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Westling, Göran
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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Awad, A., Blomstedt, P., Westling, G. & Eriksson, J. (2020). Deep brain stimulation in the caudal zona incerta modulates the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral circuit in essential tremor. NeuroImage, 209, Article ID 116511.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep brain stimulation in the caudal zona incerta modulates the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral circuit in essential tremor
2020 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 209, article id 116511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Essential tremor is effectively treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), but the neural mechanisms underlying the treatment effect are poorly understood. Essential tremor is driven by a dysfunctional cerebello-thalamo-cerebral circuit resulting in pathological tremor oscillations. DBS is hypothesised to interfere with these oscillations at the stimulated target level, but it is unknown whether the stimulation modulates the activity of the cerebello-thalamo-cerebral circuit during different task states (with and without tremor) in awake essential tremor patients. To address this issue, we used functional MRI in 16 essential tremor patients chronically implanted with DBS in the caudal zona incerta. During scanning, the patients performed unilateral tremor-inducing postural holding and pointing tasks as well as rest, with contralateral stimulation turned On and Off.

We show that DBS exerts both task-dependent as well as task-independent modulation of the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral regions (p ​≤ ​0.05, FWE cluster-corrected for multiple comparisons). Task-dependent modulation (DBS ​× ​task interaction) resulted in two patterns of stimulation effects. Firstly, activity decreases (blood oxygen level-dependent signal) during tremor-inducing postural holding in the primary sensorimotor cortex and cerebellar lobule VIII, and activity increases in the supplementary motor area and cerebellar lobule V during rest (p ​≤ ​0.05, post hoc two-tailed t-test). These effects represent differences at the effector level and may reflect DBS-induced tremor reduction since the primary sensorimotor cortex, cerebellum and supplementary motor area exhibit less motor task-activity as compared to the resting condition during On stimulation. Secondly, task-independent modulation (main effect of DBS) was observed as activity increase in the lateral premotor cortex during all motor tasks, and also during rest (p ​≤ ​0.05, post hoc two-tailed t-test). This task-independent effect may mediate the therapeutic effects of DBS through the facilitation of the premotor control over the sensorimotor circuit, making it less susceptible to tremor entrainment.

Our findings support the notion that DBS in essential tremor is modulating the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral circuit, distant to the stimulated target, and illustrate the complexity of stimulation mechanisms by demonstrating task-dependent as well as task-independent actions in cerebello-cerebral regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Essential tremor, Deep brain stimulation, Caudal zona incerta, Functional MRI, Cerebello-cerebral circuit
National Category
Neurology Physiology Neurosciences
Research subject
Neurosurgery; Neurology; Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167200 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116511 (DOI)000517885100011 ()31901420 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85077302888 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Västerbotten County Council
Available from: 2020-01-11 Created: 2020-01-11 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Chen, N., Westling, G., Edin, B. B. & van der Smagt, P. (2020). Estimating Fingertip Forces, Torques, and Local Curvatures from Fingernail Images. Robotica (Cambridge. Print), 38(7), 1242-1262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating Fingertip Forces, Torques, and Local Curvatures from Fingernail Images
2020 (English)In: Robotica (Cambridge. Print), ISSN 0263-5747, E-ISSN 1469-8668, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1242-1262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study of dexterous manipulation has provided important insights into human sensorimotor control as well as inspiration for manipulation strategies in robotic hands. Previous work focused on experimental environment with restrictions. Here, we describe a method using the deformation and color distribution of the fingernail and its surrounding skin to estimate the fingertip forces, torques, and contact surface curvatures for various objects, including the shape and material of the contact surfaces and the weight of the objects. The proposed method circumvents limitations associated with sensorized objects, gloves, or fixed contact surface type. In addition, compared with previous single finger estimation in an experimental environment, we extend the approach to multiple finger force estimation, which can be used for applications such as human grasping analysis. Four algorithms are used, c.q., Gaussian process, convolutional neural networks, neural networks with fast dropout, and recurrent neural networks with fast dropout, to model a mapping from images to the corresponding labels. The results further show that the proposed method has high accuracy to predict force, torque, and contact surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2020
Keywords
Fingertip forces, Machine learning, Image processing, Fingernail images
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-173303 (URN)10.1017/S0263574719001383 (DOI)000540757700006 ()2-s2.0-85072751211 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2011-3128
Note

Article Number: PII S0263574719001383

Available from: 2020-07-03 Created: 2020-07-03 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Awad, A., Levi, R., Waller, M., Westling, G., Lindgren, L. & Eriksson, J. (2020). Preserved somatosensory conduction in complete spinal cord injury: Discomplete SCI. Clinical Neurophysiology, 131(5), 1059-1067
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preserved somatosensory conduction in complete spinal cord injury: Discomplete SCI
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2020 (English)In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 131, no 5, p. 1059-1067Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the communication between brain and body parts innervated from below-injury spinal segments, but rarely results in complete anatomical transection of the spinal cord. The aim of this study was to investigate residual somatosensory conduction in clinically complete SCI, to corroborate the concept of sensory discomplete SCI.

Methods: We used fMRI with a somatosensory protocol in which blinded and randomized tactile and nociceptive stimulation was applied on both legs (below-injury level) and one arm (above-injury level) in eleven participants with chronic complete SCI. The experimental design accounts for possible confounding mechanical (e.g. vibration) and cortico-cortical top-down mechanisms (e.g. attention/expectation).

Results: Somatosensory stimulation on below-level insensate body regions activated the somatotopically corresponding part of the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex in six out of eleven participants.

Conclusions: Our results represent afferent-driven cortical activation through preserved somatosensory connections to the brain in a subgroup of participants with clinically complete SCI, i.e. sensory discomplete SCI.

Significance: Identifying patients with residual somatosensory connections might open the door for new rehabilitative and restorative strategies as well as inform research on SCI-related conditions such as neuropathic pain and spasticity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Spinal cord injury, Functional MRI, Somatosensory, Discomplete, Non-conscious
National Category
Neurology Neurosciences Physiology
Research subject
Neurology; Neurosurgery; Rehabilitation Medicine; Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169138 (URN)10.1016/j.clinph.2020.01.017 (DOI)000525862400011 ()32197128 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85082123930 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-22 Created: 2020-03-22 Last updated: 2022-07-15Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J., Jarocka, E., Westling, G., Nordström, A. & Nordström, P. (2019). Predicting incident falls: Relationship between postural sway and limits of stability in older adults. Human Movement Science, 66, 117-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting incident falls: Relationship between postural sway and limits of stability in older adults
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2019 (English)In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 66, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background We have previously shown that objective measurements of postural sway predicts fall risk, although it is currently unknown how limits of stability (LOS) might influence these results.

Research question: How integrated postural sway and LOS measurements predict the risk of incident falls in a population-based sample of older adults.

Methods: The sample for this prospective observational study was drawn from the Healthy Ageing Initiative cohort and included data collected between June 2012 and December 2016 for 2396 men and women, all 70 years of age. LOS was compared to postural sway with measurements during eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) trials, using the previously validated Wii Force Plate. Fall history was assessed during baseline examination and incident falls were collected during follow-up at 6 and 12 months. Independent predictors of incident falls and additional covariates were investigated using multiple logistic regression models.

Results: During follow-up, 337 out of 2396 participants (14%) had experienced a fall. Unadjusted regression models from the EO trial revealed increased fall risk by 6% (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11) per each centimeter squared increase in sway area and by 16% (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07–1.25) per 1-unit increase in Sway-Area-to-LOS ratio. Odds ratios were generally lower when analyzing EC trials and only slightly attenuated in fully adjusted models.

Significance: Integrating postural sway and LOS parameters provides valid fall risk prediction and a holistic analysis of postural stability. Future work should establish normative values and evaluate clinical utility of these measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Incident falls, LOS, Postural sway, Cohort study, Objective measures
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Neurosciences Psychology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143872 (URN)10.1016/j.humov.2019.04.004 (DOI)000480664000013 ()30981147 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064077993 (Scopus ID)
Note

First published in thesis in manuscript form with the title: Predicting incident falls: relationship between postural sway and functional limits of stability in older adults

Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Awad, A., Blomstedt, P., Westling, G. & Eriksson, J. (2017). Functional imaging of Essential Tremor treated with Deep Brain Stimulation In the caudal Zona incerta. In: : . Paper presented at 17th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (WSSFN), Berlin, June 26-29, 2017. Berlin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional imaging of Essential Tremor treated with Deep Brain Stimulation In the caudal Zona incerta
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: , 2017
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Neurosurgery; Physiology; Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-163719 (URN)
Conference
17th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (WSSFN), Berlin, June 26-29, 2017
Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2021-04-07Bibliographically approved
Johansson, J., Nordström, A., Gustafson, Y., Westling, G. & Nordström, P. (2017). Increased postural sway during quiet stance as a risk factor for prospective falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Age and Ageing, 46(6), 964-970
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased postural sway during quiet stance as a risk factor for prospective falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals
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2017 (English)In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 964-970Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: fall-related injuries constitute major health risks in older individuals, and these risks are projected to increase in parallel with increasing human longevity. Impaired postural stability is a potential risk factor related to falls, although the evidence is inconclusive, partly due to the lack of prospective studies. This study aimed to investigate how objective measures of postural sway predict incident falls.

Design, setting and participants: this prospectively observational study included 1,877 community-dwelling individuals aged 70 years who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative between June 2012 and December 2015.

Measurements: postural sway was measured during eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) trials using the Wii Balance Board. Functional mobility, muscle strength, objective physical activity and cognitive performance were also measured. Participants reported incident falls 6 and 12 months after the examination.

Results: during follow-up, 255 (14%) prospective fallers were identified. Division of centre of pressure (COP) sway lengths into quintiles revealed a nonlinear distribution of falls for EO trial data, but not EC trial data. After adjustment for multiple confounders, fall risk was increased by 75% for participants with COP sway lengths ≥400 mm during the EO trial (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.79), and approximately doubled for sway lengths ≥920 mm during the EC trial (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.22).

Conclusion: objective measures of postural sway independently predict incident falls in older community-dwelling men and women. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether postural sway length is of interest for the prediction of incident falls in clinical settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
incident fall, postural sway, older people, cohort study, posturography
National Category
Physiotherapy Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135433 (URN)10.1093/ageing/afx083 (DOI)000413549300016 ()28531243 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85027715768 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-05-29 Created: 2017-05-29 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Awad, A., Levi, R., Lindgren, L., Hultling, C., Westling, G., Nyberg, L. & Eriksson, J. (2015). Preserved somatosensory conduction in a patient with complete cervical spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 47(5), 426-431
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preserved somatosensory conduction in a patient with complete cervical spinal cord injury
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 426-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Neurophysiological investigation has shown that patients with clinically complete spinal cord injury can have residual motor sparing ("motor discomplete"). In the current study somatosensory conduction was assessed in a patient with clinically complete spinal cord injury and a novel ethodology for assessing such preservation is described, in this case indicating "sensory discomplete" spinal cord injury. Methods: Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine the somatosensory system in a healthy subject and in a subject with a clinically complete cervical spinal cord injury, by applying tactile stimulation above and below the level of spinal cord injury, with and without visual feedback. Results: In the participant with spinal cord injury, somatosensory stimulation below the neurological level of the lesion gave rise to BOLD signal changes in the corresponding areas of the somatosensory cortex. Visual feedback of the stimulation strongly modulated the somatosensory BOLD signal, implying that cortico-cortical rather than spino-cortical connections can drive activity in the somatosensory cortex. Critically, BOLD signal change was also evident when the visual feedback of the stimulation was removed, thus demonstrating sensory discomplete spinal cord injury. Conclusion: Given the existence of sensory discomplete spinal cord injury, preserved but hitherto undetected somatosensory conduction might contribute to the unexplained variability related to, for example, the propensity to develop decubitus ulcers and neuropathic pain among patients with clinically complete spinal cord injury.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Foundation of Rehabilitation Information, 2015
Keywords
fMRI, spinal cord injury, complete, non-conscious, somatosensory cortex
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105263 (URN)10.2340/16501977-1955 (DOI)000355371600006 ()25808357 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84928235399 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-06-22 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Urban, S., Bayer, J., Osendorfer, C., Westling, G., Edin, B. B. & Van Der Smagt, P. (2013). Computing grip force and torque from finger nail images using Gaussian processes. In: 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: . Paper presented at 2013 26th IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: New Horizon, IROS 2013, Tokyo, Japan, November 3-8, 2013 (pp. 4034-4039). IEEE, Article ID 6696933.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computing grip force and torque from finger nail images using Gaussian processes
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2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IEEE, 2013, p. 4034-4039, article id 6696933Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a simple approach with which finger force can be measured from nail coloration. By automatically extracting features from nail images of a finger-mounted CCD camera, we can directly relate these images to the force measured by a force-torque sensor. The method automatically corrects orientation and illumination differences. Using Gaussian processes, we can relate prepro-cessed images of the finger nail to measured force and torque of the finger, allowing us to predict the finger force at a level of 95%-98% accuracy at force ranges up to 10N, and torques around 90% accuracy, based on training data gathered in 90s. © 2013 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-206425 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2013.6696933 (DOI)2-s2.0-84893741429 (Scopus ID)9781467363587 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 26th IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems: New Horizon, IROS 2013, Tokyo, Japan, November 3-8, 2013
Available from: 2023-04-05 Created: 2023-04-05 Last updated: 2023-04-05Bibliographically approved
Lindgren, L., Westling, G., Brulin, C., Lehtipalo, S., Andersson, M. & Nyberg, L. (2012). Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. NeuroImage, 59(4), 3427-3432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex
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2012 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 3427-3432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5N) and velocity (1.5cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Brain, Human touch, Massage, Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, fMRI, Pleasantness
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51173 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.013 (DOI)22100768 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84855166130 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2012-01-12 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Birznieks, I., Macefield, V. G., Westling, G. & Johansson, R. S. (2009). Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in the borders of the human fingernail encode fingertip forces. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(29), 9370-9379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors in the borders of the human fingernail encode fingertip forces
2009 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 29, no 29, p. 9370-9379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are clusters of slowly adapting (SA) mechanoreceptors in the skin folds bordering the nail. These "SA-IInail" afferents, which constitute nearly one fifth of the tactile afferents innervating the fingertip, possess the general discharge characteristics of slowly adapting type II (SA-II) tactile afferents located elsewhere in the glabrous skin of the human hand. Little is known about the signals in the SA-IInail afferents when the fingertips interact with objects. Here we show that SA-IInail afferents reliably respond to fingertip forces comparable to those arising in everyday manipulations. Using a flat stimulus surface, we applied forces to the finger pad while recording impulse activity in 17 SA-IInail afferents. Ramp-and-hold forces (amplitude 4 N, rate 10 N/s) were applied normal to the skin, and at 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal in eight radial directions with reference to the primary site of contact (25 force directions in total). All afferents responded to the force stimuli, and the responsiveness of all but one afferents was broadly tuned to a preferred direction of force. The preferred directions among afferents were distributed all around the angular space, suggesting that the population of SA-IInail afferents could encode force direction. We conclude that signals in the population of SA-IInail afferents terminating in the nail walls contain vectorial information about fingertip forces. The particular tactile features of contacted surfaces would less influence force-related signals in SA-IInail afferents than force-related signals present in afferents terminating in the volar skin areas that directly contact objects.

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26196 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0143-09.2009 (DOI)19625527 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-67651177569 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-09-29 Created: 2009-09-29 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
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