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af Bjerkén, Sara
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Johansson, J., Ericsson, M., Axelsson, J., af Bjerkén, S., Virel, A. & Karalija, N. (2024). Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in rat: Whole-brain spatiotemporal analysis with [11C]raclopride and positron emission tomography. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 44(3), 434-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in rat: Whole-brain spatiotemporal analysis with [11C]raclopride and positron emission tomography
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 434-445Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Whole-brain mapping of drug effects are needed to understand the neural underpinnings of drug-related behaviors. Amphetamine administration is associated with robust increases in striatal dopamine (DA) release. Dopaminergic terminals are, however, present across several associative brain regions, which may contribute to behavioral effects of amphetamine. Yet the assessment of DA release has been restricted to a few brain regions of interest. The present work employed positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride to investigate regional and temporal characteristics of amphetamine-induced DA release across twenty sessions in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. Amphetamine was injected intravenously (2 mg/kg) to cause displacement of [11C]raclopride binding from DA D2-like receptors, assessed using temporally sensitive pharmacokinetic PET model (lp-ntPET). We show amphetamine-induced [11C]raclopride displacement in the basal ganglia, and no changes following saline injections. Peak occupancy was highest in nucleus accumbens, followed by caudate-putamen and globus pallidus. Importantly, significant amphetamine-induced displacement was also observed in several extrastriatal regions, and specifically in thalamus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and secondary somatosensory area. For these, peak occupancy occurred later and was lower as compared to the striatum. Collectively, these findings demonstrate distinct amphetamine-induced DA responses across the brain, and that [11C]raclopride-PET can be employed to detect such spatiotemporal differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2024
Keywords
Amphetamine, displacement, dopamine, imaging, receptor
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-216126 (URN)10.1177/0271678X231210128 (DOI)001089209600001 ()37882727 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85174906502 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2024-04-26Bibliographically approved
El-Habta, R., af Bjerkén, S. & Virel, A. (2024). N-acetylcysteine increases dopamine release and prevents the deleterious effects of 6-OHDA on the expression of VMAT2, α-synuclein, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Neurological Research, 46(5), 406-415
Open this publication in new window or tab >>N-acetylcysteine increases dopamine release and prevents the deleterious effects of 6-OHDA on the expression of VMAT2, α-synuclein, and tyrosine hydroxylase
2024 (English)In: Neurological Research, ISSN 0161-6412, E-ISSN 1743-1328, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 406-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Current treatments for Parkinson’s disease using pharmacological approaches alleviate motor symptoms but do not prevent neuronal loss or dysregulation of dopamine neurotransmission. In this article, we have explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the damaged dopamine system.

Methods: SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated towards a dopaminergic phenotype and exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to establish an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease. We examined the potential of NAC to restore the pathological effects of 6-OHDA on cell survival, dopamine synthesis as well as on key proteins regulating dopamine metabolism. Specifically, we evaluated gene- and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicle monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), and α-synuclein, by using qPCR and Western blot techniques. Moreover, we quantified the effect of NAC on total dopamine levels using a dopamine ELISA assay.

Results: Our results indicate that NAC has a neuroprotective role in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-OHDA by maintaining cell proliferation and decreasing apoptosis. Additionally, we demonstrated that NAC treatment increases dopamine release and protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA dysregulations on the proteins TH, VMAT2, and α-synuclein.

Conclusions: Our findings contribute to the validation of compounds capable to restore dopamine homeostasis and shed light on the metabolic pathways that could be targeted to normalize dopamine turnover. Furthermore, our results highlight the effectiveness of the antioxidant NAC in the prevention of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the present model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2024
Keywords
Parkinson’s disease, N-acetylcysteine, SH-SY5Y cells, 6-OHDA, α-synuclein, VMAT2
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-222487 (URN)10.1080/01616412.2024.2325312 (DOI)001187198700001 ()38498979 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85188455120 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Lars Hierta Memorial FoundationÅhlén-stiftelsenRegion Västerbotten
Available from: 2024-03-19 Created: 2024-03-19 Last updated: 2024-05-13Bibliographically approved
af Bjerkén, S., Axelsson, J., Larsson, A., Flygare, C., Remes, J., Strandberg, S., . . . Jakobson Mo, S. (2023). Reliability and validity of visual analysis of [18F]FE-PE2I PET/CT in early Parkinsonian disease. Nuclear medicine communications, 44(5), 397-406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and validity of visual analysis of [18F]FE-PE2I PET/CT in early Parkinsonian disease
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2023 (English)In: Nuclear medicine communications, ISSN 0143-3636, E-ISSN 1473-5628, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 397-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: [18F]FE-PE2I (FE-PE2I) is a new radiotracer for dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with PET. The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual interpretation of FE-PE2I images for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinsonian syndrome (IPS). The inter-rater variability, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for visual interpretation of striatal FE-PE2I compared to [123I]FP-CIT (FP-CIT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was evaluated.

Methods: Thirty patients with newly onset parkinsonism and 32 healthy controls with both an FE-PE2I and FP-CIT were included in the study. Four patients had normal DAT imaging, of which three did not fulfil the IPS criteria at the clinical reassessment after 2 years. Six raters evaluated the DAT images blinded to the clinical diagnosis, interpreting the image as being ‘normal’ or ‘pathological’, and assessed the degree of DAT-reduction in the caudate and putamen. The inter-rater agreement was assessed with intra-class correlation and Cronbach’s α. For calculation of sensitivity and specificity, DAT images were defined as correctly classified if categorized as normal or pathological by ≥4/6 raters.

Results: The overall agreement in visual evaluation of the FE-PE2I- and FP-CIT images was high for the IPS patients (α = 0.960 and 0.898, respectively), but lower in healthy controls (FE-PE2I: α = 0.693, FP-CIT: α = 0.657). Visual interpretation gave high sensitivity (both 0.96) but lower specificity (FE-PE2I: 0.86, FP-CIT: 0.63) with an accuracy of 90% for FE-PE2I and 77% for FP-CIT.

Conclusion: Visual evaluation of FE-PE2I PET imaging demonstrates high reliability and diagnostic accuracy for IPS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2023
Keywords
[18F]FE-PE2I PET/computed tomography, diagnostic accuracy, early disease, Parkinson’s disease, PET
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Research subject
Radiology; Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206635 (URN)10.1097/mnm.0000000000001679 (DOI)000970601600009 ()36862448 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85152168200 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenUmeå UniversityParkinsonfonden
Available from: 2023-04-13 Created: 2023-04-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Virel, A., Johansson, J., Axelsson, J., Ericsson, M., Laterveer, R., Ögren, M., . . . af Bjerkén, S. (2022). N-acetylcysteine decreases dopamine transporter availability in the non-lesioned striatum of the 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian rat. Neuroscience Letters, 770, Article ID 136420.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>N-acetylcysteine decreases dopamine transporter availability in the non-lesioned striatum of the 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian rat
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2022 (English)In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 770, article id 136420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to explore the beneficial effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the degenerated dopamine system. The short- and long-term regulatory mechanisms of NAC on the 6-OHDA hemiparkinsonian rat model were longitudinally investigated by performing positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the specific dopamine transporter (DAT) radioligand [18F]FE-PE2I. The results demonstrate that after a unilateral dopamine insult NAC has a strong influence on the non-lesioned hemisphere by decreasing the levels of DAT in the striatum early after the lesion. We interpret this early and short-term decrease of DAT in the healthy striatum of NAC-treated animals as a beneficial compensatory effect induced by NAC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
6-OHDA, N-acetylcysteine, Neuroimaging, Parkinson's disease, PET
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-191188 (URN)10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136420 (DOI)000742672900005 ()2-s2.0-85122253129 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenLars Hierta Memorial Foundation
Available from: 2022-01-11 Created: 2022-01-11 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jakobson Mo, S., Axelsson, J., J. Stiernman, L., Larsson, A., af Bjerkén, S., Bäckström, D. C., . . . Riklund, K. (2022). VNTR polymorphism in the SLC6A3 gene does not influence dopamine transporter availability measured by [18F]FE-PE2I PET or [123I]FP-Cit SPECT. Nuclear medicine communications, 43(3), 247-255
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VNTR polymorphism in the SLC6A3 gene does not influence dopamine transporter availability measured by [18F]FE-PE2I PET or [123I]FP-Cit SPECT
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2022 (English)In: Nuclear medicine communications, ISSN 0143-3636, E-ISSN 1473-5628, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential impact of polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of the SLC6A3 gene (DAT1) on normal variation in dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [18F]FE-PE2I PET and [123I]FP-Cit SPECT.

METHODS: Thirty-six individuals (mean age 70.4±5.4 years) with normal [18F]FE-PE2I PET and [123I]FP-Cit SPECT were genotyped for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the 3′UTR of the DAT1 gene. The DAT-availability in the caudate and putamen as measured with [18F]FE-PE2I PET and [123I]FP-Cit SPECT, as well as in the substantia nigra with [18F]FE-PE2I PET were compared between the participants carrying one or two 9-repeat alleles (i.e. 9R+10R or 9R+9R; 47%) and the participants without a 9R allele (i.e. 10R+10R or 10R+11R; 53%). Nonparametric tests, linear regression analysis and mixed model analysis were used to assess any statistical difference in measured DAT availability between the two allele groups.

RESULTS: The measured DAT-availability in PET- and SPECT-imaging tended to be slightly higher in the 9R-group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance in either the caudate or the putamen or the substantia nigra. Instead, age did have a significant effect on the DAT level (P < 0.05) notwithstanding the genotype.

CONCLUSION: No significant effect of DAT1-genotype was detectable in imaging with [18F]FE-PE2I PET or [123I]FP-Cit, instead, age accounted for the normal variation in DAT-PET and DAT-SPECT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2022
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192638 (URN)10.1097/MNM.0000000000001514 (DOI)000753310600001 ()34908018 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85124443503 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Region VästerbottenParkinsonfonden
Available from: 2022-02-22 Created: 2022-02-22 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
af Bjerkén, S., Stenmark Persson, R., Barkander, A., Karalija, N., Pelegrina-Hidalgo, N., Gerhardt, G. A., . . . Strömberg, I. (2019). Noradrenaline is crucial for the substantia nigra dopaminergic cell maintenance. Neurochemistry International, 131, Article ID 104551.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noradrenaline is crucial for the substantia nigra dopaminergic cell maintenance
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2019 (English)In: Neurochemistry International, ISSN 0197-0186, E-ISSN 1872-9754, Vol. 131, article id 104551Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Parkinson's disease, degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons is accompanied by damage on other neuronal systems. A severe denervation is for example seen in the locus coerulean noradrenergic system. Little is known about the relation between noradrenergic and dopaminergic degeneration, and the effects of noradrenergic denervation on the function of the dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra are not fully understood. In this study, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) was injected in rats, whereafter behavior, striatal KCl-evoked dopamine and glutamate releases, and immunohistochemistry were monitored at 3 days, 3 months, and 6 months. Quantification of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive nerve fiber density in the cortex revealed a tendency towards nerve fiber regeneration at 6 months. To sustain a stable noradrenergic denervation throughout the experimental timeline, the animals in the 6-month time point received an additional DSP4 injection (2 months after the first injection). Behavioral examinations utilizing rotarod revealed that DSP4 reduced the time spent on the rotarod at 3 but not at 6 months. KCl-evoked dopamine release was significantly increased at 3 days and 3 months, while the concentrations were normalized at 6 months. DSP4 treatment prolonged both time for onset and reuptake of dopamine release over time. The dopamine degeneration was confirmed by unbiased stereology, demonstrating significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, striatal glutamate release was decreased after DSP4. In regards of neuroinflammation, reactive microglia were found over the substantia nigra after DSP4 treatment. In conclusion, long-term noradrenergic denervation reduces the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and affects the functionality of the nigrostriatal system. Thus, locus coeruleus is important for maintenance of nigral dopaminergic neurons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
DSP4, Dopamine, In vivo amperometry, In vivo chronoamperometry, Noradrenaline, Parkinson's disease
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163942 (URN)10.1016/j.neuint.2019.104551 (DOI)000498755800021 ()31542295 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85072404826 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 9917Västerbotten County CouncilLars Hierta Memorial Foundation
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2021-04-16Bibliographically approved
Jakobson Mo, S., Axelsson, J., Jonasson, L., Larsson, A., Ögren, M. J., Ögren, M., . . . Riklund, K. (2018). Dopamine transporter imaging with [18F]FE-PE2I PET and [123I]FP-CIT SPECT – a clinical comparison. EJNMMI Research, 8, Article ID 100.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dopamine transporter imaging with [18F]FE-PE2I PET and [123I]FP-CIT SPECT – a clinical comparison
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2018 (English)In: EJNMMI Research, E-ISSN 2191-219X, Vol. 8, article id 100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging may be of diagnostic value in patients with clinically suspected parkinsonian disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of DAT imaging with positron emission computed tomography (PET), using the recently developed, highly DAT-selective radiopharmaceutical [18F]FE-PE2I (FE-PE2I), to the commercially available and frequently used method with [123I]FP-CIT (FP-CIT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early-stage idiopathic parkinsonian syndrome (PS).

Methods: Twenty-two patients with a clinical de novo diagnosis of PS and 28 healthy controls (HC) participating in an on-going clinical trial of FE-PE2I were analyzed in this study. Within the trial protocol, participants are clinically reassessed 2 years after inclusion. A commercially available software was used for automatic calculation of FP-CIT-specific uptake ratio (SUR). MRI-based volumes of interest combined with threshold PET segmentation were used for FE-PE2I binding potential relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) quantification and specific uptake value ratios (SUVR).

Results: PET with FE-PE2I revealed significant differences between patients with a clinical de novo diagnosis of PS and healthy controls in striatal DAT availability (p < 0.001), with excellent accuracy of predicting dopaminergic deficit in early-stage PS. The effect sizes were calculated for FE-PE2I BPND (Glass’s Δ = 2.95), FE-PE2I SUVR (Glass’s Δ = 2.57), and FP-CIT SUR (Glass’s Δ = 2.29). The intraclass correlation (ICC) between FE-PE2I BPND FP-CIT SUR was high in the caudate (ICC = 0.923), putamen (ICC = 0.922), and striatum (ICC = 0.946), p < 0.001. Five of the 22 patients displayed preserved striatal DAT availability in the striatum with both methods. At follow-up, a non-PS clinical diagnosis was confirmed in three of these, while one was clinically diagnosed with corticobasal syndrome. In these patients, FE-PE2I binding was also normal in the substantia nigra (SN), while significantly reduced in the remaining patients. FE-PE2I measurement of the mean DAT availability in the putamen was strongly correlated with BPND in the SN (R = 0.816, p < 0.001). Olfaction and mean putamen DAT availability was correlated using both FE-PE2I BPND and FP-CIT SUR (R ≥ 0.616, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: DAT imaging with FE-PE2I PET yields excellent basic diagnostic differentiation in early-stage PS, at least as good as FP-CIT SPECT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Parkinson's disease, PET, SPECT, Dopamine transporter (DAT), [F-18]FE-PE2I
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154944 (URN)10.1186/s13550-018-0450-0 (DOI)000450488800002 ()30443684 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85056664892 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Olmedo-Díaz, S., Estévez-Silva, H., Orädd, G., af Bjérken, S., Marcellino, D. & Virel, A. (2017). An altered blood–brain barrier contributes to brain iron accumulation and neuroinflammation in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience, 362, 141-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An altered blood–brain barrier contributes to brain iron accumulation and neuroinflammation in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease
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2017 (English)In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 362, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Brain iron accumulation is a common feature shared by several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease. However, what produces this accumulation of iron is still unknown. In this study, the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-parkinsonian rat model was used to investigate abnormal iron accumulation in substantia nigra. We investigated three possible causes of iron accumulation; a compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB), abnormal expression of ferritin, and neuroinflammation. We identified alterations in the BBB subsequent to the injection of 6-OHDA using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, detection of extravasated IgG suggested that peripheral components are able to enter the brain through a leaky BBB. Presence of iron following dopamine cell degeneration was studied by MRI, which revealed hypointense signals in the substantia nigra. The presence of iron deposits was further validated in histological evaluations. Furthermore, iron inclusions were closely associated with active microglia and with increased levels of L-ferritin indicating a putative role for microglia and L-ferritin in brain iron accumulation and dopamine neurodegeneration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
brain-iron, 6-OHDA, MRI, blood-brain barrier, microglia
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142910 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.08.023 (DOI)000412382100013 ()28842186 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028954543 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Kopra, J. J., Panhelainen, A., af Bjerken, S., Porokuokka, L. L., Varendi, K., Olfat, S., . . . Andressoo, J.-O. (2017). Dampened Amphetamine-Stimulated Behavior and Altered Dopamine Transporter Function in the Absence of Brain GDNF. Journal of Neuroscience, 37(6), 1581-1590
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dampened Amphetamine-Stimulated Behavior and Altered Dopamine Transporter Function in the Absence of Brain GDNF
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 1581-1590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Midbrain dopamine neuron dysfunction contributes to various psychiatric and neurological diseases, including drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. Because of its well established dopaminotrophic effects, the therapeutic potential of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been studied extensively in various disorders with disturbed dopamine homeostasis. However, the outcomes from preclinical and clinical studies vary, highlighting a need for a better understanding of the physiological role of GDNF on striatal dopaminergic function. Nevertheless, the current lack of appropriate animal models has limited this understanding. Therefore, we have generated novel mouse models to study conditional Gdnf deletion in the CNS during embryonic development and reduction of striatal GDNF levels in adult mice via AAV-Cre delivery. We found that both of these mice have reduced amphetamine-induced locomotor response and striatal dopamine efflux. Embryonic GDNF deletion in the CNS did not affect striatal dopamine levels or dopamine release, but dopamine reuptake was increased due to increased levels of both total and synaptic membrane-associated dopamine transporters. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous GDNF plays an important role in regulating the function of dopamine transporters in the striatum.

Keywords
amphetamine, cyclic voltammetry, dopamine, dopamine transporter, GDNF, striatum
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-132628 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1673-16.2016 (DOI)000393572400017 ()28096470 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85011982937 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-30 Created: 2017-03-30 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Hashemian, S., O'Rourke, C., Phillips, J. B., Strömberg, I. & af Bjerkén, S. (2015). Embryonic and mature astrocytes exert different effects on neuronal growth in rat ventral mesencephalic slice cultures. SpringerPlus, 4, Article ID 558.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embryonic and mature astrocytes exert different effects on neuronal growth in rat ventral mesencephalic slice cultures
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2015 (English)In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, article id 558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One obstacle with grafting of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease is the insufficient ability of the transplant to reinnervate the host striatum. Another issue is the prospective interaction between the donor fetal tissue and the adult astrocytes of the host. To study nerve fiber growth and its interaction with immature/mature astrocytes, ventral mesencephalic (VM) organotypic rat tissue cultures from embryonic days (E) 12, E14, and E18 were studied up to 35 days in vitro (DIV), and co-cultures of E14 VM tissue and mature green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive astrocytes were performed. Generally, nerve fibers grew from the tissue slice either in association with a monolayer of migrated astroglia surrounding the tissue (glial-associated), or distal to the astroglia as non-glial-associated outgrowth. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive glial-associated nerve fiber outgrowth reached a plateau at 21 DIV in E12 and E14 cultures. In E18 cultures, TH-positive neurons displayed short processes and migrated onto the astrocytes. While the non-glial-associated nerve fiber outgrowth dominated the E14 cultures, it was found absent in E18 cultures. The GFP-positive cells in the VM and GFP-positive astrocyte co-cultures were generally located distal to the monolayer of migrated fetal astrocytes, a few GFP-positive cells were however observed within the astrocytic monolayer. In those cases TH-positive neurons migrated towards the GFP-positive cells. Both the non-glial-and glial-associated nerve fibers grew onto the GFP-positive cells. Taken together, the glial-associated growth has limited outgrowth compared to the non-glial-associated nerve fibers, while none of the outgrowth types were hampered by the mature astrocytes.

Keywords
Organotypic culture, Ventral mesencephalon, Mature astrocytes, Developmental stages
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110567 (URN)10.1186/s40064-015-1362-3 (DOI)000361917700003 ()26435904 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84942884614 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-06 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2023-06-13Bibliographically approved
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