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Rostami, A., Burman, M., Ghazinour, M. & Hansson, J. (2024). Sexual and gender-based harassment against police employees in European countries: a scoping review. Journal of Language and Sexuality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexual and gender-based harassment against police employees in European countries: a scoping review
2024 (English)In: Journal of Language and Sexuality, ISSN 2211-3770, E-ISSN 2211-3789Article, review/survey (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Sexual and gender-based harassment is a work environment concern, especially in hierarchical and male-dominant organisations such as the police. This scoping review aims to examine the existing literature on such harassment against police employees in Europe to identify the available knowledge and highlight the gaps for future studies. Following the Arksey and O’Malley framework, 16 relevant articles were analysed. Most of the studies were focused on sexual harassment, and gender-based harassment was mostly absent or mixed with other discriminations. The analysis resulted in six main themes: existence of sexual and gender-based harassment; perpetrators; associated factors; consequences; individual response; and impact of organisational policies. The findings demonstrate that such harassment remains prevalent among police employees, emphasising the need for continuous and rigorous supervision, evaluation, and comprehensive revision of policies by police authorities. This study recommends further research to address the identified gaps in this field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
Keywords
Police, Sexual harassment, Gender-based harassment, European countries, Work environment
National Category
Gender Studies Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-219346 (URN)10.1080/13552600.2024.2316156 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186191774 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Umeå University
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form. 

Available from: 2024-01-11 Created: 2024-01-11 Last updated: 2024-03-08
Padyab, M., Hansson, J., Sundqvist, J., Inzunza, M. & Ghazinour, M. (2023). A comparative study of stress experienced by Swedish and Norwegian police officers. Frontiers in Health Services, 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comparative study of stress experienced by Swedish and Norwegian police officers
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2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Health Services, E-ISSN 2813-0146, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Police officers work in a variable environment under different circumstances and often involves stressful situations. This include working irregular hours, ongoing exposure to critical incidents, confrontations and violence. community police officers are mainly out in the society and have daily contact with the general public. critical incidents can also consist of being criticized and stigmatized as a police officer, both from the public but also lack of support from their own organization. There is evidence on negative impacts of stress on police officers. However, knowledge about the nature of police stress and its various types is insufficient. It is assumed that there are common stress factors which are universal among all police officers in different contexts but there is a lack of comparative studies to provide empirical evidence. The aim of this study is to compare different types of stress among police officers in Norway and Sweden and how the pattern of experiencing stress has changed over time in these countries.

Methods: The study population consisted of patrolling police officers from 20 local police districts or units in all seven regions in Sweden (n = 953) and patrolling police officers from four police districts in Norway (n = 678). A 42-item Police Stress Identification Questionnaire was used to measure the stress level.

Results: The findings show differences in types of stressful events as well as its severity among police officers in Sweden and Norway. The level of stress decreased over time among Swedish police officers whereas it showed no change or even an increase among the Norwegian participants.

Discussion: The results of this study are relevant for policy-makers, police authorities and lay police officers in each country to tailor their efforts to prevent stress among police officers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
stress, police, comparative study, Sweden, Norway
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208339 (URN)10.3389/frhs.2023.1072248 (DOI)001112632600001 ()36926512 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85159670302 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-20 Created: 2023-05-20 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
Crofts, N. & Hansson, J. (Eds.). (2023). Abstracts from the First European Conference on Law Enforcement and Public Health, Umea 2023. Paper presented at European Regional Law Enforcement and Public Health Conference, 21-24 May, 2023, Umeå, Sweden. Umeå: Enheten för polisutbildning, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abstracts from the First European Conference on Law Enforcement and Public Health, Umea 2023
2023 (English)Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Enheten för polisutbildning, Umeå universitet, 2023. p. 140
Series
Polisutbildningens skriftserie ; 14
Keywords
health, law enforcement, police, public health, resilience
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
police science; Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208301 (URN)978-91-8070-109-9 (ISBN)
Conference
European Regional Law Enforcement and Public Health Conference, 21-24 May, 2023, Umeå, Sweden
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2023-05-17 Created: 2023-05-17 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved
Borglund, E. A. M. & Hansson, J. (2023). Active shooter events, a challenge. In: J. Radianti; I. Dokas; N. LaLone; D. Khazanchi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 20th International ISCRAM Conference: . Paper presented at 20th Global Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Conference (ISCRAM 2023) Omaha, Nebraska, USA, May 28–31, 2023 (pp. 1051-1058). Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active shooter events, a challenge
2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the 20th International ISCRAM Conference / [ed] J. Radianti; I. Dokas; N. LaLone; D. Khazanchi, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM , 2023, p. 1051-1058Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An active shooter event is one of the most complicated situations a police officer could face. Today the standard procedure for an active shooter event is to enter the scene and try to prevent casualties. This involves taking great risks and puts the police officers in a situation they have not been trained for. This is a work in progress paper where the long-term goal is to develop modern technology that could increase the chance of saving lives and decrease the risk of being injured or killed during an active shooter event. Six active shooter event exercises taking place in Sweden have been studied using an ethnographic field study approach. Four themes have been identified where we argue that technology could enhance the police mission: A) Situational awareness; B) Decision making/prioritization; C) Localization of both sound and people; D) Decreasing time of intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM, 2023
Series
Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference, ISSN 2411-3387
Keywords
Active shooter event, police tactics, police interventions, lifesaving
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-213189 (URN)2-s2.0-85171742459 (Scopus ID)9798218217495 (ISBN)
Conference
20th Global Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Conference (ISCRAM 2023) Omaha, Nebraska, USA, May 28–31, 2023
Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2023-09-29Bibliographically approved
Hansson, J., Eriksson, M., Hjertstedt, M. & Ghazinour, M. (2023). Coercive measures against minors in the Swedish asylum process: legal uncertainty, ambivalence and experiences of intrusiveness. Nordic Journal of Social Research, 14(1), 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coercive measures against minors in the Swedish asylum process: legal uncertainty, ambivalence and experiences of intrusiveness
2023 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Asylum-seeking minors are viewed as particularly vulnerable but are still exposed to coercive measures permitted by law. This study analyses Swedish Police Authority and Swedish Migration Agency officials’ perceptions of coercive measures towards minors in the asylum process in light of the Swedish law, and raises minors’ own voices on their experiences of coercive measures. Qualitative interviews were performed with 1) officials at the Swedish Police Authority and Swedish Migration Agency who manage and use coercive actions against minors and 2) former minors with experiences of being subjected to coercive measures. Based on a thematic analysis, the results illustrate how the officials’ perceptions about coercive measures are characterized by uncertainty and ambivalence. The minors expressed the importance of how they were treated during the asylum process rather than the coercive measure as such. Swedish law regulating coercive measures needs clarifications to give sufficient guidance for practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitetsforlaget, 2023
Keywords
asylum-seeking minors, law, officials, thematic analysis, qualitative interviews
National Category
Other Social Sciences Social Work
Research subject
police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-216998 (URN)10.18261/njsr.14.1.6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85179495917 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-00410
Available from: 2023-11-23 Created: 2023-11-23 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Hansson, J. & Padyab, M. (2023). How the availability and adequacy of social support affect the general mental health of Swedish police officers. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1196320.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How the availability and adequacy of social support affect the general mental health of Swedish police officers
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1196320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Police work is stressful. A protective function against work stress and harm to mental health is social support, either within or outside work. This cross-sectional study analyzes the associations of quantitative (availability) and qualitative (adequacy) aspects of social support with general mental health among Swedish police officers. A total of 728 officers responded to a national survey. Bivariate analyses (t-test and chi square) identified continuous and categorical variables (respectively) statistically significantly associated with sex and social support. Pearson correlation coefficient was provided to indicate the associations between general mental health and different types of social support. Sex-stratified logistic regression modeling calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and assessed the relationships between different types of social support, sociodemographic variables and general mental health. The findings show that low adequacy of attachment is associated with poorer mental health among female officers, although female officers also reported higher availability of both social interaction and attachment compared to male officers. We found an association between low work-related social support and poorer mental health among single male police officers. Moreover, police officers who worked shifts, were younger, had less work experience, and/or had no children reported higher availability of attachment, whereas older police officers reported higher adequacy of social interaction compared to younger police officers. Variation in the quantity and quality of close social relationships seems to be important to mental health. Police organizations need to be aware of this in their efforts to make the work environment more supportive. Social support might create an environment where officers feel more comfortable discussing their mental health concerns and seeking assistance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
emotional support, mental health, police, social interaction, social support, Sweden
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215302 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1196320 (DOI)2-s2.0-85175379976 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-16 Created: 2023-10-16 Last updated: 2023-11-06Bibliographically approved
Bartkowiak-Théron, I., Bent, R. & Hansson, J. (2023). LEPH 2023: Together again towards resilient communities [Letter to the editor]. Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, 8(1), 4-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LEPH 2023: Together again towards resilient communities
2023 (English)In: Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, E-ISSN 2371-4298, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 4-5Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
police science; Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206096 (URN)10.35502/jcswb.314 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-03-28 Created: 2023-03-28 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
Hjertstedt, M., Nilsson, I. & Hansson, J. (2023). Migrant minors in detention: Practical needs and the limits set by the European Convention. Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, 8(4), 166-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Migrant minors in detention: Practical needs and the limits set by the European Convention
2023 (Swedish)In: Journal of Community Safety and Well-Being, ISSN 2371-4298, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 166-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

State officials report practical needs to put migrant minors in detention, and the European Convention on Human Rights sets legal limits on this practice. This article defines the scope of circumstances under which migrating minors may be detained by analyzing The European Court of Human Rights case law, using judgments in which the detention of migrant minors has been alleged a violation of Articles 3, 5.1, or 8. It also explores states’ needs for detaining such children, using data from 19 interviews with Swedish police officers, and compares these views with the case law. Police interviewees primarily describe two needs to detain children: to make deportations of children smooth and dignified, and to prevent minors from committing crimes. The investigation finds that migrant minor detentions are rarely permissible according to the Convention—especially under Article 3—and that the permissible scope is too small to meet the expressed practical needs. The actors involved in the issue of detaining migrant minors might have different perspectives on the issue, but they must not lose sight of the fact that these children are categorized as some of the most vulnerable in society and that their rights must be protected.

Keywords
children, human rights, law, migration, police
National Category
International Migration and Ethnic Relations Law and Society
Research subject
public law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218362 (URN)10.35502/jcswb.354 (DOI)
Available from: 2023-12-19 Created: 2023-12-19 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Hansson, J. & Borglund, E. A. M. (2023). Polisiär konflikthantering: Ett integrerat taktiskt förhållningssätt för god arbetsmiljö. Umeå: Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polisiär konflikthantering: Ett integrerat taktiskt förhållningssätt för god arbetsmiljö
2023 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det behövs en ökad förståelse för det integrerade taktiska förhållningssättet och dess helhet som härstammar tillbaka till den Nationella bastaktikens ändamål, det vill säga ”ett rättesnöre för alla poliser i deras förhållningssätt till och bedömningar av person eller grupp han/hon kommunicerar med eller ingriper mot, fysisk omgivning, samt egna förmågor och begränsningar.” Syftet med denna rapport är att på ett vetenskapligt och strukturerat sätt undersöka om POLKON som koncept med hänsyn till integreringen av kunskapsområdena skapar förutsättningar för en god arbetsmiljö för enskilda poliser. Empirin i denna rapport är 28 intervjuer (19 män, nio kvinnor) med poliser från samtliga polisregioner i Sverige. Intervjuerna genomfördes under hösten 2022. 

Resultaten visar att erfarenhet ses som en tillgång när det gäller att tillämpa det integrerade taktiska förhållningssättet. Enligt POLKON:s utbildningsmaterial ska individens förståelse, förhållningssätt och förmåga bidra till att i ett integrerat taktiskt förhållningssätt sträva efter kontroll i situationen, det vill säga tid och egen förmåga till adekvat åtgärd. Resultaten visar att POLKON som koncept tillämpas men att det finns variationer i såväl förståelsen som tillämpningen. Resultaten visar vidare att kommunikation är grunden i ingripande polisarbete men att det skiljer sig åt mellan olika poliser. Kopplingen mellan de olika kunskapsområdena, det vill säga taktik, mentalt och kommunikativt är dock inte helt uttalad. Resultaten visar att POLKON som koncept är anpassat till det praktiska arbetet som polis. Det finns inget i resultaten som indikerar att det integrerade taktiska förhållningssättet inte är anpassat efter det som poliserna ställs inför i sitt vardagliga arbete. Det finns snarare de som menar att de har allt de behöver för alla typer av ingripanden i sin förståelse av de grundläggande principerna. 

Resultaten från vår studie visar att det finns goda förutsättningar för att det integrerade taktiska förhållningssättet och POLKON som koncept kan bidra till att svensk polis gör rättssäkra och säkra ingripanden för polisen, den de ingriper mot samt eventuell tredje part. Vi har inte funnit något i resultaten som visar att de grundläggande teorierna och principerna för ingripanden brister även om det kräver ständig utveckling utifrån hur samhället och därmed polisarbetet förändras och utvecklas. 

Det finns internationell forskning som ger stöd åt flera av de nationellt fastställda metoderna och den grundläggande taktiska förklaringsmodellen. Utbildningsmaterialet är i behov av en revidering särskilt med tanke på att det finns ett förhållandevis omfattande stöd i internationell befintlig forskning för många av de metoder som finns nationellt fastställda. Resultatet diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning och slutsatser och rekommendationer redovisas i sin helhet i slutet av rapporten. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2023. p. 28
Series
Polisutbildningens skriftserie ; 15
Keywords
kommunikation, mental förberedelse, polis, polkon, taktik, utbildning
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214212 (URN)978-91-8070-166-2 (ISBN)978-91-8070-167-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-09-08 Created: 2023-09-08 Last updated: 2023-09-08Bibliographically approved
Rostami, A., Burman, M., Ghazinour, M. & Hansson, J. (2023). Work-related stress in relation to gender-based and sexual harassment among a group of Swedish police officers. Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, 10(1), 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work-related stress in relation to gender-based and sexual harassment among a group of Swedish police officers
2023 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, E-ISSN 2703-7045, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this cross-sectional study, we investigated work-related stress, gender-based and sexual harassment among police officers working in vulnerable areas in Stockholm. Data were collected from 152 police officers using a set of questionnaires. The results indicated that job stress in “impact on significant others” and “operational stress” were reported as the two most highly rated work-related stress in police officers. Female police officers rated higher stress in “impact on significant others” and “operational stress” compared to their male counterparts. Job experience was correlated with two stress subscales only in female officers. Working as patrol officers and more than one shift were negatively associated with some stress subscales among male officers. The male officers who had experience of sexual harassment reported higher “self-image” stress and “operational stress”, whereas the female officers had higher “self-image” and “confrontation with death” stress. After controlling for gender and job experience, sexual harassment had a significant relationship with “operational stress” and “self-image stress” in police officers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitetsforlaget, 2023
Keywords
Work stress, gender-based harassment, sexual harassment, gender, police officers
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206712 (URN)10.18261/njsp.10.1.3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85159455170 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-04-14 Created: 2023-04-14 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6113-414X

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