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Kinsman, John
Publications (10 of 90) Show all publications
Abraha Derbew, A., Debeb, H. G., Kinsman, J., Myléus, A. & Byass, P. (2024). Assessing the performance of the family folder system for collecting community-based health information in Tigray Region, North Ethiopia: a capture–recapture study. BMJ Open, 14(2), Article ID e067735.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the performance of the family folder system for collecting community-based health information in Tigray Region, North Ethiopia: a capture–recapture study
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2024 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e067735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To assess completeness and accuracy of the family folder in terms of capturing community-level health data.

Study design: A capture–recapture method was applied in six randomly selected districts of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

Participants: Child health data, abstracted from randomly selected 24 073 family folders from 99 health posts, were compared with similar data recaptured through household survey and routine health information made by these health posts.

Primary and secondary outcome measures: Completeness and accuracy of the family folder data; and coverage selected child health indicators, respectively.

Results: Demographic data captured by the family folders and household survey were highly concordant, concordance correlation for total population, women 15–49 years age and under 5-year child were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.99, p<0.001), 0.73 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.88) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.96), respectively. However, the live births, child health service indicators and child health events were more erratically reported in the three data sources. The concordance correlation among the three sources, for live births and neonatal deaths was 0.094 (95% CI −0.232 to 0.420) and 0.092 (95% CI −0.230 to 0.423) respectively, and for the other parameters were close to 0.

Conclusion: The family folder system comprises a promising development. However, operational issues concerning the seamless capture and recording of events and merging community and facility data at the health centre level need improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2024
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-221656 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2022-067735 (DOI)001185044000061 ()38331856 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85184682042 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-03-04 Created: 2024-03-04 Last updated: 2024-05-20Bibliographically approved
Eklund Wimelius, M., Eriksson, M., Kinsman, J., Strandh, V. & Ghazinour, M. (2023). What is local resilience against radicalization and how can it be promoted?: a multidisciplinary literature review. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 46(7), 1108-1125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is local resilience against radicalization and how can it be promoted?: a multidisciplinary literature review
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2023 (English)In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1108-1125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this research note, we present results from a review of research on local resilience in relation to radicalization in public health, social work, crisis management, and community policing using terrorism studies as a point of departure. In order to identify agreements between literatures, we focus on how local resilience is understood, how it is said to be promoted, and how this knowledge could be synthesized. We show that resilience by and large is understood as both a process and a capacity underpinned by cooperation, social networks, and community resources and that an initial mapping of existing strengths and resources is pivotal for local resilience-building.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
local, resilience, radicalization
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
political science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153451 (URN)10.1080/1057610X.2018.1531532 (DOI)001000318500005 ()2-s2.0-85056329692 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, 2016-488
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2023-07-14Bibliographically approved
Bancroft, D., Power, G. M., Jones, R. T., Massad, E., Iriat, J. B., Preet, R., . . . Logan, J. G. (2022). Vector control strategies in Brazil: a qualitative investigation into community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions following the 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic. BMJ Open, 12(1), Article ID e050991.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vector control strategies in Brazil: a qualitative investigation into community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions following the 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic
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2022 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e050991Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern following the rapid emergence of neonatal microcephaly in Brazil during the 2015-2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic. In response, a national campaign sought to control Aedes mosquito populations and reduce ZIKV transmission. Achieving adherence to vector control or mosquito-bite reduction behaviours, including the use of topical mosquito repellents, is challenging. Coproduction of research at the community level is needed to understand and mitigate social determinants of lower engagement with Aedes preventive measures, particularly within disempowered groups.

DESIGN: In 2017, the Zika Preparedness Latin America Network (ZikaPLAN) conducted a qualitative study to understand individual and community level experiences of ZIKV and other mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. Presented here is a thematic analysis of 33 transcripts from community focus groups and semistructured interviews, applying the Health Belief Model (HBM) to elaborate knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of ZIKV and vector control strategies.

PARTICIPANTS: 120 purposively sampled adults of approximate reproductive age (18-45); 103 women participated in focus groups and 17 men in semistructured interviews.

SETTING: Two sociopolitically and epidemiologically distinct cities in Brazil: Jundiaí (57 km north of São Paolo) and Salvador (Bahia state capital).

RESULTS: Four key and 12 major themes emerged from the analysis: (1) knowledge and cues to action; (2) attitudes and normative beliefs (perceived threat, barriers, benefits and self-efficacy); (3) behaviour change (household prevention and community participation); and (4) community preferences for novel repellent tools, vector control strategies and ZIKV messaging.

CONCLUSIONS: Common barriers to repellent adherence were accessibility, appearance and effectiveness. A strong case is made for the transferability of the HBM to inform epidemic preparedness for mosquito-borne disease outbreaks at the community level. Nationally, a health campaign targeting men is recommended, in addition to local mobilisation of funding to strengthen surveillance, risk communication and community engagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2022
Keywords
entomology, epidemiology, infection control, public health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192510 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050991 (DOI)000749001500014 ()35105618 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85123973182 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 734584
Available from: 2022-02-22 Created: 2022-02-22 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jalloh, M. F., Kinsman, J., Conteh, J., Kaiser, R., Jambai, A., Ekström, A. M., . . . Nordenstedt, H. (2021). Barriers and facilitators to reporting deaths following Ebola surveillance in Sierra Leone: implications for sustainable mortality surveillance based on an exploratory qualitative assessment. BMJ Open, 11(5), Article ID e042976.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Barriers and facilitators to reporting deaths following Ebola surveillance in Sierra Leone: implications for sustainable mortality surveillance based on an exploratory qualitative assessment
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2021 (English)In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e042976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To understand the barriers contributing to the more than threefold decline in the number of deaths (of all causes) reported to a national toll free telephone line (1-1-7) after the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak ended in Sierra Leone and explore opportunities for improving routine death reporting as part of a nationwide mortality surveillance system. DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative assessment comprising 32 in-depth interviews (16 in Kenema district and 16 in Western Area). All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis to identify themes. SETTING: Participants were selected from urban and rural communities in two districts that experienced varying levels of Ebola cases during the outbreak. All interviews were conducted in August 2017 in the post-Ebola-outbreak context in Sierra Leone when the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation was continuing to mandate reporting of all deaths. PARTICIPANTS: Family members of deceased persons whose deaths were not reported to the 1-1-7 system. RESULTS: Death reporting barriers were driven by the lack of awareness to report all deaths, lack of services linked to reporting, negative experiences from the Ebola outbreak including prohibition of traditional burial rituals, perception that inevitable deaths do not need to be reported and situations where prompt burials may be needed. Facilitators of future willingness to report deaths were largely influenced by the perceived communicability and severity of the disease, unexplained circumstances of the death that need investigation and the potential to leverage existing death notification practices through local leaders. CONCLUSIONS: Social mobilisation and risk communication efforts are needed to help the public understand the importance and benefits of sustained and ongoing death reporting after an Ebola outbreak. Localised practices for informal death notification through community leaders could be integrated into the formal reporting system to capture community-based deaths that may otherwise be missed.

Keywords
epidemiology, public health, qualitative research
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-183408 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042976 (DOI)000763646700008 ()33986045 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85105904194 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-25 Created: 2021-05-25 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Do, N. T. T., Vu, H. T. L., Nguyen, C. T. K., Punpuing, S., Khan, W. A., Gyapong, M., . . . Wertheim, H. F. (2021). Community-based antibiotic access and use in six low-income and middle-income countries: a mixed-method approach. The Lancet Global Health, 9(5), e610-e619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community-based antibiotic access and use in six low-income and middle-income countries: a mixed-method approach
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2021 (English)In: The Lancet Global Health, E-ISSN 2214-109X, Vol. 9, no 5, p. e610-e619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Antimicrobial misuse is common in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), and this practice is a driver of antibiotic resistance. We compared community-based antibiotic access and use practices across communities in LMICs to identify contextually specific targets for interventions to improve antibiotic use practices.

Methods: We did quantitative and qualitative assessments of antibiotic access and use in six LMICs across Africa (Mozambique, Ghana, and South Africa) and Asia (Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Thailand) over a 2·5-year study period (July 1, 2016–Dec 31, 2018). We did quantitative assessments of community antibiotic access and use through supplier mapping, customer exit interviews, and household surveys. These quantitative assessments were triangulated with qualitative drug supplier and consumer interviews and discussions.

Findings: Vietnam and Bangladesh had the largest proportions of non-licensed antibiotic dispensing points. For mild illness, drug stores were the most common point of contact when seeking antibiotics in most countries, except South Africa and Mozambique, where public facilities were most common. Self-medication with antibiotics was found to be widespread in Vietnam (55·2% of antibiotics dispensed without prescription), Bangladesh (45·7%), and Ghana (36·1%), but less so in Mozambique (8·0%), South Africa (1·2%), and Thailand (3·9%). Self-medication was considered to be less time consuming, cheaper, and overall, more convenient than accessing them through health-care facilities. Factors determining where treatment was sought often involved relevant policies, trust in the supplier and the drug, disease severity, and whether the antibiotic was intended for a child. Confusion regarding how to identify oral antibiotics was revealed in both Africa and Asia.

Interpretation: Contextual complexities and differences between countries with different incomes, policy frameworks, and cultural norms were revealed. These contextual differences render a single strategy inadequate and instead necessitate context-tailored, integrated intervention packages to improve antibiotic use in LMICs as part of global efforts to combat antibiotic resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182479 (URN)10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00024-3 (DOI)000642463300026 ()2-s2.0-85104108687 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Wellcome trust
Available from: 2021-04-29 Created: 2021-04-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Clancy, I. L., Jones, R. T., Power, G. M., Logan, J. G., Iriart, J. A., Massad, E. & Kinsman, J. (2021). Public health messages on arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Brazil. BMC Public Health, 21(1), Article ID 1362.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public health messages on arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Brazil
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2021 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 followed the arrival of chikungunya in 2014 and a long history of dengue circulation. Vital to the response to these outbreaks of mosquito-borne pathogens has been the dissemination of public health messages, including those promoted through risk communication posters. This study explores the content of a sample of posters circulated in Brazil towards the end of the Zika epidemic in 2017 and analyses their potential effectiveness in inducing behaviour change.

Methods: A content analysis was performed on 37 posters produced in Brazil to address outbreaks of mosquito-borne pathogens. The six variables of the Health Belief Model were used to assess the potential effectiveness of the posters to induce behaviour change.

Results: Three overarching key messages emerged from the posters. These included (i) the arboviruses and their outcomes, (ii) a battle against the mosquito, and (iii) a responsibility to protect and prevent. Among the six variables utilised through the Health Belief Model, cues to action were most commonly featured, whilst the perceived benefits of engaging in behaviours to prevent arbovirus transmission were the least commonly featured.

Conclusions: The posters largely focused on mosquito-borne transmission and the need to eliminate breeding sites, and neglected the risk of the sexual and congenital transmission of Zika and the importance of alternative preventive actions. This, we argue, may have limited the potential effectiveness of these posters to induce behaviour change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
Keywords
Arbovirus, Health belief model, Health communication, Poster, Public health messages, Zika
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186502 (URN)10.1186/s12889-021-11339-x (DOI)000672659800006 ()34243740 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85109903201 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-09 Created: 2021-08-09 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Ng, N., Eriksson, M., Guerrero, E., Gustafsson, C., Kinsman, J., Lindberg, J., . . . Wennberg, P. (2021). Sustainable Behavior Change for Health Supported by Person-Tailored, Adaptive, Risk-Aware Digital Coaching in a Social Context: Study Protocol for the STAR-C Research Programme. Frontiers In Public Health, 9, Article ID 593453.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Behavior Change for Health Supported by Person-Tailored, Adaptive, Risk-Aware Digital Coaching in a Social Context: Study Protocol for the STAR-C Research Programme
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2021 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 9, article id 593453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) in the Region Västerbotten Sweden is one of the very few cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes globally that is integrated into routine primary health care. The VIP has been shown as a cost-effective intervention to significantly reduce CVD mortality. However, little is known about the effectiveness of a digital solution to tailor risk communication strategies for supporting behavioral change. STAR-C aims to develop and evaluate a technical platform for personalized digital coaching that will support behavioral change aimed at preventing CVD.

Methods: STAR-C employs a mixed-methods design in seven multidisciplinary projects, which runs in two phases during 2019–2024: (i) a formative intervention design and development phase, and (ii) an intervention implementation and evaluation phase. In the 1st phase, STAR-C will model the trajectories of health behaviors and their impact on CVDs (Project 1), evaluate the role of the social environment and social networks on behavioral change (Project 2) and assess whether and how social media facilitates the spread of health information beyond targeted individuals and stimulates public engagement in health promotion (Project 3). The findings will be utilized in carrying out the iterative, user-centered design, and development of a person-tailored digital coaching platform (Project 4). In the 2nd phase, STAR-C will evaluate the implementation of the coaching programme and its effectiveness for promoting behavioral change and the spreading of health information across social networks and via social media (Project 5). The cost-effectiveness (Project 6) and ethical issues (Project 7) related to the coaching programme intervention will be evaluated.

Discussion: The STAR-C research programme will address the knowledge and practice research gaps in the use of information technologies in health promotion and non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention programmes in order to narrow the health inequality gaps.

Ethics: STAR-C has received approval from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (Dnr. 2019-02924;2020-02985).

Dissemination: The collaboration between Umeå University and Region Västerbotten will ensure the feasibility of STAR-C in the service delivery context. Results will be communicated with decision-makers at different levels of society, stakeholders from other regions and healthcare professional organizations, and through NGOs, local and social media platforms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2021
Keywords
behavioural change, digital coaching, interdisciplinary programme, formative research, evaluation ofintervention, social network, social media, health behaviour trajectories
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-180937 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2021.593453 (DOI)000628667800001 ()2-s2.0-85102713934 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-03 Created: 2021-03-03 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Cambaco, O., Menendez, Y. A., Kinsman, J., Sigauque, B., Wertheim, H., Do, N., . . . Munguambe, K. (2020). Community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotic use in rural Mozambique: where is the starting point for prevention of antibiotic resistance?. BMC Public Health, 20(1), Article ID 1183.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotic use in rural Mozambique: where is the starting point for prevention of antibiotic resistance?
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2020 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 1183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundAntibiotic misuse and other types of unnecessary use of antibiotics can contribute to accelerate the process of antibiotic resistance, which is considered a global concern, mostly affecting low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). In Mozambique there is limited evidence on community knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. As part of the ABACUS project, this paper describes knowledge and practices of antibiotic use among the general population in the semi-rural district of Manhica to inform evidence-based communication intervention strategies for safer antibiotic use.MethodsThe study was conducted in Manhica, a semi-rural district of Southern Mozambique. Sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with community members to explore lay knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics and awareness of antibiotic resistance. The qualitative data was analysed using a combination of content and thematic analysis. The SRQR guidelines for reporting qualitative studies was performed.ResultsAlthough participants did not hold any consistent knowledge of antibiotics, their visual recognition of amoxicillin (distinct red yellow capsule) was acceptable, but less so for different types and brands of antibiotics. The majority of participants were aware of the term 'antibiotic', yet the definition they gave was rarely backed by biomedical knowledge. Participants associated antibiotics with certain colours, shapes and health conditions. Participants reported common habits that may contribute to resistance: not buying the full course, self-medication, sharing medicines and interruption of treatment. Most had never heard of the term 'antibiotic resistance' but were familiar with the phenomenon. They often understood the term 'resistance' as treatment failure and likened 'resistance' to non-compliance, ineffective medication, disease resistance or to an inability of the physical body to respond to it.ConclusionThere is a broad understanding of the importance of medication compliance but not specifically of antibiotic resistance. In addition, there is a recognized gap between knowledge of responsible drug compliance and actual behaviour. Future qualitative research is required to further explore what determines this behaviour. The existing ability to visually identify amoxicillin by its distinct red and yellow appearance is informative for future awareness and behavioural change campaigns that may incorporate visual aids of antibiotics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2020
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-174622 (URN)10.1186/s12889-020-09243-x (DOI)000559094000004 ()32727445 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85088851972 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-31 Created: 2020-08-31 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Afari-Asiedu, S., Oppong, F. B., Tostmann, A., Ali Abdulai, M., Boamah-Kaali, E., Gyaase, S., . . . Asante, K. P. (2020). Determinants of Inappropriate Antibiotics Use in Rural Central Ghana Using a Mixed Methods Approach. Frontiers In Public Health, 8, Article ID 90.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determinants of Inappropriate Antibiotics Use in Rural Central Ghana Using a Mixed Methods Approach
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2020 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 8, article id 90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The consequences of antibiotic resistance are projected to be most severe in low and middle income countries with high infectious disease burden. This study examined determinants of inappropriate antibiotic use at the community level in rural Ghana. Methods: An observational study involving qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted between July, 2016 and September, 2018 in Ghana. Two household surveys were conducted at two time points (2017 and 2018) among 1,100 randomly selected households over 1 year. The surveys focused on antibiotic use episodes in the past month. Four in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were performed to further explain the survey results. Determinants of inappropriate antibiotic use were assessed using a mixed effect logistic regression analysis (multilevel analysis) to account for the clustered nature of data. We defined inappropriate antibiotic use as either use without prescription, not completing treatment course or non-adherence to instruction for use. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 1,100 households was enrolled in which antibiotics were used in 585 (53.2%) households in the month prior to the surveys. A total of 676 (21.2%) participants out of 3,193 members from the 585 reportedly used antibiotics for 761 episodes of illness. Out of the 761 antibiotic use episodes, 659 (86.6%) were used inappropriately. Paying for healthcare without health insurance (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.10, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4, p-value: 0.026), not seeking healthcare from health centers (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0, p-value: 0.018), or pharmacies (OR: 4.6, 95% CI: 1.7-13.0, p-value: 0.003) were significantly associated with inappropriate antibiotic use. Socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with inappropriate antibiotic use. However, the qualitative study described the influence of cost of medicines on inappropriate antibiotic use. It also revealed that antibiotic users with low socioeconomic status purchased antibiotics in installments which, could facilitate inappropriate use. Conclusion: Inappropriate antibiotic use was high and influenced by out-of-pocket payment for healthcare, seeking healthcare outside health centers, pharmacies, and buying antibiotics in installments due to cost. To improve appropriate antibiotic use, there is the need for ministry of health and healthcare agencies in Ghana to enhance healthcare access and healthcare insurance, and to provide affordable antibiotics.

Keywords
Ghana, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic use, antibiotics, inappropriate antibiotic use
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177516 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2020.00090 (DOI)000596899500001 ()32266200 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85083115783 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Wellcome trust
Available from: 2020-12-11 Created: 2020-12-11 Last updated: 2021-01-07Bibliographically approved
Abdullahi, M. F., Stewart Williams, J., Sahlen, K.-G., Bile, K. & Kinsman, J. (2020). Factors contributing to the uptake of childhood vaccination in Galkayo District, Puntland, Somalia. Global Health Action, 13(1), Article ID 1803543.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors contributing to the uptake of childhood vaccination in Galkayo District, Puntland, Somalia
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2020 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 1803543Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: As in many Sub-Saharan African countries, the health system in Somalia is not operating at the capacity needed to lift childhood vaccination coverage to ninety percent or above, as recommended by United Nations Children's Fund. Current national estimates of coverage for the six major vaccine preventable childhood diseases range from thirty to sixty percent. Infectious disease outbreaks continue to pose significant challenges for the country's health authorities.

OBJECTIVE: This important qualitative study, conducted in Galkayo District, Somalia, investigates limiting factors associated with childhood vaccination uptake from the perspective of both communities and health care workers.

METHODS: Qualitative information was collected through six focus group discussions with parents (n = 48) and five one-to-one interviews with health workers (n = 15) between March and May 2017, in three settings in the Galkayo District - Galkayo city, Bayra and Bacadwayn.

RESULTS: From a health system perspective, the factors are: awareness raising, hard to reach areas, negative attitudes and perceived knowledge of health workers, inadequate supplies and infrastructure, and missed vaccination opportunities. From the perspective of individuals and communities the factors are: low trust in vaccines, misinterpretation of religious beliefs, vaccine refusals, Somalia's patriarchal system and rumours and misinformation. Parents mostly received immunization information from social mobilizers and health facilities. Fathers, who are typically family decision-makers, were poorly informed. The findings highlight the need for in-service training to enable health workers to improve communication with parents, particularly fathers, peripheral communities and local religious leaders.

CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing knowledge and awareness of vaccination among parents is crucial. Fathers' involvement is lacking. This may be boosted by highlighting fathers' obligation to protect their children's health through vaccination. It is also important that men engage with the wider community in decision-making and advance towards the global vaccination targets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
immunization, immunization, immunity, infectious, child health, under five mortality, low and middle income countries, developing, Africa
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-174635 (URN)10.1080/16549716.2020.1803543 (DOI)000563072100001 ()32847489 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85089963609 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-08-28 Created: 2020-08-28 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
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