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Boulanger Martel, S. P., Jarstad, A., Olivius, E., Söderström, J., Zahar, M.-J. & Åkebo, M. (2024). Peace with adjectives: conceptual fragmentation or conceptual innovation?. International Studies Review, 26(2), Article ID viae014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peace with adjectives: conceptual fragmentation or conceptual innovation?
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2024 (English)In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 26, no 2, article id viae014Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

What strategies can be employed to conceptualize peace? In recent years, scholars have introduced an impressive array of “peace with adjectives” in order to make sense of some of the normative and empirical underpinnings of peace. Negative, positive, everyday, virtual, illiberal, partial, insecure, relational, emancipatory, agonistic, and feminist are some of the qualifiers that have been associated with the concept. While the growing attention to conceptualization is a welcomed development, we argue that the proliferation of new terms has led to increased fragmentation in the field of peace studies. Conceptual fragmentation impedes cumulative knowledge production and generates missed opportunities for fruitful discussions across theoretical and conceptual divides. In this article, we aim to provide more clarity to our field by mapping existing peace conceptualizations and identifying the strategies employed by scholars to construct innovative new terms. In our review, we identify 61 concepts and suggest that these conceptual innovations in peace research belong to one of three analytical strategies: developing diminished subtypes, conceptual narrowing, and conceptual expansion. Building on this categorization, we make recommendations for how peace researchers can enhance clarity and deepen constructive discussions between different conceptual approaches.

Abstract [es]

¿Qué estrategias se pueden utilizar para conceptualizar la paz? En los últimos años, los académicos han presentado una impresionante variedad de «paz acompañada de adjetivos» con el fin de dar sentido a algunos de los fundamentos normativos y empíricos de la paz. Algunos de los calificativos que se han asociado al concepto han sido: negativa, positiva, cotidiana, virtual, iliberal, parcial, insegura, relacional, emancipatoria, agonística y feminista. Si bien la creciente atención que se está prestando a la conceptualización es un desarrollo bienvenido, argumentamos que la proliferación de nuevos términos ha provocado una mayor fragmentación en el campo de los estudios de la paz. La fragmentación conceptual impide la producción acumulativa de conocimiento y provoca que se pierdan oportunidades para generar debates fructíferos a través de las divisiones teóricas y conceptuales. En este artículo pretendemos aportar más claridad a nuestro campo mediante el mapeo de las conceptualizaciones de paz existentes y la identificación de las estrategias que utilizan los académicos para construir nuevos términos innovadores. En nuestra revisión, identificamos 61 conceptos y sugerimos que estas innovaciones conceptuales dentro de la investigación en materia de la paz pertenecen a una de entre tres posibles estrategias analíticas: desarrollo de subtipos disminuidos, contracción conceptual y expansión conceptual. Partiendo de esta categorización, hacemos recomendaciones sobre cómo los investigadores en el campo de la paz pueden lograr una mejora con relación a la claridad y profundizar en los debates constructivos que se generan entre los diferentes enfoques conceptuales.

Abstract [fr]

Quelles stratégies employer pour conceptualiser la paix ? Ces dernières années, les chercheurs ont introduit un éventail impressionnant de « paix avec adjectifs » afin de faire sens de certains fondements normatifs et empiriques de la paix. Négative, positive, quotidienne, virtuelle, illibérale, partielle, précaire, relationnelle, émancipatrice, agnostique, féministe… Tous ces mots ont été employés pour qualifier ce concept. Bien que l'attention croissante à la conceptualisation soit une évolution bienvenue, nous affirmons que la prolifération de nouveaux termes a engendré une fragmentation croissante du domaine des études sur la paix. La fragmentation conceptuelle entrave la production de connaissances cumulatives et crée des occasions manquées de discussions productives par delà les divisions théoriques et conceptuelles. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à contribuer à plus de clarté dans notre domaine en retraçant les conceptualisations existantes de la paix et en identifiant les stratégies employées par les chercheurs pour créer de nouveaux termes innovants. Notre revue de la littérature identifie 61 concepts et suggère que ces innovations conceptuelles dans la recherche sur la paix appartiennent à l'une des trois stratégies analytiques suivantes : le développement de sous-types 'diminués', le rétrécissement conceptuel et l'expansion conceptuelle. En nous appuyant sur cette catégorisation, nous émettons des recommandations pour aider les chercheurs à être plus clairs et à approfondir les discussions constructives entre différentes approches conceptuelles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024
Keywords
peace concepts, conceptualization, typology
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-224132 (URN)10.1093/isr/viae014 (DOI)001203623300001 ()2-s2.0-85191089577 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M160297:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-1494:1
Available from: 2024-05-08 Created: 2024-05-08 Last updated: 2024-05-13Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A., Söderström, J. & Åkebo, M. (2023). Introduction: conceptualizing and studying relational peacepractices. In: Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo (Ed.), Relational peace practices: (pp. 1-26). Manchester University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: conceptualizing and studying relational peacepractices
2023 (English)In: Relational peace practices / [ed] Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo, Manchester University Press, 2023, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Manchester University Press, 2023
Series
New Approaches to Conflict Analysis
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-210140 (URN)9781526168962 (ISBN)9781526168955 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-19 Created: 2023-06-19 Last updated: 2023-06-19Bibliographically approved
Cardeño, C. E., Olivius, E. & Åkebo, M. (2023). 'Jihad is Planted in Our Hearts': International Aid, Rebel Institutions and Women's Participation in the Bangsamoro. Civil Wars
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'Jihad is Planted in Our Hearts': International Aid, Rebel Institutions and Women's Participation in the Bangsamoro
2023 (English)In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article explores the encounter between the Women, Peace and Security agenda and rebel institutions in Mindanao. The analysis highlights that activities aiming to support women’s participation in peacebuilding often exist in parallel with and fail to fully recognise women’s existing forms of mobilisation within Non-State Armed Groups. This gap is bridged by civil society brokers who are associated with armed groups but speak the language of international peacebuilding frameworks. The findings point to the important role of such intermediaries in translating international norms, and to rebel groups and institutions as arenas for women’s political mobilisation and empowerment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212485 (URN)10.1080/13698249.2023.2230824 (DOI)2-s2.0-85165550305 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-01 Created: 2023-08-01 Last updated: 2023-08-01
Åkebo, M. & Thurairajah, T. (2023). Micro-level experiences, understandings and visions of peace in Sri Lanka’s war victory. Peacebuilding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro-level experiences, understandings and visions of peace in Sri Lanka’s war victory
2023 (English)In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

It is widely recognised in contemporary peace and conflict scholarshipthat exploring micro-level experiences is important for a fullerand more nuanced understanding of the forms of peace thatemerge post-war. In this article, we argue that such inquiry mightbe particularly urgent in the context of a victor’s peace. Muchresearch on victor’s peace focus on the state and macro level andseldom account for the outcome across local contexts. Based onfocus group discussions conducted across communities and geographicallocalities in Sri Lanka, we explore and compare narrativesof peace in order to elucidate plural understandings, experiencesand visions. The study moves beyond the dichotomous peaceconceptions often associated with the notion of victor’s peaceand provides insights into varieties of peace at the local and everydaylevel, and into challenges and possibilities for transformingconflict relationships post-war.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
micro-level peace, varieties of peace, victor's peace, Sri Lanka, sub-state level comparison, peace conceptualisations
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research; political science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218168 (URN)10.1080/21647259.2023.2291919 (DOI)2-s2.0-85179665737 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Swedish Research Council, 2022-02094Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-1494:1
Available from: 2023-12-18 Created: 2023-12-18 Last updated: 2023-12-27
Jarstad, A., Söderström, J. & Åkebo, M. (Eds.). (2023). Relational peace practices. Manchester University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relational peace practices
2023 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Manchester University Press, 2023. p. 245
Series
New Approaches to Conflict Analysis
Keywords
deliberation, cooperation, non-domination, trust, recognition, friendship, processual, practice, actor-centric, web of relations
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-210121 (URN)2-s2.0-85170151424 (Scopus ID)9781526168962 (ISBN)9781526168955 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-19 Created: 2023-06-19 Last updated: 2023-09-14Bibliographically approved
Jarstad, A., Söderström, J. & Åkebo, M. (2023). Relational peace practices moving forward. In: Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo (Ed.), Relational peace practices: (pp. 221-240). Manchester University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relational peace practices moving forward
2023 (English)In: Relational peace practices / [ed] Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo, Manchester University Press, 2023, p. 221-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Manchester University Press, 2023
Series
New Approaches to Conflict Analysis
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-210143 (URN)2-s2.0-85141016918 (Scopus ID)9781526168962 (ISBN)9781526168955 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-06-19 Created: 2023-06-19 Last updated: 2023-09-14Bibliographically approved
Åkebo, M. & Bastian, S. (2021). Beyond Liberal Peace in Sri Lanka: Victory, Politics, and State Formation. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(1), 70-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond Liberal Peace in Sri Lanka: Victory, Politics, and State Formation
2021 (English)In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 70-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2009, the war between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ended through a military victory for the government. Features of the post-war peace - including persistent militarization, strengthened nationalism, and communal violence - have commonly been attributed to a failed attempt at liberal peacebuilding followed by an authoritarian backlash. In contrast, this study shows how the post-war peace has been shaped by historical processes of state formation aimed at consolidating the Sri Lankan state. The article takes a long-term approach to analysing peace in Sri Lanka through the lens of state formation. The analysis centres on four key aspects: (1) post-war security, (2) state–minority relations, (3) socio-economic aspects, and (4) electoral politics. We conclude that there are currently few signs of any substantial state reform that would accommodate the continuous demand for social justice and minority rights that has spurred violent conflicts in Sri Lanka.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
peace, Sri Lanka, war victory, state formation, liberal peacebuilding, state–society relations, nationalism
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-177630 (URN)10.1177/1542316620976121 (DOI)2-s2.0-85097265127 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1 and P19-1494:1
Available from: 2020-12-15 Created: 2020-12-15 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Åkebo, M. (2021). Ceasefire Rationales: A Comparative Study of Ceasefires in the Moro and Communist Conflicts in the Philippines. International Peacekeeping, 28(3), 366-392
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ceasefire Rationales: A Comparative Study of Ceasefires in the Moro and Communist Conflicts in the Philippines
2021 (English)In: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 366-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ceasefires are part of most contemporary peace processes, however empirical insight suggests that the characteristics of ceasefires vary greatly across conflict settings. This paper contributes to filling a research and knowledge gap about how different types of ceasefire come about through a comparative case study of ceasefires in the Moro and communist insurgencies in the Philippines. I argue that to understand differences in the characteristics of the ceasefires in these conflicts, it is important to consider the aims, ideologies and strategies of the conflicting parties and how this shapes their approach to a ceasefire. Following this, I suggest that ceasefires must be analyzed and understood with sensitivity to conflict issues and approaches to violence, as this contributes to an explanation of how ceasefire is used as a political tool and how it shapes the dynamics of conflict. Based on interviews and document studies, the article maps the characteristics of ceasefires in both cases over time and analyses the approaches to ceasefires of the parties to the conflict. Knowledge of how ceasefires come about and what shapes them can help both academia and policymakers draw more informed and accurate conclusions about their outcomes and effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Keywords
Ceasefire agreement, ceasefire type, conflict issues, peace process, the Philippines, communist conflict, Mindanao conflict
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176054 (URN)10.1080/13533312.2020.1831918 (DOI)000579752400001 ()2-s2.0-85092934385 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00527
Available from: 2020-10-19 Created: 2020-10-19 Last updated: 2021-09-09Bibliographically approved
Olivius, E. & Åkebo, M. (2021). Exploring Varieties of Peace: Advancing the Agenda. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(1), 3-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring Varieties of Peace: Advancing the Agenda
2021 (English)In: Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, ISSN 1542-3166, E-ISSN 2165-7440, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within peace and conflict research, the study of peace has received far less scholarly attention than the study of war and violence (Gleditsch et al., 2014). Moreover, among the studies that pay particular attention to peace, a negative peace conception, which equates peace with the absence of direct violence between formerly warring parties, has generally dominated. Consequently, peace itself is underconceptualised. Existing conceptions of peace do not provide analytical tools that can systematically describe, compare, and explain how peace varies across contexts. By way of illustration, the peace in Sri Lanka is evidently different from the peace in South Africa or the peace in Cambodia, and peace in all of these contexts has also evolved in different ways over time. Postwar processes of peacebuilding and development are complex and messy, and the outcomes are both unpredictable and highly diverse. This situation has prompted recent calls for the development of new theoretical frameworks, analytical tools, and methodologies that can enable nuanced empirical analyses and assessments of peace across empirical cases (e.g., Davenport et al., 2018; Diehl, 2016; Höglund & Söderberg Kovac, 2010; Jarstad et al., 2019).

This special issue, titled Exploring Varieties of Peace, responds to these calls and seeks to advance conceptual understandings as well as empirical analyses of peace that provide new insights into the ways in which peace is manifested, experienced, and understood. The special issue originates from the Varieties of Peace research programme and network, which was launched in 2017 at Umeå University, Sweden, with support from the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences.1 Several of the contributions were discussed at the Varieties of Peace Asia Conference, which was organised in Jakarta, Indonesia, October 22–24, 2019, in cooperation with the Centre for Strategic and International Studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
Keywords
peace, post-war, qualitative research, case studies, peacebuilding
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Peace and Conflict Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182256 (URN)10.1177/1542316621995641 (DOI)2-s2.0-85103878849 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297-1
Available from: 2021-04-14 Created: 2021-04-14 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Söderström, J., Åkebo, M. & Jarstad, A. K. (2021). Friends, Fellows, and Foes: A New Framework for Studying Relational Peace. International Studies Review, 23(3), 484-508
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Friends, Fellows, and Foes: A New Framework for Studying Relational Peace
2021 (English)In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 484-508Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we suggest that taking a relational view of peace seriously is a fruitful avenue for expanding current theoretical frameworks surrounding peace as a concept. Paving the way for such an approach, this article conducts a review of the literature that takes on peace as a relational concept. We then return to how a relationship is conceptualized, before turning to how such components would be further defined in order to specify relational peace. Based on this framework, we argue that a peaceful relationship entails deliberation, non-domination, and cooperation between the actors in the dyad; the actors involved recognize and trust each other and believe that the relationship is either one between legitimate fellows or one between friends. The article clarifies the methodological implications of studying peace in this manner. It also demonstrates some of the advantages of this approach, as it shows how peace and war can coexist in webs of multiple interactions, and the importance of studying relations, and how actors understand these relationships, as a way of studying varieties of peace.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2021
Keywords
relational peace, theoretical framework, cooperation
National Category
Political Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175161 (URN)10.1093/isr/viaa033 (DOI)000692558400002 ()2-s2.0-85114312519 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, M16-0297:1Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-1494:1
Available from: 2020-09-17 Created: 2020-09-17 Last updated: 2021-10-04Bibliographically approved
Projects
Aggravating conflicts or paving the way to peace? The role and impact of ceasefire agreements in relation to peace processes and comprehensive peace accords [2015-00527_VR]; Umeå University; Publications
Åkebo, M. (2021). Ceasefire Rationales: A Comparative Study of Ceasefires in the Moro and Communist Conflicts in the Philippines. International Peacekeeping, 28(3), 366-392Åkebo, M. (2019). “Coexistence Ceasefire” in Mindanao. Peace and Change, 44(4), 468-496
Varieties of Peace [M16-0297:1_RJ]; Umeå University; Publications
Olivius, E. & Hedström, J. (2023). "They treat us like visitors in our own house": relational peace and local experiences of the state in Myanmar. In: Anna Jarstad; Johanna Söderström; Malin Åkebo (Ed.), Relational peace practices: (pp. 127-149). Manchester University PressHedström, J. & Olivius, E. (2022). Tracing temporal conflicts in transitional Myanmar: life history diagrams as methodological tool. Conflict, Security and Development, 22(5), 495-515Åkebo, M. & Bastian, S. (2021). Beyond Liberal Peace in Sri Lanka: Victory, Politics, and State Formation. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(1), 70-84Cardenas, M. L. & Olivius, E. (2021). Building Peace in the Shadow of War: Women-to-Women Diplomacy as Alternative Peacebuilding Practice in Myanmar. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 15(3), 347-366Blomqvist, L., Olivius, E. & Hedström, J. (2021). Care and Silence in Women's Everyday Peacebuilding in Myanmar. Conflict, Security and Development, 21(3), 223-244Olivius, E. & Åkebo, M. (2021). Exploring Varieties of Peace: Advancing the Agenda. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(1), 3-8Olivius, E. & Hedström, J. (2021). Spatial Struggles and the Politics of Peace: the Aung San Statue as a Site for Post-War Conflict in Myanmar’s Kayah State. Journal of Peacebuilding and Development, 16(3), 275-288Johansson, P. & Saati, A. (2020). Different Methods for Analyzing Varieties of Peace. Umeå: Umeå universitetHedström, J. & Olivius, E. (2020). Insecurity, Dispossession, Depletion : Women’s Experiences of Post-War Development in Myanmar. European Journal of Development Research, 32(2), 379-403Olivius, E. & Strandh, V. (2020). Introduction: Exploring Varieties of Peace in Asia. Indonesian Quarterly, 48(1), 7-12
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6971-6435

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