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Rönnqvist, L., McDonald, R. & Sommer, M. (2018). Influences of Synchronized Metronome Training on Soccer Players’ Timing Ability, Performance Accuracy, and Lower-Limb Kinematics. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-16, Article ID 2469.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of Synchronized Metronome Training on Soccer Players’ Timing Ability, Performance Accuracy, and Lower-Limb Kinematics
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, p. 1-16, article id 2469Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Planning and performance of all complex movement requires timing, integration, and coordination between sensory-perception and motor production to be successful. Despite this, there is limited research into “if” and “how” timing training may influence movement performance in athletes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on sensorimotor timing ability, and in view of that, if improved timing may be transferred to lower-limb movement planning, precision performance, and kinematics. The sample consisted of 24 female elite- and semi-elite soccer players, randomly assigned to receive SMT and a control group. The SMT group received 12 sessions of Interactive Metronome® (IM) training over 4 weeks. At pre- and post-test, timing-precision was assessed through hand and feet movement synchronization with rhythmic sound; and leg-movements performance accuracy, duration, and kinematics were recorded during embodied high cognitive-load stepping task (6 trials×20 s) by use of a optoelectronic motion capture system. Pre- to post-test comparisons showed significant timing improvements as an effect of the IM training. Significant pre- to post-test improvements on the stepping task performance were seen in an increasing number of accurate foot taps during the stepping task sequence and by shorter duration for the SMT-group only. No evident pre- to post-test effects of SMT on the kinematic parameters investigated were found. These findings signify that the guided attention and working-memory functioning may be positively affected by SMT training; thereby, resulting in better motor planning, performance, and movement precision. Still, independent of group and test-occasion, significant correlations were found between the participants’ outcome performance differences and the kinematic parameters. It was found that a decreasing 3D movement distance and less segmented movements correlating negatively, and increasing velocity (speed) positively, with accuracy and performance duration, respectively. These findings are likely associated with inter-individual variations in the nature of higher-order cognitive processing capacity due to the highly cognitive demanding stepping task.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
timing-training, sensorimotor, kinematics, soccer, cognitive-load
National Category
Psychology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153907 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02469 (DOI)000452536000001 ()30581405 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85058062907 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 140/10Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2011-0171Swedish Research Council
Note

This study was funded by grants from the Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports (140/10; P2011-0171), and the Umeå School of Sport Sciences (LR/2016).

Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M., Häger, C., Boraxbekk, C.-J. & Rönnqvist, L. (2018). Timing Training in Female Soccer Players: Effects on Skilled Movement Performance and Brain Responses. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article ID 311.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timing Training in Female Soccer Players: Effects on Skilled Movement Performance and Brain Responses
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although trainers and athletes consider “good timing skills” critical for optimal sport performance, little is known in regard to how sport-specific skills may benefit from timing training. Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of timing training on soccer skill performance and the associated changes in functional brain response in elite- and sub-elite female soccer players. Twenty-five players (mean age 19.5 years; active in the highest or second highest divisions in Sweden), were randomly assigned to either an experimental- or a control group. The experimental group (n = 12) was subjected to a 4-week program (12 sessions) of synchronized metronome training (SMT). We evaluated effects on accuracy and variability in a soccer cross-pass task. The associated brain response was captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while watching videos with soccer-specific actions. SMT improved soccer cross-pass performance, with a significant increase in outcome accuracy, combined with a decrease in outcome variability. SMT further induced changes in the underlying brain response associated with observing a highly familiar soccer-specific action, denoted as decreased activation in the cerebellum post SMT. Finally, decreased cerebellar activation was associated with improved cross-pass performance and sensorimotor synchronization. These findings suggest a more efficient neural recruitment during action observation after SMT. To our knowledge, this is the first controlled study providing behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that timing training may positively influence soccer-skill, while strengthening the action-perception coupling via enhanced sensorimotor synchronization abilities, and thus influencing the underlying brain responses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
timing training, neuroplasticity, fMRI, action observation, action perception, soccer
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150294 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2018.00311 (DOI)000440612300001 ()2-s2.0-85054868502 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 140/10; P2011-0171
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M. (2014). Dominera med fel fot. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, 2, 10-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dominera med fel fot
2014 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 2, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Många VM-spelare är påfallande enfotade. Men att effektivt behandla bollen med båda fötterna bör vara en fördel för alla fotbollsspelare, oberoende nivå. En ny studie visar att fyra veckors enkel träning av den icke-dominanta foten ökar träffsäkerheten. Det finns i dag över 265 miljoner registrerade fotbollsspelare (1). Det är en siffra som ständigt ökar eftersom fler och fler kvinnor introduceras till sporten. Trots detta enorma intresse står mängden forskning med inriktning mot fotbollsprestationer inte i proportion till antalet aktiva spelare. Det gäller framför allt den kvantitativa forskningen, som undersöker effekterna av olika typer av träning för att förbättra fotbollsspecifika, tekniska färdigheter. Hittills har forskningen i första hand fokuserat på kvalitativa förklaringsmodeller av fotbollsfärdighet, coachning och taktik, biomekaniska undersökningar av fotbollssparkar, talangidentifiering och spelstrukturer. Även om sådan kunskap och erfarenhet säkerligen är viktigt för utvecklingen av sporten, finns det ett stort behov av fler vetenskapliga, processorienterade, kvantitativa studier för att utveckla och förfina vetenskapligt grundade träningsstrategier och modeller. En träningsstrategi som inte är vidare utforskad är kopplad till hur vi kan träna fotbollstekniska färdigheter med den icke-dominanta foten, och vilken effekt sådan träning har på prestationerna på fotbollsplanen.

Keywords
damfotboll, fotboll, fotpreferens, färdighet, tvåfothet
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-94076 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-03 Created: 2014-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M. (2014). Effect of timing training in golf and soccer players: skill, movement organization, and brain activity. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of timing training in golf and soccer players: skill, movement organization, and brain activity
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background Although trainers and athletes consider ‘good timing skills’ to be critical for optimal sport performance, little is known in regard to how sport-specific skills may benefit from timing training. Thus, assuming that all motor performances are mediated by an internal timing mechanism, enhanced motor timing is expected to have positive effects on both planning and execution of movement performance, and consequently on complex sports actions as golf or soccer. Accordingly, in order to increase our knowledge of the importance of motor timing and possible effects of timing training, this thesis examines the effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT), thought to improve the execution of motor programs and to enhance motor skills in golf and soccer players.

Methods Study I examined the effects of SMT on motor timing abilities and its potential effect on golf shot accuracy and consistency in 25 experienced male golfers. Additionally, Study II examined the effects of SMT on the spatiotemporal movement organisation and dynamics of the golf swing performance, as captured by kinematic measurements and analyses in thirteen male golfers. Study III examined the effect of SMT on accuracy and variability in a soccer specific, cross-pass task in elite and sub-elite female soccer players. Moreover, the underlying brain activity was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the corresponding neural activity when passively observing the cross-pass task, and the possible pre- to post training effects.

Results SMT was shown to improve motor timing ability, by means of less timing asynchrony and with associated changes in timing variability, in both golf- and soccer-players. Additionally, significant improvements in golf shot and soccer cross-pass performance, by means of significant increase in outcome accuracy combined with a decrease in outcome variability was found. From the kinematic investigation in Study II, results indicate that improved motor timing, as an effect of SMT, lead to a more coordinated and dynamic swing performance, and with decreased variability in the temporal structure of the swing motion. Finally, it was found that SMT induces changes in the activity of the action observation network (AON), underpinning action observation and action prediction, by means of decreased activation within bilateral cerebellum, fusiform gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. These findings hint at a more efficient pattern of neural recruitment during action observation, after SMT.

Conclusion In summary, this thesis provides evidence that four weeks of SMT improved the participant’s motor timing and synchronization abilities, and showed influence on both behavioral and neurophysiological motor programs and skill performance in golf and soccer players. Thus, by improved outcome accuracy and decreased variability, affecting the coordinated movement pattern and organisation, as well as affecting the associated underlying brain activation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2014. p. 85
Keywords
Motor timing, rhythmicity, timing training, golf shot, golf swing, kinematics, precision, variability, coordination, movement dynamics, soccer, fMRI, mirror neurons, action observation, cerebellum, perception - action.
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86664 (URN)978-91-7601-026-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-27, Beteendevetarhuset, 102, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-04 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Lindberg, E., Jonsson, L. & Sommer, M. (2014). Idrottsprestationer hos unga snowboard- och freeskiåkare: Samband med autonom motivation, målsättning och självreglerat lärande. In: A Stenling, R Wallin-Tornber, A Ivarsson & M Sommer (Ed.), Årsbok 2014: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening: . Stockholm: Normy Stockholm AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idrottsprestationer hos unga snowboard- och freeskiåkare: Samband med autonom motivation, målsättning och självreglerat lärande
2014 (Swedish)In: Årsbok 2014: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening / [ed] A Stenling, R Wallin-Tornber, A Ivarsson & M Sommer, Stockholm: Normy Stockholm AB , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med studien var att undersöka relationer mellan moti­vation, målsättning och självreglerat lärande, samt hur dessa variabler samverkar med idrottsrelaterad prestation och utveckling. I studien ingick 43 snowboard- och freeskiåkare mellan 15-23 år (M= 17.5, SD = 1,8)[AI[1] , vilka besvarade självskattningsenkäter avseende motivation, mål­sättning och självreglerat lärande vid tre tillfällen. Lärare skattade åkarnas prestation utifrån åkfär­dig­heter samt utveckling under säsongen avseende teknisk-, strategisk/ taktisk-, mental- och fysisk förmåga inom idrotten. Resultatet av regress­ions­analyser visade ett samband mellan autonom motivation och självreglerat lärande samt utveckling. Målsättning var inte relaterat till någon övrig variabel som ingick i analysen. En enkel medierings­analys visade inga statistiskt signifikanta indirekta effek­ter av autonom motivation på prestation eller ut­veckl­ing via självreglerat lärande som medierande vari­abel. Slutsatser är att autonom moti­vation kan vara en viktig komponent för utveckling och SRL bland snowboard- och freeskiåkare. Graden av självreglerat lärande predicerade inte vilka åkare som ut­veck­lats mest under säsongen. En förklaring kan vara att det tar tid för åkarna att tillämpa självreglerat lärande

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Normy Stockholm AB, 2014
Keywords
Motivation, Självreglerat lärande, Snowboard, Freeski
National Category
Social Sciences Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118848 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07
Sommer, M., Häger, C. & Rönnqvist, L. (2014). Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 13(1), 1-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing
2014 (English)In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on thirteen male golfers (27.5 ± 4.6 years old, 12.7 ± 4.9 golf handicap) who completed twelve sessions of SMT over a four week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings made with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-ironand pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club peak velocity at three different swing phases andcross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings(wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club peak velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motorcontrol strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
Keywords
Timing training, coordination, movement dynamics, joint couplings, cross-correlation analysis
National Category
Psychology Physiotherapy
Research subject
Psychology; Rehabilitation Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85852 (URN)10.1080/14763141.2013.873817 (DOI)000334040600001 ()2-s2.0-84896313904 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 47/09, 179/07Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-02-11 Created: 2014-02-11 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2014). The influence of training with the non-dominant foot on female soccer players’skill performance. In: Word Conference on Science and Soccer 4.0.  WCSS Abstract Book: . Paper presented at Word Conference on Science and Soccer 4.0. Portland, Oregon, USA. June 5-7, 2014 (pp. 36-36). Portland, Oregon, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of training with the non-dominant foot on female soccer players’skill performance
2014 (English)In: Word Conference on Science and Soccer 4.0.  WCSS Abstract Book, Portland, Oregon, USA., 2014, p. 36-36Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction Modulation of lateral preference is suggested to be of importance for sports in which bilateral proficiency is advantageous for high performance. Evidence for such modulations in athlete’s laterality comes from soccer players, suggested as an effect of pronounced bilateral practice (1, 2). Thus, in line with evidence showing that lateralized practice may lead to a shift of manual dominance; our purpose of the present study was to investigate if extensive soccer-specific practice with the Non-dominant-foot (NdF) may positively affect soccer skill performance by means of accuracy and consistency.

Methods Twenty-four elite and sub-elite players (age: 20.5 yrs) from outfield playing positions were randomized to a control- and NdF training-group. The NdF group trained specifically with their NdF on a variety of basic soccer skills (e.g. passing, trapping, juggling) during regular soccer practice, over a four week period (three sessions of 20 min a week). The controls continued their regular team practice. The first skill-test assessed the number of goals scored with the NdF, in a “turn and shoot” task, on a 1.0 x 2.44 meter target, 15 m away. The second task comprised a 25 m cross-pass on a ball in movement, in which accuracy and variability of the pass outcome was assessed.

Results & Discussion Whereas the NdF group displayed a significant improvement in number of goals scored (1.8 +/- 0.5 goals) from pre- to post-test, the control group did not (-0.9 +/- 1.1 goals). For the cross-pass task the NpF group displayed a significant pre- to post-test improvement of the mean accuracy score by 1.6 +/- 0.5 meter, with concomitant reduced variability. No such effects were evident for the control group (0.2+/- 0.7 meters).

Conclusion From an applied perspective, more frequent training with the NdF, in a fashion that does not require special equipment or distinct tutoring, seems to improve skilled use of the non-dominant foot, thus, that may lead to higher proficiency for players even on the elite-/and sub-elite level.

References

1. Teixeira, L. A., & Okazaki, V. H. A. (2007). Exp, Brain Res, 183, 417–423.

2. Teixeira, L. A. et al (2011). Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 82, 21–27

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Portland, Oregon, USA.: , 2014
Keywords
soccer, bilateral practice, foot preference
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91940 (URN)
Conference
Word Conference on Science and Soccer 4.0. Portland, Oregon, USA. June 5-7, 2014
Projects
Funktionella effekter av bi- och unilateral träning på fotbollsprestation
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2011-0171
Available from: 2014-08-18 Created: 2014-08-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Stenling, A., Wallin-Tornberg, R., Ivarsson, A. & Sommer, M. (Eds.). (2014). Årsbok: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening. Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Årsbok: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening
2014 (Swedish)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening (SIPF), 2014
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118847 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2011). Bättre golfprestation med timingträning. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning (1), 54-58
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bättre golfprestation med timingträning
2011 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 1, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-43963 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Sommer, M. & Rönnqvist, L. (2009). Effekten av synkroniserad metronomträning på sportprestation. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning (31), 31-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effekten av synkroniserad metronomträning på sportprestation
2009 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN ISSN 1103-4629, no 31, p. 31-32Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology; Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-43965 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-17 Created: 2011-05-17 Last updated: 2018-06-08
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0839-3681

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