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Malmberg, Gunnar
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Publications (10 of 57) Show all publications
Lestari, S. K., Eriksson, M., de Luna, X., Malmberg, G. & Ng, N. (2024). Volunteering and instrumental support during the first phase of the pandemic in Europe: the significance of COVID-19 exposure and stringent country’s COVID-19 policy. BMC Public Health, 24(1), Article ID 99.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volunteering and instrumental support during the first phase of the pandemic in Europe: the significance of COVID-19 exposure and stringent country’s COVID-19 policy
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2024 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The COVID-19 control policies might negatively impact older adults’ participation in volunteer work, instrumental support provision, and the likelihood of receiving instrumental support. Studies that quantify changes in these activities and the related factors are limited. The current study aimed to examine the level of volunteering, instrumental support provision and receipt before and during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and to determine whether older adults’ volunteering, instrumental support provision and receipt were associated with individual exposure to COVID-19 and the stringency of country’s COVID-19 control policy during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Corona Survey 1 was designed to focus on community-dwelling Europeans aged ≥50 years. History of participation in volunteering work and instrumental support provision or receipt was assessed from the previous SHARE Wave data. The country’s COVID-19 control policy stringency index (S-Index) was from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker database. A total of 45,669 respondents from 26 European countries were included in the volunteering analysis. Seventeen European countries were included in the analyses of instrumental support provision (N = 36,518) and receipt (N = 36,526). The multilevel logistic regression model was fitted separately to analyse each activity.

Results: The level of volunteering and instrumental support provision was lower during the pandemic, but instrumental support receipt was higher. The country S-Index was positively associated with support provision (OR:1.13;95%CI:1.02–1.26) and negatively associated with support receipt (OR:0.69;95%CI:0.54–0.88). Exposure to COVID-19 was positively associated with support receipt (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.38–1.95). COVID-19 exposure on close ones positively associated with volunteering (OR:1.47;95%CI:1.32–1.65), support provision (OR:1.28;95%CI:1.19–1.39), and support receipt (OR:1.25;95%CI:1.15–1.35).

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted older Europeans’ volunteering, instrumental support provision, and instrumental support receipt from outside their household. When someone close to them was exposed to COVID-19, older Europeans were likely to receive instrumental support and to volunteer and provide instrumental support. A stricter country’s COVID-19 control policy might motivate older adults to provide instrumental support, but it prevents them from receiving instrumental support from outside their households. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2024
Keywords
s COVID-19, Social support, Social participation, Volunteering, Older population, SHARE, Europe, Ageing population
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200954 (URN)10.1186/s12889-023-17507-5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85181485748 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101015924
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2022-11-11 Created: 2022-11-11 Last updated: 2024-01-24Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J., Fors Connolly, F., Malmberg, G., Josefsson, M. & Stattin, M. (2023). Sociodemographic factors and adjustment of daily activities during the COVID-19 pandemic – findings from the SHARE Corona Survey. Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sociodemographic factors and adjustment of daily activities during the COVID-19 pandemic – findings from the SHARE Corona Survey
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Aging & Social Policy, ISSN 0895-9420, E-ISSN 1545-0821Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, older people across Europe have adjusted their daily activities as personal risk avoidance and as an amendment to policy recommendations and restrictions. In this study, we use multilevel logistic regressions to examine to what extent sociodemographic factors are associated with activity reduction among the older population (50+) in Europe and whether these associations are moderated by governmental policy responses to COVID-19. By combining data for~35,000 respondents from the SHARE Corona Survey on reported changes in daily activities and stringency of restrictions at the national level, we find that older age, poorer health and being female versus male were (consistently) associated with greater activity reduction across all activities both in countries with weak and in those with strong restrictions. Associations between education, employment and living situation, on the one hand, and activity reduction, on the other, were weaker and less consistent. We conclude that differences between sociodemographic groups are rather similar for countries with weak and those with strong restrictions and hence argue that group-specific policy recommendation are relevant independent of stringency recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
Activity adjustment, COVID-19, cross-national comparisons, daily activities, Europe, government response stringency, SHARE Corona Survey
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-202459 (URN)10.1080/08959420.2023.2206077 (DOI)000979698800001 ()37125862 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85158868645 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 676536EU, Horizon 2020, 101015924
Available from: 2023-01-10 Created: 2023-01-10 Last updated: 2023-06-02
Thomassen, J. A. K., Lundholm, E. & Malmberg, G. (2023). Who stays in their birthplace? The role of multigenerational local ties in young adults' staying behaviour. Population, Space and Place
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who stays in their birthplace? The role of multigenerational local ties in young adults' staying behaviour
2023 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We explore staying and migration behaviour using a multigenerational perspective on local ties. Based on Swedish register data, we take a shared birthplace between young adults and one or more of their parents and grandparents as a proxy for multigenerational local ties in the young adult's birthplace. Our aim is to investigate whether the presence of this type of longstanding, multigenerational local ties in the birthplace increases one's propensity to stay or return there during young adulthood. Using multinomial logistic regressions, we model the residential trajectories between ages 18 and 30 of individuals born in 1981, 1982, and 1983 who lived in their birthplace at age 18 (i.e., stayed in, moved from, or returned to the birthplace by age 30; N = 185,897). We find that the propensity for staying in one's birthplace increases with each additional parent or grandparent with whom the birthplace is shared. Overall, differences between ties shared with parent(s) and grandparent(s) are surprisingly similar, except ties that are shared with both parents. These have a particularly strong and positive effect. Although men seem to be tied more strongly than women to their fathers and paternal grandparents, we found no differences between men and women in their ties to mothers and maternal grandparents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
grandparents, internal migration, local ties, place of birth, staying, young adulthood
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215368 (URN)10.1002/psp.2710 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173435975 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2020‐02542EU, Horizon 2020, 740113
Available from: 2023-10-31 Created: 2023-10-31 Last updated: 2023-10-31
Lestari, S. K., Eriksson, M., de Luna, X., Malmberg, G. & Ng, N. (2022). Frailty and types of social relationships among older adults in 17 European countries: A latent class analysis. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), 101, Article ID 104705.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frailty and types of social relationships among older adults in 17 European countries: A latent class analysis
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2022 (English)In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 101, article id 104705Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Frailty is a syndrome commonly associated with old age. Social relationships are an essential determinant of frailty progression, and frailty can negatively affect social relationships.

Objectives: To identify social relationship types among older adults in Europe; to evaluate whether social relationship types differ across European regions; and to assess the association between frailty status and social relationship type.

Methods: We used data from 56,226 individuals from 17 European countries who participated in Wave 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We constructed social relationship types from social relationship variables (contacts frequency, perceived emotional support, participation in social activities, providing and receiving instrumental support) using latent class analysis (LCA). Associations between social relationship types and frailty were examined using multinomial regression analyses integrated with LCA.

Results: We identified four social relationship types: ‘poor’; ‘frequent and emotionally close’; ‘frequent, emotionally close, and supportive’; and ‘frequent, emotionally close, and active’. Type 3 is also characterised by participation in sport/social clubs (in the northern region) or receiving support (in the eastern region). Participation in volunteering/charity activities (in the central and northern regions) and instrumental support provision (in the northern region) are Type 4′s characteristics as well. In all regions, being frail was associated with less active social relationships (Types 1, 2, and 3) relative to the more ‘active’ type (Type 4).

Conclusion: Frailty status was associated with social relationship types. The identified types may help tailor intervention programmes for older adults to prevent worsening frailty.

Keywords
Frailty, Latent class analysis, Older age, SHARE, Social participation, Social support
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194900 (URN)10.1016/j.archger.2022.104705 (DOI)000793742700007 ()35461166 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85129513398 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2020-0254Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-05196
Available from: 2022-06-01 Created: 2022-06-01 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Lestari, S. K., de Luna, X., Eriksson, M., Malmberg, G. & Ng, N. (2021). A longitudinal study on social support, social participation, and older Europeans' quality of life. SSM - Population Health, 13, Article ID 100747.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A longitudinal study on social support, social participation, and older Europeans' quality of life
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2021 (English)In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 13, article id 100747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The association between quality of life (QoL) and social relationships is well established. This paper further analyses whether and how participation in social activities as well as providing and receiving social support, independently, are associated with QoL among the older population in 16 European countries. QoL was measured using the CASP-12 scale. The baseline data came from Wave 6 and the outcome from Wave 7 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The associations of interest were analysed using multivariable linear regression. The effect of possible non-ignorable dropout was tested. Then, doubly robust estimation and sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounding were performed to evaluate the possible causal interpretation of the associations found. Our findings show that participation in at least one of the socially productive activities was positively associated with QoL at two-year follow-up (Average Causal Effect, ACE: 0.474; 95%CI: 0.361, 0.587). The association was stronger among women, people aged 75+, and those in the Southern European region. Providing social support had a positive association with QoL, but only among people aged 75+ (ACE: 0.410; 95%CI: 0.031, 0.789). Conversely, receiving social support had a negative association (ACE: -0.321; 95%CI: -0.448, -0.195) with QoL, especially for men, people aged 75+, and those in Eastern European countries. Sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounders showed that the associations found cannot be attributed to causal effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Older population, Panel data, Quality of life, Social participation, Social support
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-180792 (URN)10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100747 (DOI)000636560000012 ()2-s2.0-85100764155 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-25 Created: 2021-02-25 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Fors Connolly, F., Olofsson, J., Malmberg, G. & Stattin, M. (2021). Adjustment of daily activities to restrictions and reported spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Europe.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adjustment of daily activities to restrictions and reported spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Europe
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses adjustments of daily activities in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic among people aged 50 years and older in Europe, and investigates the extent to which such adjustments are associated with the stringency of governmental restrictions and the overall spread of COVID-19. We use data from the SHARE Corona Survey collected during summer2020, published data on government response stringency, and reported country-specific prevalence and mortality of COVID-19. Our analyses show that older Europeans across the continent have reduced their daily activities quite substantially during the pandemic. However, we observe variation across countries and demographic groups, which may be important to highlight for policymakers. Our explanatory analysis replicates previous studies using mobility data, showing that both restrictions and infections predict a reduction in mobility. Thus, policymakers could potentially rely on both restrictions and voluntary adjustments in order to decrease the spread of the virus. However, it is noteworthy that we find relatively weaker associations with restrictions compared to previous studies using mobility data. One explanation for this discrepancy could be that our study focuses on older people, who face a higher risk of becoming severely ill and therefore have stronger incentives to adjust their behaviours independent of governmental regulations.

Publisher
p. 15
Series
SHARE Working Papers ; 62-2021
Keywords
daily activities, activity adjustment, COVID-19, government response stringency, reported COVID -19 cases, cross-national comparisons, SHARE
National Category
Social Sciences Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Human Geography
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181612 (URN)10.17617/2.3292885 (DOI)
Available from: 2021-03-18 Created: 2021-03-18 Last updated: 2021-03-19Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, S., Häggström Lundevaller, E., Malmberg, G. & Ng, N. (2021). Income inequality in Swedish municipalities 1986-2013: Development and regional patterns. Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Income inequality in Swedish municipalities 1986-2013: Development and regional patterns
2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the present report, we investigate the patterns and trends of inequality in disposable income in the working-age population in Swedish municipalities 1986-2013. This period coincided with when Sweden changed from very lowlevels of inequality to one with substantially increasing inequality. Incomes has increased in all parts of Sweden, but differences in incomes between municipalities have widened. Asa result, large parts of Sweden have become poorer in a relative, although not in a nominative sense. At the same time, income inequality has increased substantially within as well as between municipalities. Present-day Swedes live in much more unequal environments, both at the national level and in the municipalities. The large city areas, or at least part of them, have had a much more advantageous economic development, but they also became more unequal. We see a division between parts of Sweden; there are clear differentiation tendencies between urban and rural parts, centre and periphery. Another finding is that the relation between mean income and income inequality has changed from the 1980s to the present. This association was negative a couple of decades ago, meaning that inequality was somewhat higher in poorer municipalities. From the 1990s onwards, the association is instead positive – affluent municipalities are more unequal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå universitet, 2021. p. 20
Series
CEDAR Working Papers ; 2021:21
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Population studies; Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189343 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 412-2012-892
Available from: 2021-11-09 Created: 2021-11-09 Last updated: 2021-11-11Bibliographically approved
Olofsson, J., Sandow, E., Findlay, A. & Malmberg, G. (2020). Boomerang Behaviour and Emerging Adulthood: Moving Back to the Parental Home and the Parental Neighbourhood in Sweden. European Journal of Population, 36(5), 919-945
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boomerang Behaviour and Emerging Adulthood: Moving Back to the Parental Home and the Parental Neighbourhood in Sweden
2020 (English)In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 919-945Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper makes two original contributions to research on young adults’ boomerang mobility. First, it reveals the magnitude and complexity of return moves by young people to their parental home and neighbourhood. Secondly, it shows that the determinants and associates of return migration vary significantly when analysed at two different geographical scales—the parental home and the parental neighbourhood area. Using longitudinal data (1986–2009) on four cohorts of young adults, we find that boomeranging to the parental home in Sweden has increased in times of economic recession and is associated with economic vulnerability, such as leaving higher education or entering unemployment, and partnership dissolution. While returning to the parental home can offer financial support in times of life course reversal, we found gender differences indicating a greater independence among young women than men. Returning to the parental neighbourhood is found to be a very different kind of mobility than returning to co-reside with one’s parents, involving the migration decisions of more economically independent young adults. Results also indicate that returns to the parental neighbourhood, as well as returns to the parental home, can be part of young people’s life course changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Boomerang mobility, Life course, Young adults, Longitudinal, Returning home
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Population studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169825 (URN)10.1007/s10680-020-09557-x (DOI)000520794500001 ()33177968 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85082846318 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-21 Created: 2020-04-21 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Lestari, S. K., de Luna, X., Eriksson, M., Malmberg, G. & Ng, N. (2020). Changes in the provision of instrumental support by older adults in nine European countries during 2004-2015: a panel data analysis. BMC Geriatrics, 20(1), Article ID 436.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in the provision of instrumental support by older adults in nine European countries during 2004-2015: a panel data analysis
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2020 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Providing support to others has been shown to be beneficial to older adults. As people age, their health and social relationships change. These changes may also relate to changes in social support provision. We examined the trajectory of instrumental support provision by older people in three European regions throughout 11 years of follow-up. We then examined the extent to which age at baseline, sex, and region (representing welfare state regime) influenced the variations in the trajectory.

Methods: Data collected from 8354 respondents who had completed at least waves 1 and 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was analysed. Instrumental support provision was determined from asking a single question regarding whether the respondent provided help personally for people outside their household. Region, sex, and age at baseline were the main predictors tested. We used growth modelling to address the aims of this study.

Results: The northern European region (Sweden and Denmark) had the highest odds ratio of instrumental support provision. The likelihood of being involved in providing instrumental support decreased by 8% annually (OR: 0.916, 95%CI: 0.893,0.940) over the 11 years of follow-up. Older respondents were less likely to provide instrumental support and their trajectories declined faster than those of the younger respondents. Sex difference in instrumental support provision was more apparent among younger-older people in the southern European region.

Conclusions: Older European adults are an important source of instrumental support, especially for their families. The probability of instrumental support provision by European older adults declines over time. Age, sex, and welfare state regime predict this trajectory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2020
Keywords
Social support, Ageing, Europe, Panel data analysis, Growth model
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177153 (URN)10.1186/s12877-020-01785-4 (DOI)000587996900002 ()33129257 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85094636211 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-12-08 Created: 2020-12-08 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Lundholm, E., Sandow, E. & Malmberg, G. (2020). Income distribution in family networks by gender and proximity. Population, Space and Place, 26(7), Article ID e2373.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Income distribution in family networks by gender and proximity
2020 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, no 7, article id e2373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whereas the significance of family networks for support and well‐being has been shown in previous research, few studies have analysed the income distribution within family networks. The aim of this study is to examine income distribution within family networks and how they have changed over time for women and men in different parts of the income distribution and if the incomes are more similar in the geographically proximate family network. The analysis is based on register data and by use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions. The results indicate that men in the lowest income group tend to have become more similar to their family network over time. Gender differences have decreased, possibly as an effect of women's higher labour market participation rate leading to decreased income disparity. This paper contributes by highlighting how the uneven distribution of economic resources in family networks adds to individual's own resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
family networks, income distribution, proximity, gender, Sweden
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173958 (URN)10.1002/psp.2373 (DOI)000554417100001 ()2-s2.0-85088840017 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-10 Created: 2020-08-10 Last updated: 2021-01-07Bibliographically approved
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