Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Holmström, M., Lester, M. & Sanchez-Cano, B. (2024). Future opportunities in solar system plasma science through ESA's exploration programme. npj Microgravity, 10(1), Article ID 29.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future opportunities in solar system plasma science through ESA's exploration programme
2024 (English)In: npj Microgravity, E-ISSN 2373-8065, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 29Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The solar wind interacts with all solar system bodies, inducing different types of dynamics depending on their atmospheric and magnetic environments. We here outline some key open scientific questions related to this interaction, with a focus on the Moon and Mars, that may be addressed by future Mars and Moon missions by the European Space Agency's Human and Robotic Exploration programme. We describe possible studies of plasma interactions with bodies with and without an atmosphere, using multi-point and remote measurements, and energetic particle observations, as well as recommend some actions to take.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-223247 (URN)10.1038/s41526-024-00373-9 (DOI)001185286500001 ()38486087 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85188029974 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-18 Created: 2024-04-18 Last updated: 2024-04-18Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Q., Holmström, M. & Wang, X.-D. (2023). Effects of ion composition on escape and morphology at Mars. Annales Geophysicae, 41(2), 375-388
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of ion composition on escape and morphology at Mars
2023 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 375-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We refine a recently presented method to estimate ion escape from non-magnetized planets and apply it to Mars. The method combines in-situ observations and a hybrid plasma model (ions as particles, electrons as a fluid). We use measurements from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission and Mars Express (MEX) for one orbit on 2015-03-01. Observed upstream solar wind conditions are used as input to the model. We then vary the total ionospheric ion upflux until the solution fits the observed bow shock location. This solution is a self-consistent approximation of the global Mars-solar wind interaction at this moment, for the given upstream conditions. We can then study global properties, such as the heavy ion escape rate. Here we investigate the effects on escape estimates of assumed ionospheric ion composition, solar wind alpha particle concentration and temperature, solar wind velocity aberration, and solar wind electron temperature. We also study the amount of escape in the ion plume and in the tail of the planet. Here we find that estimates of total heavy ion escape are not very sensitive to the composition of the heavy ions, or the amount and temperature of the solar wind alpha particles. We also find that velocity aberration has a minor influence on escape, but that it is sensitive to the solar wind electron temperature. The plume escape is found to contribute 29 % of the total heavy ion escape, in agreement with observations. Heavier ions have a larger fraction of escape in the plume compared to the tail. We also find that the escape estimates scales inversely with the square root of the atomic mass of the escaping ion specie.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus Publications, 2023
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-207998 (URN)10.5194/angeo-41-375-2023 (DOI)2-s2.0-85174694828 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 198/19Swedish National Space Board, 198/19
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form. 

Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-11-08Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Zhang, Q., Stenberg Wieser, G., Holmström, M., Barabash, S., Futaana, Y., . . . Wieser, M. (2023). Solar cycle variation of ion escape from Mars. Icarus, 393, Article ID 114610.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar cycle variation of ion escape from Mars
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 393, article id 114610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using Mars Express data from 2007 until 2020 we show how ion outflow from Mars varied over more than a solar cycle, from one solar minimum to another. The data was divided into intervals with a length of one Martian year, starting from 30 April 2007 and ending 13 July 2020. The net escape rate was about 5×1024s−1 in the first covered minimum, and 2−3×1024s−1 in the most recent minimum. Ion escape peaked at 1×1025s−1 during the intervening solar maximum. The outflow is a clear function of the solar cycle, in agreement with previous studies which found a clear relationship between solar EUV flux and ion escape at Mars. The outflow during solar maximum is 2.5 to 3 times higher than in the surrounding solar minima. The average solar wind dynamic pressure over a Martian year was investigated, but does not vary much with the solar cycle. The escape rate at solar maximum is in good agreement with some recent MAVEN studies, and dominated by low energy ions at most sampled locations. A simple linear fit to the data gives a prediction of the escape rate for the much stronger solar maximum during the Phobos mission in 1989 that is consistent with observations. The fit also implies a non-linear response of ion escape for low solar EUV, with a lower initial escape response for lower solar EUV levels than those of the studied data set.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2023
Keywords
Magnetospheres, Mars, Mars atmosphere, Mars climate
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-191346 (URN)10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114610 (DOI)000953414200001 ()2-s2.0-85111018401 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-13 Created: 2022-01-13 Last updated: 2023-05-02Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Q., Holmström, M., Wang, X.-D., Nilsson, H. & Barabash, S. (2023). The influence of solar irradiation and solar wind conditions on heavy ion escape from Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 128(10), Article ID e2023JA031828.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of solar irradiation and solar wind conditions on heavy ion escape from Mars
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 128, no 10, article id e2023JA031828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We apply a recently proposed method to estimate heavy ion escape from Mars. The method combines in situ observations with a hybrid plasma model, which treats ions as particles and electrons as a fluid. With this method, we investigate how solar upstream conditions, including solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, solar wind dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength and cone angle, affect the heavy ion loss. The results indicate that the heavy ion escape rate is greater in high EUV conditions. The escape rate increases with increasing solar wind dynamic pressure, and decreases as the IMF strength increases. The ion escape rate is highest when the solar wind is parallel to the IMF and lowest when they are perpendicular. The plume escape rate decreases when the solar wind convective electric field increases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2023
Keywords
hybrid model, ion escape, Mars
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215942 (URN)10.1029/2023JA031828 (DOI)001086481000001 ()2-s2.0-85174732132 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 198/19
Available from: 2023-11-01 Created: 2023-11-01 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, H., Möslinger, A., Williamson, H. N., Bergman, S., Gunell, H., Stenberg Wieser, G., . . . Holmström, M. (2022). Upstream solar wind speed at comet 67P: reconstruction method, model comparison, and results. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 659, Article ID A18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upstream solar wind speed at comet 67P: reconstruction method, model comparison, and results
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 659, article id A18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Rosetta followed comet 67P at heliocentric distances from 1.25 to 3.6 au. The solar wind was observed for much of this time, but was significantly deflected and to some extent slowed down by the interaction with the coma.

Aims: We use the different changes in the speed of H+ and He2+ when they interact with the coma to estimate the upstream speed of the solar wind. The different changes in the speed are due to the different mass per charge of the particles, while the electric force per charge due to the interaction is the same. A major assumption is that the speeds of H+ and He2+ were the same in the upstream region. This is investigated.

Methods: We derived a method for reconstructing the upstream solar wind from H+ and He2+ observations. The method is based on the assumption that the interaction of the comet with the solar wind can be described by an electric potential that is the same for both H+ and He2+. This is compared to estimates from the Tao model and to OMNI and Mars Express data that we propagated to the observation point.

Results: The reconstruction agrees well with the Tao model for most of the observations, in particular for the statistical distribution of the solar wind speed. The electrostatic potential relative to the upstream solar wind is derived and shows values from a few dozen volts at large heliocentric distances to about 1 kV during solar events and close to perihelion. The reconstructed values of the solar wind for periods of high electrostatic potential also agree well with propagated observations and model results.

Conclusions: The reconstructed upstream solar wind speed during the Rosetta mission agrees well with the Tao model. The Tao model captures some slowing down of high-speed streams as compared to observations at Earth or Mars. At low solar wind speeds, below 400 km s-1, the agreement is better between our reconstruction and Mars observations than with the Tao model. The magnitude of the reconstructed electrostatic potential is a good measure of the slowing-down of the solar wind at the observation point.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2022
Keywords
Acceleration of particles, Comets: general, Comets: individual: C67P, Plasmas, Space vehicles: instruments
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-193059 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/202142867 (DOI)000761966800004 ()2-s2.0-85125761748 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-04187The European Space Agency (ESA)
Available from: 2022-03-21 Created: 2022-03-21 Last updated: 2023-01-16Bibliographically approved
Vorburger, A., Pfleger, M., Lindkvist, J., Holmström, M., Lammer, H., Lichtenegger, H. I. M., . . . Wurz, P. (2019). Three‐Dimensional Modeling of Callisto's Surface Sputtered Exosphere Environment. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 124(8), 7157-7169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three‐Dimensional Modeling of Callisto's Surface Sputtered Exosphere Environment
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 8, p. 7157-7169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study the release of various elements from Callisto's surface into its exosphere by plasma sputtering. The cold Jovian plasma is simulated with a 3‐D plasma‐planetary interaction hybrid model, which produces 2‐D surface precipitation maps for magnetospheric H+, O+, O++, and S++. For the hot Jovian plasma, we assume isotropic precipitation onto the complete spherical surface. Two scenarios are investigated: one where no ionospheric shielding takes place and accordingly full plasma penetration is implemented (no‐ionosphere scenario) and one where an ionosphere lets virtually none of the cold plasma but all of the hot plasma reach Callisto's surface (ionosphere scenario). In the 3‐D exosphere model, neutral particles are sputtered from the surface and followed on their individual trajectories. The 3‐D density profiles show that whereas in the no‐ionosphere scenario the ram direction is favored, the ionosphere scenario produces almost uniform density profiles. In addition, the density profiles in the ionosphere scenario are reduced by a factor of ∼2.5 with respect to the no‐ionosphere scenario. We find that the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer, which is part of the Particle Environment Package on board the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer mission, will be able to detect the different sputter populations from Callisto's icy surface and the major sputter populations from Callisto's nonicy surface. The chemical composition of Callisto's exosphere can be directly linked to the chemical composition of its surface and will offer us information not only on Callisto's formation scenario but also on the building blocks of the Jupiter system.

Keywords
Callisto, atmosphere, exosphere, Jupiter, plasma, sputtering
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119795 (URN)10.1029/2019JA026610 (DOI)000490956600050 ()2-s2.0-85070838044 (Scopus ID)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form with title "3D-modeling of Callisto's exosphere caused by thermal plasma sputtering" by the authors Pfleger, Martin; Lindkvist, Jesper; Vorburger, Audrey; Holmström, Mats; Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Lammer, Helmut; Wurz, Peter; Barabash, Stas.

Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Fatemi, S., Poirier, N., Holmström, M., Lindkvist, J., Wieser, M. & Barabash, S. (2018). A modelling approach to infer the solar wind dynamic pressure from magnetic field observations inside Mercury's magnetosphere. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 614, Article ID A132.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A modelling approach to infer the solar wind dynamic pressure from magnetic field observations inside Mercury's magnetosphere
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 614, article id A132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: The lack of an upstream solar wind plasma monitor when a spacecraft is inside the highly dynamic magnetosphere of Mercury limits interpretations of observed magnetospheric phenomena and their correlations with upstream solar wind variations.

Methods: We used AMITIS, a three-dimensional GPU-based hybrid model of plasma (particle ions and fluid electrons) to infer the solar wind dynamic pressure and Alfvén Mach number upstream of Mercury by comparing our simulation results with MESSENGER magnetic field observations inside the magnetosphere of Mercury. We selected a few orbits of MESSENGER that have been analysed and compared with hybrid simulations before. Then we ran a number of simulations for each orbit (~30–50 runs) and examined the effects of the upstream solar wind plasma variations on the magnetic fields observed along the trajectory of MESSENGER to find the best agreement between our simulations and observations.

Results: We show that, on average, the solar wind dynamic pressure for the selected orbits is slightly lower than the typical estimated dynamic pressure near the orbit of Mercury. However, we show that there is a good agreement between our hybrid simulation results and MESSENGER observations for our estimated solar wind parameters. We also compare the solar wind dynamic pressure inferred from our model with those predicted previously by the WSA-ENLIL model upstream of Mercury, and discuss the agreements and disagreements between the two model predictions. We show that the magnetosphere of Mercury is highly dynamic and controlled by the solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field. In addition, in agreement with previous observations, our simulations show that there are quasi-trapped particles and a partial ring current-like structure in the nightside magnetosphere of Mercury, more evident during a northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We also use our simulations to examine the correlation between the solar wind dynamic pressure and stand-off distance of the magnetopause and compare it with MESSENGER observations. We show that our model results are in good agreement with the response of the magnetopause to the solar wind dynamic pressure, even during extreme solar events. We also show that our model can be used as a virtual solar wind monitor near the orbit of Mercury and this has important implications for interpretation of observations by MESSENGER and the future ESA/JAXA mission to Mercury, BepiColombo.

Keywords
planets and satellites: terrestrial planets, methods: numerical, solar-terrestrial relations, solar wind, Sun: activity, magnetic fields
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147410 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201832764 (DOI)000436411500002 ()2-s2.0-85049600986 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist, J., Holmström, M., Fatemi, S., Wieser, M. & Barabash, S. (2017). Ceres interaction with the solar wind. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(5), 2070-2077
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ceres interaction with the solar wind
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 2070-2077Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The solar wind interaction with Ceres is studied for a high water vapor release from its surface using a hybrid model including photoionization. We use a water vapor production rate of 6 kg/s, thought to be due to subsurface sublimation, corresponding to a detection on 6 March 2013 by the Herschel Space Observatory. We present the general morphology of the plasma interactions, both close to Ceres and on a larger scale. Mass loading of water ions causes a magnetic pileup region in front of Ceres, where the solar wind deflects up to 15 ∘ and slows down by 15%. The global plasma interaction with Ceres is not greatly affected by the source location of water vapor nor on gravity, only on the production rate of water vapor. On a global scale, Ceres has a comet-like interaction with the solar wind with observable perturbations farther than 250 Ceres radii downstream of the body.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Space and Plasma Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119797 (URN)10.1002/2016GL072375 (DOI)000398183700003 ()2-s2.0-85014516987 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-27 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Ramstad, R., Barabash, S., Futaana, Y., Nilsson, H. & Holmström, M. (2017). Global Mars-solar wind coupling and ion escape. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 122(8), 8051-8062
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global Mars-solar wind coupling and ion escape
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 8, p. 8051-8062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Loss of the early Martian atmosphere is often thought to have occurred due to an effective transfer of the solar wind energy through the Martian induced magnetic barrier to the ionosphere. We have quantified the coupling efficiency by comparing the power of the heavy ion outflow with the available power supplied by the upstream solar wind. Constraining upstream solar wind density nsw, velocity vsw, and EUV intensity IEUV/photoionizing flux FXUV in varying intervals reveals a decrease in coupling efficiency, k,with solar wind dynamic pressure as ∝ pdyn−0.74±0.13 and with FXUV as k ∝ FXUV−2.28±0.30. Despite the decreasein coupling efficiency, higher FXUV enhances the cold ion outflow, increasing the total ion escape rate as Q(FXUV) = 1010(0.82 ± 0.05)FXUV. The discrepancy between coupling and escape suggests that ion escapefrom Mars is primarily production limited in the modern era, though decreased coupling may lead to an energy-limited solar wind interaction under early Sun conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2017
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141930 (URN)10.1002/2017JA024306 (DOI)000411788800015 ()
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2022-03-08Bibliographically approved
Ramstad, R., Barabash, S., Futaana, Y., Yamauchi, M., Nilsson, H. & Holmström, M. (2017). Mars Under Primordial Solar Wind Conditions: Mars Express Observations of the Strongest CME Detected at Mars Under Solar Cycle #24 and its Impact on Atmospheric Ion Escape. Geophysical Research Letters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mars Under Primordial Solar Wind Conditions: Mars Express Observations of the Strongest CME Detected at Mars Under Solar Cycle #24 and its Impact on Atmospheric Ion Escape
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

An extremely strong Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) impacted Mars on 12 July 2011, while theMars Express spacecraft was present inside the nightside ionosphere. Estimated solar wind density andspeed during the event are 39 particles cm−3 and 730 km/s, corresponding to nominal solar wind fluxat Mars when the solar system was ∼1.1 Ga old. Comparing with expected average atmospheric heavy ionfluxes under similar XUV conditions, the CME impact is found to have no significant effect on the escaperate 3.3 × 1024 s−1, with an upper limit at 1025 s−1 if the observed tail contraction is not taken into account.On the subsequent orbit, 7 h later after magnetosphere response, fluxes were only 2.4% of average. As such,even under primordial solar wind conditions we are unable to find support for a strong solar wind-driven ion escape, rather the main effect appears to be acceleration of the escaping ions by ×10–×20 typicalcharacteristic energy.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141931 (URN)10.1002/2017GL075446 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2022-03-08
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5494-5374

Search in DiVA

Show all publications