circulation, vitamin D, micronutrient intake, body composition
National Category
Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176573 (URN)10.1017/S1047951121003115 (DOI)000752691600001 ()34338624 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85112065396 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20160496
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2020-11-09 Created: 2020-11-09 Last updated: 2022-11-29Bibliographically approved
Johansson, U., Lene, L., Öhlund, I., Hernell, O., Lönnerdal, B., Lundén, S., . . . Lind, T. (2021). Acceptance of a Nordic, Protein-Reduced Diet for Young Children during Complementary Feeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Foods, 10, Article ID 275.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acceptance of a Nordic, Protein-Reduced Diet for Young Children during Complementary Feeding: A Randomized Controlled Trial
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2021 (English)In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 10, article id 275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Early life is critical for developing healthy eating patterns. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a Nordic, protein-reduced complementary diet (ND) compared to a diet following the current Swedish dietary guidelines on eating patterns and food acceptance. At 4–6 months (mo) of age infants were randomized to a Nordic group (NG, n = 41) or a Conventional group (CG, n = 40), and followed until 18 mo of age. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables (mean ± sd) at 12 mo was significantly higher in the NG compared to the CG: 341 ± 108 g/day vs. 220 ± 76 g/day (p < 0.001), respectively. From 12 to 18 mo, fruit and vegetable intake decreased, but the NG still consumed 32% more compared to the CG: 254 ± 99 g/day vs. 193 ± 67 g/day (p = 0.004). To assess food acceptance, both groups were tested with home exposure meals at 12 and 18 mo. No group differences in acceptance were found. We find that a ND with parental education initiates healthy eating patterns during infancy, but that the exposure meal used in the present study was insufficient to detect major differences in food acceptance. This is most likely explained by the preparation of the meal. Nordic produce offers high environmental sustainability and favorable taste composition to establish healthy food preferences during this sensitive period of early life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2021
Keywords
infant feeding, healthy eating, food preference, eating behavior, repeated exposure, vegetables, fruits, sustainable eating, environment
National Category
Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181856 (URN)10.3390/foods10020275 (DOI)000622535800001 ()2-s2.0-85102421382 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region Västerbotten, VLL-644531Region Västerbotten, VLL-488901Region Västerbotten, VLL- 677921Region Västerbotten, VLL-761381
Available from: 2021-03-29 Created: 2021-03-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Cashman, K. D., Kiely, M. E., Andersen, R., Gronborg, I. M., Madsen, K. H., Nissen, J., . . . Ritz, C. (2021). Individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials with vitamin D-fortified foods to estimate Dietary Reference Values for vitamin D. European Journal of Nutrition, 60(2), 939-959
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual participant data (IPD)-level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials with vitamin D-fortified foods to estimate Dietary Reference Values for vitamin D
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2021 (English)In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 939-959Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context and purpose: Individual participant data-level meta-regression (IPD) analysis is superior to meta-regression based on aggregate data in determining Dietary Reference Values (DRV) for vitamin D. Using data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with vitamin D3-fortified foods, we undertook an IPD analysis of the response of winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (25(OH)D) to total vitamin D intake among children and adults and derived DRV for vitamin D.

Methods: IPD analysis using data from 1429 participants (ages 2–89 years) in 11 RCTs with vitamin D-fortified foods identified via a systematic review and predefined eligibility criteria. Outcome measures were vitamin D DRV estimates across a range of serum 25(OH)D thresholds using unadjusted and adjusted models.

Results: Our IPD-derived estimates of vitamin D intakes required to maintain 97.5% of winter 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 25 and ≥ 30 nmol/L are 6 and 12 µg/day, respectively (unadjusted model). The intake estimates to maintain 90%, 95% and 97.5% of concentrations ≥ 50 nmol/L are 33.4, 57.5 and 92.3 µg/day, respectively (unadjusted) and 17.0, 28.1 and 43.6 µg/day, respectively (adjusted for mean values for baseline serum 25(OH)D, age and BMI).

Conclusions: IPD-derived vitamin D intakes required to maintain 90%, 95% and 97.5% of winter 25(OH)D concentrations ≥ 50 nmol/L are much higher than those derived from standard meta-regression based on aggregate data, due to the inability of the latter to capture between person-variability. Our IPD provides further evidence that using food-based approaches to achieve an intake of 12 µg/day could prevent vitamin D deficiency (i.e., serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) in the general population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2021
Keywords
Vitamin D recommendations, Dietary reference values, Recommended dietary allowance, Individual participant data-level meta-regression analyses, Vitamin D-fortified foods
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173330 (URN)10.1007/s00394-020-02298-x (DOI)000541101700001 ()32556447 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85086574425 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-07-02 Created: 2020-07-02 Last updated: 2021-07-06Bibliographically approved
Eurenius, E., Mohamed, A. F., Lindkvist, M., Ivarsson, A., Öhlund, I. & Vaezghasemi, M. (2021). Social-Emotional Problems Among 3-Year-Olds Are Associated With an Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Population-Based Study. Frontiers In Public Health, 9, Article ID 694832.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social-Emotional Problems Among 3-Year-Olds Are Associated With an Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Population-Based Study
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 9, article id 694832Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Little attention has been paid to the association between preschool children’s social-emotional problems and lifestyle at the population level.

Objective: This study aimed to overcome this knowledge gap by investigating to what extent children’s social-emotional problems are associated with their lifestyle and if there are any gender differences.

Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the regional Salut Register in northern Sweden, including 7,179 3-year-olds during 2014–2017. Parents responded to a questionnaire including the 36-month interval of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE) and questions regarding family and lifestyle characteristics. Single and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the association between children’s social-emotional problems and multiple family lifestyle characteristics.

Results: More reports of social-emotional problems were found among children who did not have parents living together or had markers of an unhealthy lifestyle. Children who ate vegetables less frequently, whose parent/-s brushed their teeth less often and did not read to them regularly were more likely to have social-emotional problems. Playing outdoors <3 h during weekdays and >1 h of sedentary screen time during weekends increased the risk of social-emotional problems among boys only, while >1 h of sedentary screen time during weekdays increased the risk among girls. When it comes to lifestyle and gender differences, a high proportion of the 3-year-olds had an unhealthy lifestyle, more so for boys than for girls. The dietary quality and tooth brushing were somewhat more adequate for the girls than for the boys, but boys spent more time playing outdoors compared to the girls.

Conclusions: This study provides us with an important overview picture of the family life situation of three-year-olds, including those with social-emotional problems. Such problems were significantly associated with markers of unhealthy lifestyle, with significant gender differences. Therefore, this study suggests that in order to maintain children’ssocial-emotional ability and support children at risk of problems, public health interventionprograms should have a broader perspective on improving children’s lifestyle rather thanmerely focusing on their social and emotional problems, and the gender differences foundmay be taken in account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, ages and stages questionnaires, child behavior, cross-sectional studies, family characteristics, preschool children
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189675 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2021.694832 (DOI)000726079500001 ()34869138 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85120747730 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-11-18 Created: 2021-11-18 Last updated: 2021-12-15Bibliographically approved
McClorry, S., Slupsky, C. M., Lind, T., Akeson, P. K., Hernell, O. & Öhlund, I. (2020). Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in Swedish children may be negatively impacted by BMI and serum fructose. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 75, Article ID 108251.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in Swedish children may be negatively impacted by BMI and serum fructose
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, ISSN 0955-2863, E-ISSN 1873-4847, Vol. 75, article id 108251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In regions where sunlight exposure is limited, dietary vitamin D intake becomes important for maintaining status. However, Swedish children have been shown to have deficient or marginal status during the winter months even if the recommended dietary intake is met. Since low vitamin D status has been associated with several disease states, this study investigated the metabolic changes associated with improved vitamin D status due to supplementation.

During the 3 winter months, 5-7-year-old children (n=170) in northern (limed, 63 degrees N) and southern (Malmo, 55 degrees N) Sweden were supplemented daily with 2 (placebo), 10 or 25 mu g of vitamin D. BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ), S-25(OH)D concentrations, insulin concentrations and the serum metabolome were assessed at baseline and follow-up.

S-25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in both supplementation groups (P<.001). Only arginine and isopropanol concentrations exhibited significant associations with improvements in S-25(OH)D. Furthermore, the extent to which S-25(OH)D increased was correlated with a combination of baseline BAZ and the change in serum fructose concentrations from baseline to follow up (P=.012). In particular, the change in S-25(OH)D concentrations was negatively correlated (P=.030) with the change in fructose concentrations for subjects with BAZ >= 0 and consuming at least 20 mu g vitamin D daily. These results suggest that although the metabolic changes associated with improved vitamin D status are small, the effectiveness of dietary supplementation may be influenced by serum fructose concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
25-Hydroxy-vitamin D, Fructose, Metabolomics, Children, H-1 NMR
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167351 (URN)10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.108251 (DOI)000504801200003 ()31707286 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85074594654 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-04 Created: 2020-02-04 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Hansson, L., Lind, T., Öhlund, I., Wiklund, U. & Rydberg, A. (2020). Increased abdominal fat mass and high fat consumption in young school children with congenital heart disease: results from a case-control study. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics, 33(4), 566-573
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased abdominal fat mass and high fat consumption in young school children with congenital heart disease: results from a case-control study
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2020 (English)In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics, ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 566-573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background We have previously found that infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) experience growth failure despite high-energy dietary supplementation. This is a follow-up and comparison with healthy controls at 9 years of age regarding body composition and macronutrient intake, especially in relationship to the diet provided during infancy. Methods Anthropometric changes in 10 children with CHD at 12 months and at 4 and 9 years of age were analysed as Z-scores. To assess body composition and food intake at 9 years of age, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and a 3-day food diary were completed and compared with age- and gender-matched controls using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for matched pairs. Results Growth changes from 12 months to 9 years, converted to Z-scores for weight for height and height for age, were significantly different within the group of children with complex CHD, although no growth differences were seen in comparison with healthy controls at 9 years of age. However, the children with CHD had statistically higher abdominal fat mass index and higher daily intake of fat, particularly from saturated fatty acid in g kg-1 compared to controls. Conclusions At 9 years of age, children with complex CHD with growth failure and high fat intake in infancy have normalised growth but increased abdominal fat mass and higher intake of saturated fatty acid compared to their peers. Nutritional monitoring in early childhood may detect unhealthy diet quality and prevent later health risks in this group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
children, congenital heart disease, dietary fatty acid, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, growth, macronutrient intake
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168120 (URN)10.1111/jhn.12739 (DOI)000511230800001 ()32026539 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85079068866 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-02-21 Created: 2020-02-21 Last updated: 2023-05-05Bibliographically approved
Chmielewska, A., Farooqi, A., Domellöf, M. & Öhlund, I. (2020). Lean Tissue Deficit in Preterm Infants Persists up to 4 Months of Age: Results from a Swedish Longitudinal Study. Neonatology, 117(1), 80-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean Tissue Deficit in Preterm Infants Persists up to 4 Months of Age: Results from a Swedish Longitudinal Study
2020 (English)In: Neonatology, ISSN 1661-7800, E-ISSN 1661-7819, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: At term-equivalent age, infants born prematurely are shorter, lighter and have more adipose tissue compared to term counterparts. Little is known on whether the differences in body composition persist in later age. 

Methods: We prospectively recruited 33 preterm infants (<32 weeks gestational age, mean gestational age 28.1 weeks) and 69 term controls. Anthropometry and body composition (air displacement plethysmography) were monitored up to 4 months of age. Nutrient intakes from preterm infants were collected from clinical records. 

Results: At 4 months of age preterm infants were lighter and shorter than term controls (mean weight-for-age z-score: –0.73 vs. 0.06, p = 0.001; mean length-for-age z-score: –1.31 vs. 0.29, p < 0.0001). The significantly greater percentage of total body fat seen in preterm infants at term-equivalent age (20.2 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.0001) was no longer observed at 4 months. A deficit of fat-free mass persisted until 4 months of age (fat-free mass at term-equivalent age: 2.71 vs. 3.18 kg, p < 0.0001; at 4 months: 4.3 vs. 4.78 kg, p < 0.0001). The fat mass index and fat-free mass index (taking length into account) did not differ between the groups. Nutrition had little effect on body composition. Higher protein intake at week 2 was a negative predictor of fat-free mass at discharge. 

Conclusions: At 4 months corrected age, preterm infants were both lighter and shorter than term controls and the absolute fat-free mass deficit remained until this age. Little effect of nutrition on body composition was observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2020
Keywords
Preterm infants, Body composition, Adiposity, Lean tissue
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170796 (URN)10.1159/000503292 (DOI)000528674000011 ()31822002 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076527775 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Västerbotten County CouncilSwedish Research Council, 2016-02095
Available from: 2020-05-27 Created: 2020-05-27 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Öhlund, I., Lind, T., Hernell, O., Silfverdal, S.-A., Liv, P. & Karlsland Åkeson, P. (2020). Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk markers in young Swedish children: a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing different doses of vitamin D supplements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 111(4), 779-786
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk markers in young Swedish children: a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing different doses of vitamin D supplements
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2020 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 779-786Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Observational studies have linked low vitamin D status to unfavorable cardiometabolic risk markers, but double-blinded vitamin D intervention studies in children are scarce.

Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different doses of a vitamin D supplement on cardiometabolic risk markers in young healthy Swedish children with fair and dark skin.

Methods: Cardiometabolic risk markers were analyzed as secondary outcomes of a double-blind, randomized, milk-based vitamin D intervention trial conducted during late fall and winter in 2 areas of Sweden (latitude 63°N and 55°N, respectively) in both fair- and dark-skinned 5- to 7-y-old children. During the 3-mo intervention, 206 children were randomly assigned to a daily milk-based vitamin D3 supplement of either 10 or 25 µg or placebo (2 µg; only at 55°N). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, apoB, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed and non–HDL cholesterol calculated at baseline and after the intervention.

Results: At baseline, serum 25(OH)D was negatively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.194; 95% CI: −0.153, −0.013; and β = −0.187; 95% CI: −0.150, −0.011, respectively). At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in any of the cardiometabolic markers between groups.

Conclusions: We could not confirm any effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum lipids, blood pressure, or CRP in healthy 5- to 7-y-old children. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01741324).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2020
Keywords
serum lipids, blood pressure, latitude, skin color, vitamin D supplement
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170399 (URN)10.1093/ajcn/nqaa031 (DOI)000525318600008 ()32140704 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85084205621 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-06 Created: 2020-05-06 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8522-2766

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