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Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Enarsson, T., Enqvist, L. & Naarttijärvi, M. (2022). Approaching the human in the loop: legal perspectives on hybrid human/algorithmic decision-making in three contexts. Information & communications technology law, 31(1), 123-153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaching the human in the loop: legal perspectives on hybrid human/algorithmic decision-making in three contexts
2022 (English)In: Information & communications technology law, ISSN 1360-0834, E-ISSN 1469-8404, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 123-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Public and private organizations are increasingly implementing various algorithmic decision-making systems. Through legal and practical incentives, humans will often need to be kept in the loop of such decision-making to maintain human agency and accountability, provide legal safeguards, or perform quality control. Introducing such human oversight results in various forms of semi-automated, or hybrid decision-making – where algorithmic and human agents interact. Building on previous research we illustrate the legal dependencies forming an impetus for hybrid decision-making in the policing, social welfare, and online moderation contexts. We highlight the further need to situate hybrid decision-making in a wider legal environment of data protection, constitutional and administrative legal principles, as well as the need for contextual analysis of such principles. Finally, we outline a research agenda to capture contextual legal dependencies of hybrid decision-making, pointing to the need to go beyond legal doctrinal studies by adopting socio-technical perspectives and empirical studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
Hybrid decision-making, automated decision-making, profiling, artificial intelligence, human in the loop, policing, social welfare, online moderation
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186387 (URN)10.1080/13600834.2021.1958860 (DOI)000678398700001 ()2-s2.0-85111691691 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2020-02278
Available from: 2021-07-28 Created: 2021-07-28 Last updated: 2022-01-11Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. & Åström, K. (2022). Rasistiska brott mot utsatta grupper: särskilt om samer och romers möjlighet till individuell upprättelse. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, 109(2), 250-270
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rasistiska brott mot utsatta grupper: särskilt om samer och romers möjlighet till individuell upprättelse
2022 (Swedish)In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 250-270Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article takes its starting point in Sami and Roma exposure to racism by studying preconditions within the criminal law for dealing with racism against individual victims of crime. The purpose is to identify whether and how individual victims can obtain remedy and reparation when exposed to racism. In this article, that means that the racist act must be criminalized, that the criminal interest of crim- inalization is the individual victim, and that the racist nature of the crime has legal implications for classification, sentencing and pun- ishment. Methodologically, the study focuses on identifying possible challenges in the application of so-called hate crimes legislation. Two challenges to the application of individual remedies and reparations were identified. First is the difficulty in identifying and establishing (racist) motive. Second is the lack of clear statements from the courts about how assessments have been made in the use of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in sentencing, and if or how they have affected sentencing and punishment. The results of this study show that the legal conditions for individual victims to obtain criminal justice when they have been subjected to racism are insufficient. Problems are primarily due to deficiencies in the formulation of the legislation, but are also seen in its application. Despite a strong contemporary political focus on work to combat racism, no legal changes have been proposed. Based on the results of this study, we suggest the appli- cation of a holistic approach to the legislation on hate crimes. This would enable individual redress for the racism to which Sami and Roma, among others, are exposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, 2022
Keywords
Racism, Sami, Roma, victims of crime, hate crimes, Rasism, samer, romer, brottsoffer, hatbrott
National Category
Law and Society
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194164 (URN)10.7146/ntfk.v109i2.132397 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04195
Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2022-04-29Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. (2021). Näthatets offer: utsatthet och upprättelse (2ed.). In: Görel Granström, Ruth Mannelqvist (Ed.), Brottsoffer: rättsliga perspektiv (pp. 101-117). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Näthatets offer: utsatthet och upprättelse
2021 (Swedish)In: Brottsoffer: rättsliga perspektiv / [ed] Görel Granström, Ruth Mannelqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 2, p. 101-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021 Edition: 2
Keywords
Brottsoffer, näthat, upprättelse
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-185666 (URN)9789144152493 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-07-01 Created: 2021-07-01 Last updated: 2021-07-13Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. & Leidö, J. (2020). Att undervisa i underbyggande rätt. In: Mattias Derlén, Lena Landström, Nina Nilsson Rådeström (Ed.), Vänbok till Ulf Israelsson: (pp. 63-73). Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att undervisa i underbyggande rätt
2020 (Swedish)In: Vänbok till Ulf Israelsson / [ed] Mattias Derlén, Lena Landström, Nina Nilsson Rådeström, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2020, p. 63-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, 2020
Series
Skrifter från Juridiska institutionen vid Umeå universitet, ISSN 1404-9198 ; 44
Keywords
Allmän rättslära, rättshistoria, juristutbildning, underbyggande rätt
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175763 (URN)9789178553174 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-10-08 Created: 2020-10-08 Last updated: 2020-10-08Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. & Lindgren, S. (2019). Free speech or hate speech?: A legal analysis of the discourse about Roma on Twitter. Information & communications technology law, 28(1), 1-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Free speech or hate speech?: A legal analysis of the discourse about Roma on Twitter
2019 (English)In: Information & communications technology law, ISSN 1360-0834, E-ISSN 1469-8404, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article draws on material gathered from Swedish tweets about the Roma population, in order to map different discourses. Based on this material, a legal analysis was made focusing on how the legal protection under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and Swedish law for such types of expression may vary depending on the wider discursive context. This article concludes that the legal protection for hateful expressions against for instance Roma, will vary depending on the discursive context. When the expression is a direct part of a political discussion, the protection of freedom of expression will be higher. However, emphasis must also be placed on the aim, value, and accuracy of the statement, even in a political context. This will increase the possibilities to legally intervene against speech that may perhaps be triggered by an ongoing political debate, but is hateful and without value to that debate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Hate speech, freedom of expression, Roma, social media, discourse, text analysis
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society) Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Law; Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150044 (URN)10.1080/13600834.2018.1494415 (DOI)000469856300001 ()2-s2.0-85049589067 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04195The Swedish Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority, 2605/2013
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. & Granström, G. (2018). Polisens brottsofferarbete (2ed.). In: Niklas Eklund och Lena Landström (Ed.), Polisen: verksamhet och arbete (pp. 257-274). Stockholm: Liber
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polisens brottsofferarbete
2018 (Swedish)In: Polisen: verksamhet och arbete / [ed] Niklas Eklund och Lena Landström, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 2, p. 257-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Liber, 2018 Edition: 2
Keywords
Brottsoffer, polisen
National Category
Law
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143754 (URN)978-91-47-11340-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. (2018). Särskilt sårbara grupper, särskilt starkt skydd?: Sveriges skyldighet att hantera rasistiska brott utifrån Europakonventionen. Europarättslig tidskrift, 3, 547-565
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Särskilt sårbara grupper, särskilt starkt skydd?: Sveriges skyldighet att hantera rasistiska brott utifrån Europakonventionen
2018 (Swedish)In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, E-ISSN 2002-3561, Vol. 3, p. 547-565Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
Europakonventionen, brottsoffer, rasism
National Category
Law
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152030 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04195
Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2023-03-28Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. (2017). Avlägsnande av näthat: skyldigheter, möjligheter och motstående intressen. Juridisk Publikation (2), 369-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avlägsnande av näthat: skyldigheter, möjligheter och motstående intressen
2017 (Swedish)In: Juridisk Publikation, ISSN 2000-2920, no 2, p. 369-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Näthat är en fråga som kommit att aktualiseras alltmer under senare år. En av de rättsliga frågor som är väsentlig att belysa gällande näthat är hur det rättsliga ansvaret för att hantera och avlägsna näthat kan se ut. I artikeln kommer inledningsvis fokus att ligga på den övergripande frågan om avlägsnande av kommentarer i kommentarsfält i förhållande till yttrandefrihet och värnandet om den enskildes personliga integritet utifrån bestämmelserna i Europeiska konventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna (Europakonventionen). Därefter diskuteras svensk lagstiftning som reglerar frågor om ansvar att avlägsna kränkande innehåll på forum och liknande. Avslutningsvis analyseras frågan om den enskildes rätt att begära att uppgifter avlägsnas. Denna bredd i artikeln är nödvändig för att visa på att skyldigheterna och möjligheterna att avlägsna material kraftigt varierar beroende på sammanhanget då det framförs och på själva innehållet i materialet som sådant. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Juridisk Publikation, 2017
Keywords
Näthat, kränkningar på internet, yttrandefrihet
National Category
Law
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143233 (URN)
Projects
Offer för näthat. En rättsvetenskaplig studie av brottsoffers möjlighet till upprättelse vid hot och kränkningar på internet
Funder
The Swedish Crime Victim Compensation and Support Authority
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. (2017). Näthat som rättslig utmaning i nutid och framtid. In: Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist (Ed.), Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år: (pp. 103-118). Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Näthat som rättslig utmaning i nutid och framtid
2017 (Swedish)In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, p. 103-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, 2017
Series
Skrifter från Juridiska institutionen vid Umeå universitet, ISSN 1404-9198 ; 38
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-141610 (URN)9789176017937 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
Enarsson, T. & Naarttijärvi, M. (2016). Is it all part of the game?: Victim differentiation and the normative protection of victims of online antagonism under the European Convention on Human Rights. International Review of Victimology, 22(2), 123-138
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is it all part of the game?: Victim differentiation and the normative protection of victims of online antagonism under the European Convention on Human Rights
2016 (English)In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 123-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses the issue of online antagonism (defined as antagonistic harassment, defamation, insults and threats online) and the positive obligations of states to counter such antagonism under the European Convention on Human Rights, from a legal and victimological perspective. The article illustrates how the necessary balancing between positive obligations to protect privacy under article 8, and the protection of freedom of speech under article 10, will result in different levels of protection depending on the victim and the type of victimisation in question. This may affect the possibilities for individual victims to gain legal redress, specifically access to the criminal justice system. By comparisons to the current Swedish legislative context, the article highlights some avenues for legislatures to enhance protection for certain groups without interfering with article 10. It also concludes that a failure to protect victims of online antagonism through criminal law may ipso facto weaken the foundations of public discourse that article 10 is supposed to protect, which should be taken into account in a balancing of the rights in question. 

Keywords
Privacy, freedom of speech, crime victims, online antagonism, hate speech, online harassment, European Convention on Human Rights, positive obligations
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116715 (URN)10.1177/0269758016628947 (DOI)2-s2.0-84966727790 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Offer för näthat. En rättsvetenskaplig studie av brottsoffers möjlighet till upprättelse vid hot och kränkningar på internet
Available from: 2016-02-10 Created: 2016-02-10 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1184-1385

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