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Santosa, Ailiana
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Zetterberg, L., Santosa, A., Ng, N., Karlsson, M. & Eriksson, M. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on neighborhood social support and social interactions in Umeå municipality, Sweden. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 3, Article ID 68573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of COVID-19 on neighborhood social support and social interactions in Umeå municipality, Sweden
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 3, article id 68573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objectives are to, for neighborhoods with different levels of social capital, (1) map out the levels of social interactions, emotional support, and instrumental support before the COVID-19 crisis, (2) analyze how social interactions, emotional support, and instrumental support had changed during the pandemic and, (3) analyze changes in self-rated health during the pandemic. This study is based on a telephone survey with a subsample of 168 respondents in Umeå municipality who participated in a large base-line social capital survey in 2006. We asked whether neighbors talk to, care for, and help each other, before and during the Covid crisis. Individuals rated their health as poor or good. We compared people's self-rated health and their perceptions about their neighborhoods between those who lived in high or low/medium social capital neighborhoods. Before the pandemic, participants in high social capital neighborhoods reported more active neighborhood interaction and support. During the crisis, social interaction and support increased in all neighborhoods, but more in high social capital neighborhoods. Overall, people seemed to help and care for each other more during than before the crisis. More individuals in the high social capital neighborhoods reported improvement in their health during the pandemic, than those in the low/medium social capital neighborhoods. Our findings indicate that neighborhoods social capital can be strengthened during a crisis, in particular in areas with existing high levels of social capital. The findings need to be interpreted carefully due to its small sample size but observed patterns warrant further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
COVID, neighborhood, social capital, social interaction, emotional support, instrumental support, Sweden, social sustainability
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186530 (URN)10.3389/frsc.2021.685737 (DOI)000751872400068 ()2-s2.0-85113586466 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00076
Available from: 2021-08-10 Created: 2021-08-10 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A., Zhang, Y., Weinehall, L., Zhao, G., Wang, N., Zhao, Q., . . . Ng, N. (2020). Gender differences and determinants of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in China and Sweden. BMC Public Health, 20(1), Article ID 1763.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences and determinants of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in China and Sweden
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2020 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 1763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Failure to promote early detection and better management of hypertension will contribute to the increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to assess the gender differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, together with its associated factors, in China and Sweden.

METHODS: We used data from two cross-sectional studies: the Västerbotten Intervention Program in northern Sweden (n = 25,511) and the Shanghai survey in eastern China (n = 25,356). We employed multivariable logistic regression to examine the socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviours, and biological factors associated with the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension.

RESULTS: Men had a higher prevalence of hypertension (43% in Sweden, 39% in China) than their female counterparts (29 and 36%, respectively). In Sweden, men were less aware of, less treated for, and had less control over their hypertension than women. Chinese men were more aware of, had similar levels of treatment for, and had less control over their hypertension compared to women. Awareness and control of hypertension was lower in China compared to Sweden. Only 33 and 38% of hypertensive Chinese men and women who were treated reached the treatment goals, compared with a respective 48 and 59% in Sweden. Old age, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, a family history of hypertension or cardiovascular diseases, low physical activity and overweight or obesity were found to increase the odds of hypertension and its diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the age and gender differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in China and Sweden. Multisectoral intervention should be developed to address the increasing burden of sedentary lifestyle, overweight and obesity and diabetes, all of which are linked to the prevention and control of hypertension. Development and implementation of the gender- and context-specific intervention for the prevention and control of hypertension facilitates understanding with regard to the implementation barriers and facilitators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2020
Keywords
High blood pressure, Hypertension diagnosis, Hypertension treatment, Inequalit
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177226 (URN)10.1186/s12889-020-09862-4 (DOI)000595794400014 ()33228600 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85096430058 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), IB2017–7380Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015–01499
Note

Correction: Ailiana Santosa et al. Ailiana Santosa et al. "Correction to: Gender differences and determinants of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in China and Sweden". BMC Public Health, 2021;21:13. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-10009-8

It was highlighted that the original article [1] contained the wrong Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4. This Correction article shows the correct Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4. The original article has been updated.

Available from: 2020-12-02 Created: 2020-12-02 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Ng, N., Santosa, A., Weinehall, L. & Malmberg, G. (2020). Living alone and mortality among older people in Västerbotten County in Sweden: a survey and register-based longitudinal study. BMC Geriatrics, 20, Article ID 7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living alone and mortality among older people in Västerbotten County in Sweden: a survey and register-based longitudinal study
2020 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Living alone is increasingly common and has been depicted as an important cause of mortality. We examined the association between living alone and mortality risks among older men and women in northern Sweden, by linking two unique longitudinal datasets.

METHODS: We used the Linnaeus database, which links several population registers on socioeconomic and health. This register-based study included 22,226 men and 23,390 women aged 50 and 60 years in Västerbotten County who had participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) during 1990-2006, with a total of 445,823 person-years of observation. We conducted Cox-proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of living alone on the mortality that was observed between 1990 and 2015, controlling for socio-demographic factors, chronic disease risk factors and access to social capital.

RESULTS: Older men and women who lived alone with no children at home were at a significantly higher risk of death compared to married/cohabiting couples with children at home (with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.38, 95% CI of 1.26-1.50 in men and 1.27, 95% CI of 1.13-1.42 in women). Living alone was an even stronger factor than the well-established chronic disease risk factors and a lack of access to social capital.

CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between living alone and mortality among the older adult population in Sweden was observed. Providing good social support for older people is important in preventing the negative health impact of living alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2020
Keywords
Deaths, Family network, Living alone, Living arrangement, Older people, Social support
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167215 (URN)10.1186/s12877-019-1330-9 (DOI)000513669300001 ()31906868 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077544241 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P11–1058:1Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013–2056Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015–01499
Available from: 2020-01-13 Created: 2020-01-13 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A., Ng, N., Zetterberg, L. & Eriksson, M. (2020). Study Protocol: Social capital as a resource for the planning and design of socially sustainable and health promoting neighbourhoods: A mixed method study. Frontiers In Public Health, 8, Article ID 581078.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study Protocol: Social capital as a resource for the planning and design of socially sustainable and health promoting neighbourhoods: A mixed method study
2020 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 8, article id 581078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Promoting inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable communities is one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals ratified in 2015 by 193 UN member states, not least in Sweden. Social sustainability involves preserving particular societal values (e.g., local identity) as well as developing values (e.g., social cohesion) that are perceived as needed. Socially sustainable development also implies promoting integration and preventing segregation. Social capital is one important indicator to measure how socially sustainable an area is. This project aims to explore how social capital can be used as a conceptual tool in developing housing policy for social sustainability in Umeå Municipality.

Methods: The three sub-studies in this project combine quantitative and qualitative methods. We will conduct a review of the municipality’s documents to understand how the ideas of social sustainability have influenced political declarations and implemented social and housing policies and interventions during the period 2006–2020. The quantitative study includes a longitudinal follow-up to the 2006 survey’s respondents to assess the longitudinal impacts of neighborhood social capital on health and well-being; as well as a new repeated cross-sectional survey to investigate how social capital has changed in local neighborhoods from 2006 to 2020. The qualitative study includes case studies in neighborhoods with different social capital dynamics to understand how different resident sub-groups perceive their neighborhoods and how implemented social and housing policies have influenced the social capital dynamics and responded to the needs of different sub-groups. The project is run in close collaboration with the Commission for a Socially Sustainable Umeå.

Discussions: This project will create new and unique perspectives on long-term structural changes of relevance for a socially sustainable housing policy; knowledge that is highly valuable for continuous municipal planning; and will outline recommendations to guide local housing policies for social sustainable neighborhoods in Umeå Municipality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2020
Keywords
social capital, sustainability, Health Promotion, Neighbourhood, Mixed method approach
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175400 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2020.581078 (DOI)000583263200001 ()33194986 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85095606342 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00076
Available from: 2020-09-28 Created: 2020-09-28 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, H., Guerrero, E., Jingar, M., Lindvall, K., Ng, N., Richter Sundberg, L., . . . Weinehall, L. (2020). The STAR-C Intelligent Coach: a Cross- Disciplinary Design Process of a Behaviour Change Intervention in Primary Care. In: Blobel, B., Lhotska, L., Pharow, P., Sousa, F. (Ed.), pHealth 2020: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health. Paper presented at pHealth 2020, virtual conference, 14–16 September, 2020 (pp. 203-208). IOS Press, 273
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The STAR-C Intelligent Coach: a Cross- Disciplinary Design Process of a Behaviour Change Intervention in Primary Care
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2020 (English)In: pHealth 2020: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health / [ed] Blobel, B., Lhotska, L., Pharow, P., Sousa, F., IOS Press, 2020, Vol. 273, p. 203-208Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A broad range of aspects are needed to be taken into consideration in the design and development of personalized coaching systems based on artificial intelligence methodologies. This research presents the initial phase of joining different professional and stakeholder perspectives on behavior change technologies into a flexible design proposal for a digital coaching system. The diversity and sometimes opposed views on content, behavior, purposes and context were managed using a structured argument-based design approach, which also feed into the behavior of the personalized system. Results include a set of personalization strategies that will be further elaborated with the target user group to manage sensitive issues such as ethics, social norms, privacy, motivation, autonomy and social relatedness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2020
Series
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365 ; 273
Keywords
personalization, behavior change, participatory action design, intelligent agents, cardiovascular diseases, argumentation theory, persuasive technology
National Category
Computer Sciences Human Computer Interaction Other Medical Engineering Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Computer Science; human-computer interaction; medical informatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175213 (URN)10.3233/SHTI200640 (DOI)000648601600025 ()33087613 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85092433894 (Scopus ID)978-1-64368-112-2 (ISBN)
Conference
pHealth 2020, virtual conference, 14–16 September, 2020
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2020-09-21 Created: 2020-09-21 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Lestari, S. K., Ng, N., Kowal, P. & Santosa, A. (2019). Diversity in the Factors Associated with ADL-Related Disability among Older People in Six Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Country Comparison. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), Article ID 1341.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity in the Factors Associated with ADL-Related Disability among Older People in Six Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Country Comparison
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing rapid population ageing, yet knowledge about disability among older populations in these countries is scarce. This study aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with disability among people aged 50 years and over in six LMICs. Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa was used. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to examine the association between sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, chronic conditions, and activities of daily living (ADL) disability. The prevalence of disability among older adults ranged from 16.2% in China to 55.7% in India. Older age, multimorbidity, and depression were the most common factors related to disability in all six countries. Gender was significant in China (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29), Ghana (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48) and India (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.37-1.99). Having no access to social capital was significantly associated with ADL disability in China (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.54-4.31) and South Africa (OR = 4.11, 95% CI: 1.79-9.43). Prevalence data is valuable in these six ageing countries, with important evidence on mitigating factors for each. Identifying determinants associated with ADL disability among older people in LMICs can inform how to best implement health prevention programmes considering different country-specific factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
older adults, physical function, disability, ADL, WHO SAGE, LMICs
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159624 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16081341 (DOI)000467747100034 ()31013975 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065335742 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Zhang, Y., Santosa, A., Wang, N., Wang, W., Ng, N., Zhao, Q., . . . Zhao, G. (2019). Prevalence and the Association of Body Mass Index and Other Risk Factors with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Among 50,867 Adults in China and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study. Diabetes Therapy, 10(6), 2061-2077
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and the Association of Body Mass Index and Other Risk Factors with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Among 50,867 Adults in China and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study
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2019 (English)In: Diabetes Therapy, ISSN 1869-6953, E-ISSN 1869-6961, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 2061-2077Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Understanding socioeconomic differences for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can offer guidance for the most effective development of both prevention and intervention programmes in different settings. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors for prediabetes and T2DM and to explore the effect of high body mass index (BMI) on the probability of T2DM being present among adults in China and Sweden.

Methods: This study enrolled 25,356 adults (35–64 years old) from the Shanghai Survey in China and 25,511 adults (aged 40, 50, 60) from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden. Data on haemoglobin A1c, capillary fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose and self-reported diagnoses of T2DM were used in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of prediabetes and T2DM. The average predicted probabilities of T2DM developing or presenting were determined for the different ages and levels of BMI in each population.

Results: Chinese participants had a higher adjusted prevalence of T2DM (men 12.8% vs. 4.6%; women 10.6% vs. 3.1%) and prediabetes (men 12.4% vs. 12.2%; women 14.4% vs. 12.2%) than Swedish participants. Age, overweightedness/obesity, hypertension and a family history of diabetes were significant risk factors for prediabetes and T2DM. In both populations, the predicted probability of T2DM increased as the BMI increased in all age groups. At the same BMI level, Chinese participants were more likely to have T2DM compared to their Swedish counterparts. The average predicted probability of T2DM was less than 20% in nearly all age groups among Swedish women.

Conclusions: Chinese adults had the higher prevalence of prediabetes and T2DM and a higher probability of T2DM at the same BMI level compared with Swedish adults. These results indicate the importance of addressing the ongoing obesity epidemic as a matter of urgency in order to curb what has become an apparent diabetes epidemic in both countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019
Keywords
Body mass index, Prediabetes, Prevalence, Risk factors, Type 2 diabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-165776 (URN)10.1007/s13300-019-00690-3 (DOI)000496144100005 ()31512070 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85073931528 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2015-01499
Available from: 2019-12-04 Created: 2019-12-04 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A. (2017). A better world towards convergence of longevity?. The Lancet, 389(10076), 1278-1279
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A better world towards convergence of longevity?
2017 (English)In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10076, p. 1278-1279Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131839 (URN)10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30314-8 (DOI)000397908700006 ()2-s2.0-85013481700 (Scopus ID)
Note

This is a commentary paper for the published paper with title "Future life expectancy in 35 industrialised countries: projections with a Bayesian model ensemble" in the LANCET 

Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Ng, N., Santosa, A. & Kowal, P. (2017). Sitting time and obesity among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. Paper presented at 10th European Public Health Conference Sustaining resilient and healthy communities Stockholm, Sweden 1–4 November 2017. European Journal of Public Health, 27(Suppl_3), 415-416
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sitting time and obesity among older adults in low- and middle-income countries
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 415-416Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Global industrialisation and economic development lead to changes in physical activity patterns with more sedentary behaviours and increasing sitting time, which are related to obesity. This study aims to identify the association between sedentary behaviour and obesity among older people aged 50+ in six low- and middle-income countries.

Methods: This study utilises data from the WHO's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Physical activity level was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire Version 2 and daily sitting time was recorded in hour. Overweight and obesity was measured through height and weight, with BMI > =25. We conducted logistic regression to analyse the association between physical activity level and total daily sitting time and obesity, controlling for age, sex, highest education level, and living area.

Results: Overweight and obesity prevalence ranged from 14% in India to 76% in the Russian Federation, and was significantly higher among women. The prevalence of low-to-moderate physical activity ranged from 36% in Ghana to 76% in South Africa. About 25% of the Russian population sat 2 hours or less daily, in contrast to 83% of the Mexican population who did so. Sitting more than 2 hours a day increased the odds of overweight and obesity (odds ratio 1.18; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.29). The associated odds were 1.21 (95%CI 1.08-1.35) and 1.41 (95%CI 1.27-1.56) for those with moderate and low physical activity, compared to those who were more active.

Conclusions: Independent of physical activity level during work, leisure and transport, longer daily sitting time is significantly associated with obesity among older adults. Public health intervention to promote physical activity among older people is crucial in preventing premature chronic disease deaths and promoting active and healthy ageing.

Key messages:

  • The levels of sedentary behaviours among older people in low-and middle-income country are worrying, and are significantly associated with the level of obesity.
  • Reducing sitting time and promoting physical activity among older people are essential strategies to prevent obesity and its impacts on chronic disease and ensuring an active and healthy ageing.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143074 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/ckx186.042 (DOI)000414389804189 ()
Conference
10th European Public Health Conference Sustaining resilient and healthy communities Stockholm, Sweden 1–4 November 2017
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Santosa, A. & Byass, P. (2016). Diverse empirical evidence on epidemiological transition in low- and middle-income countries: population-based findings from INDEPTH Network data. PLOS ONE, 11(5), Article ID e0155753.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diverse empirical evidence on epidemiological transition in low- and middle-income countries: population-based findings from INDEPTH Network data
2016 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155753Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Low-and middle-income countries are often described as being at intermediate stages of epidemiological transition, but there is little population-based data with reliable cause of death assignment to examine the situation in more detail. Non-communicable diseases are widely seen as a coming threat to population health, alongside receding burdens of infection. The INDEPTH Network has collected empirical population data in a number of health and demographic surveillance sites in low-and middle-income countries which permit more detailed examination of mortality trends over time.

Objective To examine cause-specific mortality trends across all ages at INDEPTH Network sites in Africa and Asia during the period 1992-2012. Emphasis is given to the 15-64 year age group, which is the main focus of concern around the impact of the HIV pandemic and emerging non-communicable disease threats.

Methods INDEPTH Network public domain data from 12 sites that each reported at least five years of cause-specific mortality data were used. Causes of death were attributed using standardised WHO verbal autopsy methods, and mortality rates were standardised for comparison using the INDEPTH standard population. Annual changes in mortality rates were calculated for each site.

Results A total of 96,255 deaths were observed during 9,487,418 person years at the 12 sites. Verbal autopsies were completed for 86,039 deaths (89.4%). There were substantial variations in mortality rates between sites and over time. HIV-related mortality played a major part at sites in eastern and southern Africa. Deaths in the age group 15-64 years accounted for 43% of overall mortality. Trends in mortality were generally downwards, in some cases quite rapidly so. The Bangladeshi sites reflected populations at later stages of transition than in Africa, and were largely free of the effects of HIV/AIDS.

Conclusions To some extent the patterns of epidemiological transition observed followed theoretical expectations, despite the impact of the HIV pandemic having a major effect in some locations. Trends towards lower overall mortality, driven by decreasing infections, were the general pattern. Low-and middle-income country populations appear to be in an era of rapid transition.

Keywords
mortality transition, premature mortality, non-communicable disease, low- and middle incom countries, INDEPTH Network
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103276 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0155753 (DOI)000376282300065 ()2-s2.0-84969145247 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
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