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Levlin, Maria
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Levlin, M., Okonski, L. & Sullivan, K. P. H. (2024). Educational attainment in Swedish (L1) and English (L2) for students with reading difficulties: a longitudinal case study from primary to the end of secondary school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 68(2), 172-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educational attainment in Swedish (L1) and English (L2) for students with reading difficulties: a longitudinal case study from primary to the end of secondary school
2024 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 172-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This longitudinal case study examines reading difficulties identified in Grade 2 and Grade 6 national assessment test (NAT) scores in relation to Grade 9 NAT in Swedish (L1) and English (L2). A norm-referenced screening was used in Grade 2 to assess word reading and reading comprehension. In line with the simple view of reading, four subgroups were identified: (1) Typical reading development, (2) Word reading difficulties, (3) Reading comprehension difficulties, and (4) Mixed difficulties. Results indicate that reading difficulties in primary school have long-standing implications for educational attainment in Swedish and English. In logistic regression models students with reading difficulties in Grade 2 and low Grade 6 NAT-scores had a higher probability to achieve low attainment levels in Grade 9. This implies that a norm-referenced screening in Grade 2 can be useful for identifying students at risk of low attainment in language subjects at the end of compulsory school.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
Keywords
reading difficulties, educational attainment, foreign language learning, early identification
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
language teaching and learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-201108 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2022.2123850 (DOI)000859766600001 ()2-s2.0-85139136610 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-20 Created: 2022-11-20 Last updated: 2024-04-29Bibliographically approved
Waldmann, C. & Levlin, M. (2024). Reading profiles in secondary school: concurrent language and cognitive abilities, and retrospective and prospective reading skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1287134.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reading profiles in secondary school: concurrent language and cognitive abilities, and retrospective and prospective reading skills
2024 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1287134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: We examined the concurrent language and cognitive abilities in a group of Swedish students with different reading profiles in secondary school, and the retrospective (primary school) and prospective (upper-secondary school) reading skills of each reading profile.

Methods: Seventy-nine students participated in data collections in primary (grade 2: age 8), secondary (grade 8: age 14) and upper-secondary school (year 2: age 17). Independent variables included measures of word recognition, and vocabulary and text comprehension in secondary school. Dependent variables included measures of phonemic awareness, verbal fluency, listening comprehension, spelling, verbal working memory and nonverbal reasoning skills in secondary school, and word recognition and reading comprehension in primary and upper-secondary school.

Results: When exploring the concurrent language and cognitive abilities of the reading profiles in secondary school, spelling emerged as a weakness and listening comprehension as a strength for students with poor decoding. Students with poor comprehension experienced weaknesses in spelling, and non-verbal reasoning. Students with both poor decoding and comprehension displayed a multi-deficit profile in language and cognition. As regards the retrospective and prospective reading skills, the relative ranking of the reading profiles was rather consistent in both primary and upper-secondary school.

Discussion: The findings suggest that limitations in phonological awareness may not be a prominent feature of secondary school students with poor decoding in more transparent orthographies. From an educational perspective, spoken sources may support learning among students with poor decoding, whereas students with poor comprehension or combined difficulties in decoding and comprehension need support when learning from both spoken and written sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2024
Keywords
cognitive abilities, language abilities, poor decoding, poor comprehension, Simple View of Reading, primary school, secondary school, upper-secondary schoo, lässvårigheter, läsutveckling
National Category
Didactics General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
language teaching and learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220237 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1287134 (DOI)001154197500001 ()38314251 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85183727740 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03729Umeå University
Available from: 2024-01-30 Created: 2024-01-30 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
Åsberg Johnels, J., Waldmann, C. & Levlin, M. (2024). Tracing the longitudinal role of orthographic knowledge in spelling development from primary to upper-secondary school. Journal of research in reading (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing the longitudinal role of orthographic knowledge in spelling development from primary to upper-secondary school
2024 (English)In: Journal of research in reading (Print), ISSN 0141-0423, E-ISSN 1467-9817Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background: Phonological processing skills have been found to contribute to spelling development across different orthographies; however, less is known about the role of orthographic knowledge. This longitudinal study explores the contribution of phonological and orthographic knowledge to spelling development in a semi-transparent orthography (Swedish) across a period of 10 years.

Methods: A group of Swedish speaking children were assessed on phonological recoding (phonological choice-task), orthographic knowledge (choice-task) and spelling (dictation task) in primary school (grade 2, age 8, total N = 99), secondary school (grade 8, age 14, N = 99) and again in upper secondary school (year 2, age 17, N = 79). Furthermore, spelling in a natural writing assignment was collected in upper secondary school. Spelling scores from grade 8 (dictation) and year 2 in upper secondary school (dictation and text) were included as dependent variables in three sets of hierarchical regression analyses. In the first step spelling performance in grade 2 was included to control for the autoregressive effect. In the second step, orthographic knowledge and phonological recoding from grade 2 were entered into the model in order to test for the longitudinal prediction.

Results: Test scores within and across ages were significantly correlated in bivariate analysis. Regression analysis revealed that orthographic knowledge in grade 2 was a unique longitudinal predictor of spelling performance across time-points (secondary and upper secondary school) and assessment formats (dictation and text), beyond the contribution of the control variables.

Conclusions: This study confirms the role of early orthographic knowledge in Swedish spelling development throughout the school years assessed in standardized dictation tasks as well as in naturalistic writing assignments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2024
Keywords
Longitudinal study, Orthographic knowledge, Phonological recoding, Spelling development
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-220015 (URN)10.1111/1467-9817.12443 (DOI)001142760700001 ()2-s2.0-85182464609 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03729
Available from: 2024-01-30 Created: 2024-01-30 Last updated: 2024-01-30
Sehlström, P., Waldmann, C. & Levlin, M. (2023). Self-efficacy for writing and written text quality of upper secondary students with and without reading difficulties. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1231817.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-efficacy for writing and written text quality of upper secondary students with and without reading difficulties
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1231817Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Self-efficacy for writing (SEW) and reading ability are some of several factors that may be related to the quality of written text that students produce. The aim of the current study was (1) to explore the variation in SEW and written text quality in L1-Swedish and L2-English among upper secondary students with different reading profiles in L1 (typical reading vs. reading difficulties) and with different study backgrounds (SB1year or SB2years = one or two years of studies of Swedish and English, respectively), and in the next step (2) to explore if individual variations in L1-reading and SEW may explain variation in written text quality.

Methods: Participants were 100 upper secondary students (aged 17–18) with different reading profiles operationalized as typical reading and reading difficulties. Data consisted of screening for word recognition and reading comprehension, text quality results from argumentative L1- and L2-writing tasks, school information on study background in Swedish/English, and students' responses from an online survey about SEW.

Results: As to SEW results, an ANOVA revealed significant main effects for reading profile and study background in L1, but in L2 there was only a significant main effect for reading profile. Written text quality results indicated that there was a significant interaction effect between reading profile and study background in L1, indicating that the significant main effect for reading profile on written text quality was influenced by the group of students with reading difficulties and SB1year. There was a significant main effect for reading profile and study background on written text quality in L2. Students with reading difficulties and SB1year were the most vulnerable group, and they had the lowest scores in L1/L2 SEW and written text quality in L1 and L2. Multiple regression results indicated that word recognition and SEW contributed significantly to L1-text quality, and word recognition, reading comprehension, and SEW contributed significantly to L2-text quality. Thus, this study sheds light on the under-researched area of L1/L2 SEW and text quality of students with reading difficulties at the level of upper secondary school.

Discussion: Pedagogical implications are discussed and highlight the need for writing instruction across subjects in upper secondary school and for extra writing support/scaffolding for students with reading difficulties and shorter study background in the language subjects L1 (Swedish) and L2 (English).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
argumentative writing, L1/L2, poor reading comprehension, poor word recognition, reading difficulties, self-efficacy for writing, upper secondary school, written text quality
National Category
Specific Languages Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215741 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1231817 (DOI)001076352600001 ()37809318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85173784288 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03729
Available from: 2023-11-02 Created: 2023-11-02 Last updated: 2023-11-02Bibliographically approved
Levlin, M., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., Sandgren, O., Karlsson, S. & Jonsson, B. (2022). Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 53(2), 542-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder
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2022 (English)In: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, ISSN 0161-1461, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 542-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school.

Method: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (Mage = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1–2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition.

Results: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words.

Conclusions: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP,whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to be-learned material (Tier 2 words).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2022
Keywords
developmental language disorder, vocabulary instruction, retrieval-based word learning
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
language teaching and learning; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193294 (URN)10.1044/2021_LSHSS-21-00101 (DOI)000781636800018 ()35320680 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85128488862 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721-2014-2099
Available from: 2022-03-25 Created: 2022-03-25 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Levlin, M. & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2022). Skriva och läsa: att konstruera förståelse (1ed.). In: Eva Lindgren; Carina Hermansson; Annika Norlund Shaswar; Sofie Areljung (Ed.), Skrivdidaktik i grundskolan: (pp. 69-96). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skriva och läsa: att konstruera förståelse
2022 (Swedish)In: Skrivdidaktik i grundskolan / [ed] Eva Lindgren; Carina Hermansson; Annika Norlund Shaswar; Sofie Areljung, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 69-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022 Edition: 1
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
language teaching and learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-197767 (URN)978-91-44-14493-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-07-05 Created: 2022-07-05 Last updated: 2022-07-05Bibliographically approved
Knospe, Y., Levlin, M. & Waldmann, C. (2022). Skrivande vid inlärningssvårigheter (1ed.). In: Eva Lindgren; Carina Hermansson; Annika Norlund Shaswar; Sofie Areljung (Ed.), Skrivdidaktik i grundskolan: (pp. 281-305). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skrivande vid inlärningssvårigheter
2022 (Swedish)In: Skrivdidaktik i grundskolan / [ed] Eva Lindgren; Carina Hermansson; Annika Norlund Shaswar; Sofie Areljung, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 281-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022 Edition: 1
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Didactics
Research subject
language teaching and learning; education; Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-195147 (URN)978-91-44-14493-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2022-07-04Bibliographically approved
Sehlström, P., Waldmann, C., Steinvall, A. & Levlin, M. (2022). Swedish (L1) and English (L2) argumentative writing of upper secondary students with reading difficulties. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 22(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish (L1) and English (L2) argumentative writing of upper secondary students with reading difficulties
2022 (English)In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Writing has been identified as a challenge for students with reading difficulties. This study contributes to previous research by exploring argumentative writing in L1 (Swedish) and L2 (English) in a group of students with reading difficulties in upper secondary school. Participants were 19 students with typical reading, 19 students with poor decoding, and 9 students with poor comprehension. A majority of students attended vocational programmes. Written text quality was assessed by using an adapted version of Jacobs et al.'s (1981) analytic scoring scheme including content, organisation, cohesion, vocabulary, language use, spelling, and punctuation. Students with reading difficulties (regardless of reader subgroup) were found to perform poorly in all categories in both L1 and L2, with spelling being particularly challenging in L1, and cohesion, language use, spelling, and punctuation in L2. Significant differences were found between students with poor comprehension and students with typical reading in cohesion, language use and spelling in L2. Few other significant differences were identified possibly due to an overall poor writing outcome also for students with typical reading. This general poor outcome in writing is discussed in relation to previous studies on writing among students with reading difficulties and writing in vocational programmes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Association for Research in L1 Education (ARLE), 2022
Keywords
analytic scoring, poor comprehension, poor decoding, simple view of reading, vocational, written text quality
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-196481 (URN)10.21248/L1ESLL.2022.22.1.405 (DOI)2-s2.0-85131062606 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03729
Available from: 2022-06-17 Created: 2022-06-17 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Waldmann, C., Ranjkesh, R., Malmström, A., Lindgren, E. & Levlin, M. (2022). Ungdomars skrivpraktiker på fritiden. In: Pia Sundqvist; Christian Waldmann; Boglárka Straszer; Birgitta Ljung Egeland (Ed.), Språk i skola, på fritid och i arbetsliv : aktuella arenor för svensk forskning inom tillämpad språkvetenskap: Language in school, leisure time, and working life : current arenas for Swedish research in applied linguistics (pp. 187-212). Association suédoise de linguistique appliquée (ASLA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ungdomars skrivpraktiker på fritiden
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2022 (Swedish)In: Språk i skola, på fritid och i arbetsliv : aktuella arenor för svensk forskning inom tillämpad språkvetenskap: Language in school, leisure time, and working life : current arenas for Swedish research in applied linguistics / [ed] Pia Sundqvist; Christian Waldmann; Boglárka Straszer; Birgitta Ljung Egeland, Association suédoise de linguistique appliquée (ASLA) , 2022, p. 187-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Med utgångspunkt i New Literacy Studies syn på skrivande som en social praktik syftar föreliggande studie till att synliggöra ungdomars skrivpraktiker på fritiden. Mer specifikt undersöktes vad ungdomar skriver, i vilka syften de skriver, vilka uppfattningar de har om sitt eget skrivande och hur dessa uppfattningar relaterar till vad och i vilka syften de skriver. Tretton ungdomar från olika gymnasieprogram deltog i semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades innehållsligt för att identifiera konkreta skrivhändelser, funktioner och uppfattningar om skrivande. Resultaten visade att de vanligast förekommande skrivhändelserna hade en kommunikativ funktion, t.ex. sms, inlägg i sociala medier och meddelanden i dataspelschattar. Ungdomarna iscensatte olika skrivhändelser även i syfte att planera/organisera, dokumentera, lösa problem, uttrycka kreativitet och bilda sig. Ungdomarnas uppfattningar om skrivande på fritiden rörde sig på en skala från negativt (svårt och tråkigt) till positivt (enkelt och roligt). Både individexterna (t.ex. intressant och relevant ämne) och individinterna (t.ex. god språklig behärskning) faktorer bidrog till ungdomarnas uppfattningar om skrivande som något positivt. Särskilt påtagligt var att en god språklig behärskning av engelska var en viktig motivationsfaktor till att skriva på fritiden. De negativa uppfattningarna formades däremot nästan uteslutande av individinterna faktorer som relaterade till bristande språk- och skrivfärdigheter och kunde förstärkas av rådande normer och föreställningar om språklig korrekthet och skrivriktighet i samhället.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association suédoise de linguistique appliquée (ASLA), 2022
Series
ASLA:s skriftserie, ISSN 1100-5629, E-ISSN 2004-108X ; 29
National Category
Didactics Languages and Literature
Research subject
language teaching and learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193995 (URN)9789187884290 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03729_VR
Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2022-04-22Bibliographically approved
Levlin, M. & Nakeva von Mentzer, C. (2020). An evaluation of systematized phonics on reading proficiency in Swedish second grade poor readers: Effects on pseudoword and sight word reading skills. Dyslexia, 26(4), 427-441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of systematized phonics on reading proficiency in Swedish second grade poor readers: Effects on pseudoword and sight word reading skills
2020 (English)In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 427-441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systematized phonics on word reading in Swedish second grade poor readers. Forty-nine children who performed at or below the 25th percentile on pseudoword reading and/or sight word reading at the beginning of second grade participated in the study. The study had a cross-over design exploring within-and between-group effects of two different conditions: systematized phonics and classroom instruction. Overall, systematized phonics proved more effective than classroom instruction. At pre-intervention, no child performed above the 30th percentile in pseudoword reading or sight word reading. At post-intervention, corresponding numbers were 69% for pseudoword reading and 35% for sight word reading. Implications for a policy change in Sweden towards mandatory systematized phonics in primary school are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
policy change, reading difficulties, response to intervention, systematized phonics
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176066 (URN)10.1002/dys.1669 (DOI)000573338200001 ()32989836 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85091606851 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-11-05 Created: 2020-11-05 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
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