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Publications (10 of 63) Show all publications
Hansson Mild, K. (2024). Occupational exposure to the electromagnetic field and precautionary approaches to health issues. In: Jolanta Karpowicz (Ed.), Electromagnetic ergonomics: from electrification to a wireless society (pp. 235-249). CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational exposure to the electromagnetic field and precautionary approaches to health issues
2024 (English)In: Electromagnetic ergonomics: from electrification to a wireless society / [ed] Jolanta Karpowicz, CRC Press, 2024, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Current international guidelines and limits for occupational and public (lower limits) exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) are set in order to ensure that the strengths of fields that humans experience are not harmful to health. At present, they are based on the current scientific knowledge on the prevention of acute effects. The guideline limits incorporate a large safety margin with respect to the thresholds of those effects, and therefore do not represent a precise delineation between safety and hazard. Normal exposure levels are in most cases much lower than the mentioned limits, preventing acute effects. The International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified exposure to both extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and to radiofrequency (RF) fields (at levels below limits for acute effects protection) as a class IIB, possibly carcinogenic to humans, and new animal studies have strengthened the demand for an update of this classification for RF fields. Concerns have been expressed about health and safety from occupational exposure to EMF at below the present guidelines, and a precautionary step might be advisable. Just as individuals can exercise Prudent Avoidance, government regulators, electric power companies and other companies where EMF exposure may occur, can also exercise prudence. In the following, we will give some examples of such measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press, 2024
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215379 (URN)10.1201/9781003020486-12 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173348438 (Scopus ID)9781003020486 (ISBN)9780367896102 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-11-01 Created: 2023-11-01 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Hansson Mild, K., Mattsson, M.-O., Jeschke, P., Israel, M., Ivanova, M. & Shalamanova, T. (2023). Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: different from general public exposure and laboratory studies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(16), Article ID 6552.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: different from general public exposure and laboratory studies
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 16, article id 6552Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The designs of in vivo, in vitro and in silico studies do not adequately reflect the characteristics of long-term occupational EMF exposure; the higher exposure levels permitted for employees are nevertheless extrapolated on this basis. Epidemiological studies consider occupational exposure only in a very general way, if at all. There is a lack of detailed descriptive data on long-term occupational exposure over the duration of the working life. Most studies reflect exposure characteristics of the general population, exposures which are long-term, but at a comparably low level. Occupational exposure is often intermittent with high peak power followed by periods with no exposure. Furthermore, the EU EMF-Directive 2013/35/EU states a demand for occupational health surveillance, the outcome of which would be of great help to epidemiologists studying the health effects of EMF exposure. This paper thus aims to outline and specify differences between public and occupational exposure and to increase the understanding of specific aspects of occupational exposure which are important for long-term health considerations. This could lead to a future protection concept against possible hazards based on adequate descriptions of long-term exposures and also include supplementary descriptive features such as a “reset time” of biological systems and accurate dose quantities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
biological effects, electromagnetic field, general population, health surveillance, workers
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214054 (URN)10.3390/ijerph20166552 (DOI)37623138 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168727540 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2023-09-06Bibliographically approved
Zradziński, P., Tokarski, T. & Hansson Mild, K. (2023). The significance of a posture-related evaluation of the electromagnetic field’s influence from hand-operated devices. In: Jolanta Karpowicz (Ed.), Electromagnetic ergonomics: from electrification to a wireless society (pp. 191-221). CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The significance of a posture-related evaluation of the electromagnetic field’s influence from hand-operated devices
2023 (English)In: Electromagnetic ergonomics: from electrification to a wireless society / [ed] Jolanta Karpowicz, CRC Press, 2023, p. 191-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Performing work is associated with the impact on the worker’s body of many factors that can cause various adverse health effects. One example of this are the effects related to the simultaneous impact of electromagnetic and biomechanical factors, which occur while manually operating an electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. Minimising both the EMF influence and the musculoskeletal load (MSL) is not a simple issue; there are opposing practices in reducing them. The aim of this chapter is to analyse the realistically modelled influence of EMF on a worker in various postures and with respect to MSL. The main principles of modelling and evaluating the influence of EMF and MSL on humans, and ways of reducing them are discussed in this chapter. A high posture-related variability in the level of biophysical EMF influence (nine times) and MSL (five times) was shown, for example, in the operation of suspended welding guns. Torso bending and upper limb position showed the most significant influence on these factors. Such variability is considerably higher than the variability related to the range of biomechanical properties of the human body in the population and the contribution to the biophysical effects from EMF exposure caused by a non-sinusoidal pattern of EMF variability over time (also recognised as higher harmonics components in the waveform). However, the influence from the frequency pattern of EMF exposure may affect their evaluation above certain limits. It is advisable to first decrease the impact of electromagnetic factors by increasing the distance between the operator’s body and the EMF source, and then carry out a detailed evaluation counting the frequency composition (harmonics) in EMF exposure. Importantly, it must be remembered that increasing the distance between the operator and the welding gun usually increases the MSL, which needs to be compensated for by ensuring the relevant ergonomic support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press, 2023
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-215365 (URN)10.1201/9781003020486-10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173353685 (Scopus ID)9781003020486 (ISBN)9780367896102 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-11-01 Created: 2023-11-01 Last updated: 2023-11-01Bibliographically approved
Jeschke, P., Alteköster, C., Hansson Mild, K., Israel, M., Ivanova, M., Schiessl, K., . . . Wilén, J. (2022). Protection of workers exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: a perspective on open questions in the context of the new ICNIRP 2020 guidelines. Frontiers In Public Health, 10, Article ID 875946.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protection of workers exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: a perspective on open questions in the context of the new ICNIRP 2020 guidelines
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2022 (English)In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 10, article id 875946Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Workers in occupational settings are usually exposed to numerous sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to different physical agents. Risk assessment for industrial workplaces concerning EMF is not only relevant to operators of devices or machinery emitting EMF, but also to support-workers, bystanders, service and maintenance personnel, and even visitors. Radiofrequency EMF guidelines published in 2020 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) may also be indirectly applied to assess risks emerging from EMF sources at workplaces by technical standards or legislation. To review the applicability and adequacy to assess exposure to EMF in occupational settings in the European Union, the most current ICNIRP guidelines on radiofrequency EMF are reviewed. Relevant ICNIRP fundamentals and principles are introduced, followed by practical aspects of exposure assessment. To conclude, open questions are formulated pointing out gaps between the guidelines' principles and occupational practice, such as the impact of hot and humid environments and physical activity or controversies around ICNIRPS's reduction factors in view of assessment uncertainty in general. Thus, the article aims to provide scientific policy advisors, labor inspectors, or experts developing standards with a profound understanding about ICNIRP guidelines' applicability to assess hazards related to radiofrequency EMF in occupational settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2022
Keywords
electric field, EMF Directive 2013/35/EU, ICNIRP 2020 RF Guidelines, magnetic field, occupational exposure, reduction factors, uncertainty
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203190 (URN)10.3389/fpubh.2022.875946 (DOI)000814637300001 ()35757616 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85133101720 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-18 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2023-03-15Bibliographically approved
Hansson Mild, K., Bergling, R. & Hörnsten, R. (2021). Heart Rate Variability and Magnetic Field Exposure Among Train Engine Drivers: A Pilot Study [Letter to the editor]. Bioelectromagnetics, 43(3), 259-264
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heart Rate Variability and Magnetic Field Exposure Among Train Engine Drivers: A Pilot Study
2021 (English)In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 259-264Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
autonomic nervous system, extremely low-frequency magnetic field, logger, occupational exposure
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181535 (URN)10.1002/bem.22329 (DOI)000623233200001 ()33644873 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85101828874 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-01 Created: 2021-04-01 Last updated: 2021-07-02Bibliographically approved
Hansson Mild, K., Johnsson, A. & Hardell, L. (2021). Robotic Lawn Mower: A New Source for Domestic Magnetic Field Exposure [Letter to the editor]. Bioelectromagnetics, 42(1), 95-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robotic Lawn Mower: A New Source for Domestic Magnetic Field Exposure
2021 (English)In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 95-99Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
electromagnetic field, pulsed-field, kHz
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-178343 (URN)10.1002/bem.22313 (DOI)000596465000001 ()2-s2.0-85097306924 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-01-11 Created: 2021-01-11 Last updated: 2022-05-12Bibliographically approved
Wilén, J., Olsrud, J., Frankel, J. & Hansson Mild, K. (2020). Valid Exposure Protocols Needed in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Genotoxic Research [Letter to the editor]. Bioelectromagnetics, 41(3), 247-257
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Valid Exposure Protocols Needed in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Genotoxic Research
2020 (English)In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 247-257Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated if a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination can cause DNA damage in human blood cells. However, the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure that the cells received in the MR scanner was not sufficiently described. The first studies looking into this could be regarded as hypothesis-generating studies. However, for further exploration into the role of MRI exposure on DNA integrity, the exposure itself cannot be ignored. The lack of sufficient method descriptions makes the early experiments difficult, if not impossible, to repeat. The golden rule in all experimental work is that a study should be repeatable by someone with the right knowledge and equipment, and this is simply not the case with many of the recent studies on MRI and genotoxicity. Here we discuss what is lacking in previous studies, and how we think the next generation of in vitro and in vivo studies on MRI and genotoxicity should be performed. Bioelectromagnetics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2020
Keywords
DNA, magnetic field, pulse sequence, isocenter, genotoxicity
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169358 (URN)10.1002/bem.22257 (DOI)000519338000008 ()32157722 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081679643 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-07 Created: 2020-04-07 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Lowden, A., Nagai, R., Åkerstedt, T., Hansson Mild, K. & Hillert, L. (2019). Effects of evening exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by 3G mobile phones on health and night sleep EEG architecture. Journal of Sleep Research, 28(4), Article ID e12813.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of evening exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by 3G mobile phones on health and night sleep EEG architecture
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, no 4, article id e12813Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies on sleep after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields have shown mixed results. We investigated the effects of double-blind radiofrequency exposure to 1,930-1,990 MHz, UMTS 3G signalling standard, time-averaged 10 g specific absorption rate of 1.6 W kg(-1) on self-evaluated sleepiness and objective electroencephalogram architecture during sleep. Eighteen subjects aged 18-19 years underwent 3.0 hr of controlled exposure on two consecutive days 19:45-23:00 hours (including 15-min break); active or sham prior to sleep, followed by full-night 7.5 hr polysomnographic recordings in a sleep laboratory. In a cross-over design, the procedure was repeated a week later with the second condition. The results for sleep electroencephalogram architecture showed no change after radiofrequency exposure in sleep stages compared with sham, but power spectrum analyses showed a reduction of activity within the slow spindle range (11.0-12.75 Hz). No differences were found for self-evaluated health symptoms, performance on the Stroop colour word test during exposure or for sleep quality. These results confirm previous findings that radiofrequency post-exposure in the evening has very little influence on electroencephalogram architecture but possible on spindle range activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
mobile phone-related symptoms, performance, slow-wave sleep
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161983 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12813 (DOI)000476602100007 ()30648318 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060172952 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Frankel, J., Hansson Mild, K., Olsrud, J. & Wilén, J. (2019). EMF exposure variation among MRI sequences from pediatric examination protocols. Bioelectromagnetics, 40(1), 3-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EMF exposure variation among MRI sequences from pediatric examination protocols
2019 (English)In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exposure environment is unique due to the mixture and intensity of magnetic fields involved. Current safety regulations are based on well-known acute effects of heating and neuroexcitation while the scientific grounds for possible long-term effects from MRI exposure are lacking. Epidemiological research requires careful exposure characterization, and as a first step toward improved exposure assessment we set out to characterize the MRI-patient exposure environment. Seven MRI sequences were run on a 3-Tesla scanner while the radiofrequency and gradient magnetic fields were measured inside the scanner bore. The sequences were compared in terms of 14 different exposure parameters. To study within-sequence variability, we varied sequence settings such as flip angle and slice thickness one at a time, to determine if they had any impact on exposure endpoints. There were significant differences between two or more sequences for all fourteen exposure parameters. Within-sequence differences were up to 60% of the corresponding between-sequence differences, and a 5-8 fold exposure increase was caused by variations in flip angle, slice spacing, and field of view. MRI exposure is therefore not only sequence-specific but also patient- and examination occurrence-specific, a complexity that requires careful consideration for an MRI exposure assessment in epidemiological studies to be meaningful. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
children, electromagnetic field, epidemiology, exposure assessment, radiofrequency
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155086 (URN)10.1002/bem.22159 (DOI)000453860500001 ()30500987 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85057846232 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2013-2702
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Hansson Mild, K., Lundström, R. & Wilén, J. (2019). Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health CareExposure and Safety Aspects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(7), Article ID 1186.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health CareExposure and Safety Aspects
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 7, article id 1186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main aim of the study was to identify and describe methods using non-ionizing radiation (NIR) such as electromagnetic fields (EMF) and optical radiation in Swedish health care. By examining anticipated exposure levels and by identifying possible health hazards we also aimed to recognize knowledge gaps in the field. NIR is mainly used in health care for diagnosis and therapy. Three applications were identified where acute effects cannot be ruled out: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrosurgery. When using optical radiation, such as class 3 and 4 lasers for therapy or surgical procedures and ultra-violet light for therapy, acute effects such as unintentional burns, photo reactions, erythema and effects on the eyes need to be avoided. There is a need for more knowledge regarding long-term effects of MRI as well as on the combination of different NIR exposures. Based on literature and after consulting staff we conclude that the health care professionals' knowledge about the risks and safety measures should be improved and that there is a need for clear, evidence-based information from reliable sources, and it should be obvious to the user which source to address.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
NIR, health care, exposure, safety, EMF, MRI, TMS, UV, Laser
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-159074 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16071186 (DOI)000465595800099 ()30987016 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064901536 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7260-6819

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