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Nordberg, G., Åkesson, A., Nogawa, K. & Nordberg, M. (2022). Cadmium (5ed.). In: Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa (Ed.), Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals (pp. 141-196). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cadmium
2022 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa, Elsevier, 2022, 5, p. 141-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cadmium (Cd) occurs with zinc and lead in sulfide ores. Elevated concentrations in air, water, and soil may occur close to nonferrous mining and metal refining industries. Cadmium metal has been used as an anticorrosive when electroplated onto steel. Cd compounds are used in batteries, as pigments and in solar panels. Between 10% and 50% of inhaled Cd will be absorbed and 5%-10% of ingested Cd. The accumulation of Cd in humans occurs in many tissues, with particularly long half-lives (10-30 years) in muscle, bone, kidney, and liver. Cd bound to metallothionein in plasma is filtered through the renal glomeruli and reabsorbed in the tubuli, where the metal ion is released and toxic effects occur. The average amount of Cd ingested in Japan and most European and North American countries is. <10-20. μg/day. The corresponding average urinary excretion of Cd is. <0.5-1.0. μg/day and the blood concentration is 0.2-0.7. μg/L in nonsmokers; it is twice as high in smokers. Acute inhalation of Cd in air, for example, from soldering or welding fumes, may lead to severe chemical pneumonitis. Long-term exposure to low air levels may lead to chronic obstructive lung disease and possibly to lung cancer. Long-term excessive exposure from the air or food leads to renal tubular dysfunction with low molecular weight proteinuria. It may also lead to disturbance of calcium metabolism, osteoporosis, and osteomalacia, mainly among postmenopausal women. A disease exhibiting these features. -called itai-itai disease. -occurred in the 1950s in a Cd-polluted area of Japan. Cd-induced cancer of the lungs, prostate, and other organs in animals and increased rates of cancer of the lungs and other organs in humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified Cd as a human carcinogen (Group 1). Adverse kidney effects occur in sensitive occupational groups, as well as in general population groups, after lifelong exposures giving rise to urinary Cd (UCd) of 2-4. μg/g creatinine. At such exposures, bone effects including osteoporosis and fractures may also occur in sensitive groups. Adverse bone and kidney effects may occur in a small but sensitive population group as a result of lifelong cadmium exposure with UCd of approximately 1. μg/g creatinine and higher, but the evidence is still inconclusive. This level of exposure occurs within general population groups in many countries. Osteomalacia is treated with large doses of vitamin D, but there is no effective treatment for other Cd-related effects. Because of the long half-life of Cd and the irreversibility of bone effects and some kidney effects, primary prevention is essential. The toxicological and environmental aspects of Cd have been reviewed in detail by Friberg et al. (1974, 1985, 1986), Tsuchiya (1978), Nriagu (1980, 1981), the WHO/IPCS (1992), the IARC (1993, 2012), Järup et al. (1998c), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (. ATSDR, 1999), Nordberg and Nordberg (2002), the European Union (. EU, 2003, 2007; ECHA 2020), Satarug and Moore (2004), and the World Health Organization Food and Agriculture Organization (. JECFA, 2004, 2012), the European Food Safety Authority (. EFSA, 2009, 2012), Akesson et al. (2014), the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (. SCOEL, 2017), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (. Nordberg et al., 2018).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022 Edition: 5
Keywords
Biological half-life of Cd, Biological monitoring of Cd, Bone mineral density and Cd, Cadmium toxicokinetics, Carcinogenesis of Cd, Dose-response relationships, Endocrine disruption, Fractures and Cd, Itai-itai disease, Kidney effects of Cd, Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis, Reproductive effects, Risk assessment of Cd
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193326 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-822946-0.00006-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85126334823 (Scopus ID)9780128229460 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Aggett, P., Nordberg, G. F. & Nordberg, M. (2022). Essential metals: assessing risks from deficiency and toxicity (5ed.). In: Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa (Ed.), Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume I: general considerations (pp. 385-406). London: Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essential metals: assessing risks from deficiency and toxicity
2022 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume I: general considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa, London: Academic Press, 2022, 5, p. 385-406Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recommendations aimed at protecting the public from toxicity of essential elements including essential metals have usually been developed separately from those recommendations aimed at protection from deficiency. Because of the uncertainties involved in the evaluations, these recommendations have sometimes been in conflict, emphasizing the need for a new approach, including a balanced consideration of nutritional and toxicological data. In developing these new principles of evaluation, some basic concepts based on interindividual variability in sensitivity to deficiency and toxicity must be considered. Such variation translates into one interval of (low) daily intakes, at which there is a risk of developing deficiency, and another interval of (high) dietary intakes at which toxicity may occur. In most instances, there is a third set of intakes in between, which represents the acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), in which no adverse effects occur. This range determined from a homeostatic or biologically based (BBM) approach, which is discussed here, would be expected to apply to the general population. It must be noted, however, that this range would not protect all persons from adverse effects: this applies to those with genetically determined sensitivity, who may require higher intakes to avoid deficiency or lower intakes to avoid toxicity than those defined by the AROI. Nonetheless, AROI could be derived to protect 95% of the general human population from minimal adverse effects of deficiency or toxicity arising from inadequate and excessive intakes. As such the correspondence of these values to current Health-Based Guidance Values (HBGVs) and reference intakes of essential metals (EMs), and the roles of the BBM/Homeostatic Approach in Risk Assessment of EMs are of important public health interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Academic Press, 2022 Edition: 5
Keywords
Acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), Bioavailability, Biomarkers of deficiency, Biomarkers of toxic effects, Critical effect, Critical endpoint, Homeostatic mechanisms, Requirements for individuals, Speciation, Upper level (UL)
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194862 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-823292-7.00020-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85129658237 (Scopus ID)9780128232927 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-06-03 Created: 2022-06-03 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, L. K., Nordberg, G. & Aaseth, J. (2022). Gadolinium (5ed.). In: Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa (Ed.), Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals (pp. 267-274). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gadolinium
2022 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa, Elsevier, 2022, 5, p. 267-274Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gadolinium (Gd) belongs to the rare-earth elements. Depending on the temperature, Gd is either ferromagnetic or paramagnetic. Gadolinium obtained its name from Johan Gadolin, the Finnish chemist who discovered gadolinite, a mineral that contains gadolinium. The specific properties of Gd make it suitable for certain applications in nuclear reactors as well as in medicine being the base for a chelate administered to patients as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging. Such Gd chelates have been used for more than 30 years. During the past decades, there has been increasing knowledge about the potentially harmful effects of Gd chelates in patients with severe renal dysfunction. In such patients, there is a risk for a potentially life-threatening disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Precautions, restricting the use of Gd chelates in persons with severely impaired renal function have drastically decreased the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in the last decade. There has also been an increasing awareness of the fact that there is Gd deposition in the body even in patients without renal dysfunction and that this deposition is related partly to the cumulative number of doses given but also the chemical structure of the chelate. In this chapter, the physical and chemical properties of Gd and its related chelates, methods for detection, industrial and medical applications, human exposures, toxicity as well as a further description of potential side effects related to injection of Gd chelates are described.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022 Edition: 5
Keywords
Contrast induced nephropathy, Gadolinium biomonitoring, Gadolinium chelates, Gadolinium deposition disease, Gadolinium induced respiratory distress syndrome, Gadolinium kinetics, Gadolinium toxicity, Gadoliniumin the environment, Nephrogenicsystemic fibrosis, Side effects of gadolinium chelates, Treatment of gadolinium toxicity
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193330 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-822946-0.00010-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85126417377 (Scopus ID)9780128229460 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Blomqvist, L., Nordberg, G., Nurchi, V. M. & Aaseth, J. O. (2022). Gadolinium in Medical Imaging—Usefulness, Toxic Reactions and Possible Countermeasures: A Review. Biomolecules, 12(6), Article ID 742.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gadolinium in Medical Imaging—Usefulness, Toxic Reactions and Possible Countermeasures: A Review
2022 (English)In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 742Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gadolinium (Gd) is one of the rare-earth elements. The properties of its trivalent cation (Gd3+) make it suitable to serve as the central ion in chelates administered intravenously to patients as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging. Such Gd-chelates have been used for more than thirty years. During the past decades, knowledge has increased about potential harmful effects of Gd-chelates in patients with severe renal dysfunction. In such patients, there is a risk for a potentially disabling and lethal disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Restricting the use of Gd-chelates in persons with severely impaired renal function has decreased the occurrence of this toxic effect in the last decade. There has also been an increasing awareness of Gd-retention in the body, even in patients without renal dysfunction. The cumulative number of doses given, and the chemical structure of the chelate given, are factors of importance for retention in tissues. This review describes the chemical properties of Gd and its medically used chelates, as well as its toxicity and potential side effects related to injection of Gd-chelates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
chelates, contrast induced nephropathy, gadolinium, gadolinium induced respiratory distress syndrome, gadolinium kinetics, gadolinium toxicity, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, side effects of gadolinium chelates, treatment of gadolinium toxicity
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203168 (URN)10.3390/biom12060742 (DOI)000816608200001 ()35740867 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85130790829 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-16 Created: 2023-01-16 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Nordberg, G. F. & Costa, M. (Eds.). (2022). Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals (5ed.). London: Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals
2022 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Volume II: Specific Metals, Fifth Edition provides complete coverage of 38 individual metals and their compounds. This volume is the second volume of a two-volume work which emphasizes toxic effects in humans, along with discussions on the toxic effects of animals and biological systems in vitro when relevant. The book has been systematically updated with the latest studies and advances in technology. As a multidisciplinary resource that integrates both human and environmental toxicology, the book is a comprehensive and valuable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, and environmental scientists in the fields of environmental, occupational and public health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2022. p. 1011 Edition: 5
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193327 (URN)10.1016/C2019-0-04908-4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85126400060 (Scopus ID)9780128229460 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2022-06-03Bibliographically approved
Nordberg, G. F., Gerhardsson, L., Mumtaz, M. M., Ruiz, P. & Fowler, B. A. (2022). Interactions and mixtures in metal toxicology (5ed.). In: Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa (Ed.), Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume I: general considerations (pp. 319-347). London: Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions and mixtures in metal toxicology
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2022 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume I: general considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa, London: Elsevier, 2022, 5, p. 319-347Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Human exposures to metals, metalloids, and their compounds frequently occur as mixtures; therefore, the joint action of these elements should be considered with respect to mechanisms of action and risk assessment. When present at the same time in a system, multiple chemicals can influence toxicity. The joint action of metallic elements may produce additive, synergistic/potentiating, or antagonistic effects manifesting in an overall toxicity, differing from that of individual components of the mixture. Dose-response relationships may be further influenced by constitutive factors such as age, sex, and the expression of specific proteins. Mechanisms of importance for the development of potentiated or antagonistic toxicity include the expression of metal-binding proteins (metallothioneins or lead-binding proteins) and interference with metal transporters such as Divalent Metal Transporter (DMT-1) and the ZIP family of zinc transporting proteins. Compared to men, women of childbearing age generally absorb more Cd from the gastrointestinal tract because they typically have lower iron stores than men. Another example of synergism that occurs in humans is when inorganic arsenic and cadmium together induce kidney toxicity. In many cases, however, direct primary data on the joint action of toxic or essential elements are lacking, and so innovative derivative methods such as the binary weight-of-evidence method have been used to predict potential interactions among groups of metals and metalloids. Using this method, broad recommendations can be made for assessing the potential impact of interactions on the public health assessment of environmental mixtures. At present, there is much to be learned about the joint action of both toxic and essential elements, and this is clearly a critical area of research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Elsevier, 2022 Edition: 5
Keywords
Additive joint action, ALA dehydratase, Antagonistic interactions, Arsenic-cadmium interactions, Biomarkers, Cadmium and arsenic, Cadmium-zinc interactions, Genetic polymorphisms, Heme biosynthetic pathway alterations, Joint action of lead, Joint metal-metal actions, Lead-arsenic interactions, Lead-zinc interactions, Mercury-selenium interactions, Metallic mixtures risk assessments, Metallothionein induction, Molybdenum-copper interactions, Porphyrins, Sensitive subpopulations, Synergistic interactions
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194861 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-823292-7.00027-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85129672150 (Scopus ID)9780128232927 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-06-03 Created: 2022-06-03 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Nordberg, M. & Nordberg, G. (2022). Metallothionein and Cadmium Toxicology - Historical Review and Commentary. Biomolecules, 12(3), Article ID 360.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metallothionein and Cadmium Toxicology - Historical Review and Commentary
2022 (English)In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 360Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More than one and a half centuries ago, adverse human health effects were reported after use of a cadmium-containing silver polishing agent. Long-term cadmium exposure gives rise to kidney or bone disease, reproductive toxicity and cancer in animals and humans. At present, high human exposures to cadmium occur in small-scale mining, underlining the need for preventive measures. This is particularly urgent in view of the growing demand for minerals and metals in global climate change mitigation. This review deals with a specific part of cadmium toxicology that is important for understanding when toxic effects appear and, thus, is crucial for risk assessment. The discovery of the low-molecular-weight protein metallothionein (MT) in 1957 was an important milestone because, when this protein binds cadmium, it modifies cellular cadmium toxicity. The present authors contributed evidence in the 1970s concerning cadmium binding to MT and synthesis of the protein in tissues. We showed that binding of cadmium to metallothionein in tissues prevented some toxic effects, but that metallothionein can increase the transport of cadmium to the kidneys. Special studies showed the importance of the Cd/Zn ratio in MT for expression of toxicity in the kidneys. We also developed models of cadmium toxicokinetics based on our MT-related findings. This model combined with estimates of tissue levels giving rise to toxicity, made it possible to calculate expected risks in relation to exposure. Other scientists developed these models further and international organizations have successfully used these amended models in recent publications. Our contributions in recent decades included studies in humans of MT-related biomarkers showing the importance of MT gene expression in lymphocytes and MT autoantibodies for risks of Cd-related adverse effects in cadmium-exposed population groups. In a study of the impact of zinc status on the risk of kidney dysfunction in a cadmium-exposed group, the risks were low when zinc status was good and high when zinc status was poor. The present review summarizes this evidence in a risk assessment context and calls for its application in order to improve preventive measures against adverse effects of cadmium exposures in humans and animals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
Cadmium and zinc in metallothionein, Cadmium binding in blood plasma, Cadmium risk assessment, Cadmium toxicity, Kidney toxicity of cadmium, Metallothionein, Metallothionein autoantibodies, Metallothionein gene expression in lymphocytes, Toxicokinetic model for cadmium
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192945 (URN)10.3390/biom12030360 (DOI)000776842400001 ()2-s2.0-85125234763 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-09 Created: 2022-03-09 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nordberg, G. & Costa, M. (2022). Preface (5ed.). In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals (pp. xxxix-xxxix). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preface
2022 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume II: Specific metals, Elsevier, 2022, 5, p. xxxix-xxxixChapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022 Edition: 5
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193313 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-822946-0.00038-6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85126407684 (Scopus ID)9780128229460 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-03-29 Created: 2022-03-29 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Landrigan, P., Bose-O'Reilly, S., Elbel, J., Nordberg, G., Lucchini, R., Bartrem, C., . . . Nowak, D. (2022). Reducing disease and death from Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) - the urgent need for responsible mining in the context of growing global demand for minerals and metals for climate change mitigation. Environmental Health, 21(1), Article ID 78.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing disease and death from Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) - the urgent need for responsible mining in the context of growing global demand for minerals and metals for climate change mitigation
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2022 (English)In: Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) takes place under extreme conditions with a lack of occupational health and safety. As the demand for metals is increasing due in part to their extensive use in 'green technologies' for climate change mitigation, the negative environmental and occupational consequences of mining practices are disproportionately felt in low- and middle-income countries. The Collegium Ramazzini statement on ASM presents updated information on its neglected health hazards that include multiple toxic hazards, most notably mercury, lead, cyanide, arsenic, cadmium, and cobalt, as well as physical hazards, most notably airborne dust and noise, and the high risk of infectious diseases. These hazards affect both miners and mining communities as working and living spaces are rarely separated. The impact on children and women is often severe, including hazardous exposures during the child-bearing age and pregnancies, and the risk of child labor. We suggest strategies for the mitigation of these hazards and classify those according to primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Further, we identify knowledge gaps and issue recommendations for international, national, and local governments, metal purchasers, and employers are given. With this statement, the Collegium Ramazzini calls for the extension of efforts to minimize all hazards that confront ASM miners and their families.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2022
Keywords
ASM, Environmental health, Global south, Green energy transition, Mining, Occupational health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200047 (URN)10.1186/s12940-022-00877-5 (DOI)000844979000001 ()36028832 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125237857 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-06 Created: 2022-10-06 Last updated: 2023-03-06Bibliographically approved
Nordberg, G. F., Costa, M. & Fowler, B. A. (2022). Risk assessment for metal exposures (5ed.). In: Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa (Ed.), Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume I: general considerations (pp. 629-661). London: Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk assessment for metal exposures
2022 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: volume I: general considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg; Max Costa, London: Academic Press, 2022, 5, p. 629-661Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Risk assessment for metallic substances often follows the generally accepted framework format for risk assessment for all toxic substances, which, after problem formulation, involves (1) exposure assessment, (2) hazard identification, (3) hazard characterization/dose-response relationships, and (4) risk characterization. Risk management and risk communication are also addressed. All these steps are of high relevance for metals and metalloids because all living organisms are exposed to these elements. Lead, cadmium, mercury, and the metalloid arsenic have been responsible for many human poisonings and even deaths. It is, hence, imperative that readers of this Handbook have a firm perspective on the exposure levels to metallic substances that produce adverse health effects and the various risk assessment approaches that have been used to protect the health and well-being of living organisms. Because of the increasing use of nanomaterials, a recent concern is the dose metric for inhaled metallic nanoparticles. Regardless of the exposure route, the following risk assessment considerations are important: biomonitoring approaches, identification of the mode of action for toxicity of metallic species for hazard identification, determining dose-effect and dose-response curves, and the development of benchmark doses for various metallic species. All of these considerations are discussed in relationship to protecting sensitive subpopulations because not all individuals within a general population are at equal risk for toxicity. Risk characterization using molecular biomarkers that are capable of detecting early cellular effects to low-dose exposures to metallic substances will play an increasingly important role in assessing risk from exposure to this class of toxic substances on an individual or mixture basis. The issue of metal-/metalloid-induced carcinogenesis is of ever increasing importance because many of the elements associated with these cellular outcomes produce a number of early cellular effects, including the formation of reactive oxygen species, modification of apoptosis, and epigenetic changes. Finally, the issue of risk communication/risk management is of great importance because these issues are critical in addressing the health concerns of exposed populations and the practical, ethical, and economic issues related to reducing hazardous exposures to metallic substances. Newly identified risks must be taken into consideration and risk management measures be efficiently implemented in all countries. Such action is an important component to reach the sustainability goals in Agenda 2030.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Academic Press, 2022 Edition: 5
Keywords
Carcinogenicity classification, Dose-effect assessment, Dose-response assessment, Exposure assessment, Hazard identification, Mechanism of action, Mode of action, Nanomaterials, Risk characterization, Threshold and nonthreshold effects
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194865 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-823292-7.00028-0 (DOI)2-s2.0-85129579760 (Scopus ID)9780128232927 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-06-03 Created: 2022-06-03 Last updated: 2023-05-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6938-7053

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