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Granholm Valmari, E., Ghazinour, M., Nygren, U. & Gilenstam, K. (2023). A systematic review of lifestyle and health among patrolling police officers. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 30(5), 721-744
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A systematic review of lifestyle and health among patrolling police officers
2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 721-744Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The police profession is a high-strain and high-risk profession, sometimes resulting in poor physical, mental and social health. This systematic review aims to identify and describe crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle among patrolling police officers in Europe, an area not previously studied.

Methods: The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A protocol was published and registered with PROSPERO beforehand. Searches were carried out in eight databases. Two independent authors screened articles and critically appraised the included studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted to analyse the results. The review’s total body of evidence was assessed with GRADE-CERQaul.

Results: A total of 16 articles were located, representing 13 studies. Barriers and resources for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were linked to a theoretical framework of life balance. Subsequently, a linkage model was created to explain different aspects of patrolling police officers’ life balance and its relation to health (physical, social and mental).

Conclusions: Several crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were found and described, indicating that patrolling officers’ working life affects their possibilities of living a balanced lifestyle, which might disturb different aspects of health, depending on which aspect is compromised.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-196658 (URN)10.1080/11038128.2022.2083013 (DOI)000811661000001 ()35704703 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85131946256 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-06-16 Created: 2022-06-16 Last updated: 2023-06-19Bibliographically approved
Granholm Valmari, E., Nygren, U., Ghazinour, M. & Gilenstam, K. (2023). Being a top cop in pursuit of a sustainable lifestyle. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 18(1), Article ID 2235789.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being a top cop in pursuit of a sustainable lifestyle
2023 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 2235789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research has widely recognized the challenges uniformed police officers face in their working lives. However, little is known about the overall lifestyles of police officers, including what they do in private life. We interviewed 17 officers and used reflexive thematic analysis to explore their experiences. The study sheds light on how uniformed police officers navigate the intersection between their private and professional lives, as well as how their professional role impacts their day-to-day doings and private life roles. The key findings relate to how the demands of their professional role impact their private life, such as the profession becoming a way of life. Furthermore, they highlight the challenges of avoiding certain environments where they might be recognized as police officers. It also entails balancing energy levels in work and private life, as well as how their profession’s unpredictability affects their daily routines and roles. The findings also show how their personal choices in private life are frequently influenced by their professional role. The study’s findings have theoretical as well as practical implications, contributing to a better understanding of uniformed police officers’ challenges and resources for a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.

Keywords
balance in life, first responder, health, occupational patterns, patrol service, police officer, reflexive thematic analysis, roles, spare-time activities, work-life conflict
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Research subject
police science; Occupational therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212296 (URN)10.1080/17482631.2023.2235789 (DOI)001029676500001 ()37469287 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165246968 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations
Available from: 2023-07-20 Created: 2023-07-20 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Granholm Valmari, E., Ghazinour, M., Nygren, U. & Gilenstam, K. (2023). Exploring the life contexts of patrolling police officers in the European Union – A scoping review. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 30(5), 585-603
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the life contexts of patrolling police officers in the European Union – A scoping review
2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 585-603Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Patrolling police officers engage in different mentally, socially, and physically challenging life contexts which may affect their life and health. The aim of this scoping review is twofold, to explore life contexts of patrolling officers in the European Union, and to investigate how their lives and health are affected by environmental characteristics within these contexts.

Methods: The scoping review followed Arksey and O’Malley’s methodology and included a critical appraisal. The environmental model within Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation was used in the thematic analysis. The review was reported following PRISMA-ScR.

Results: In the 16 included studies, two contexts (where environments interact with persons on different levels) were discovered: the global and the immediate context. No local contexts were found. Primarily, research on the social, and occupational environments, including qualities identified in these environments were found. However, some environmental characteristics within patrolling officers’ physical environments were also discovered.

Discussion: This review contributes to the emerging research area of police officers’ life contexts, by mapping contexts and environments affecting their life and health. However, to get a deeper understanding of how officers are affected by their environments, interviewing them regarding how their different contexts affect their everyday living, would be important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Activity, environment, health, MOHO, occupational, patrol duty, physical, social, thematic analysis
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Research subject
Occupational therapy; police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-192771 (URN)10.1080/11038128.2022.2041088 (DOI)000761484700001 ()35225165 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85125928893 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-02-27 Created: 2022-02-27 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Granholm Valmari, E., Nygren, U., Ghazinour, M. & Gilenstam, K. (2023). How police officers juggle work, a life partner, and kids. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, Article ID 1178314.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How police officers juggle work, a life partner, and kids
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1178314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Police officers frequently encounter stressful social situations during their working days. Furthermore, previous research on policing and families show that police officers’ families are impacted in different ways when at least one member of the family has the role of a police officer. Despite work spilling over to family life there is currently little research on police officers’ role-balancing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges that arise at the intersection between police officers’ professional roles and their private life roles as parents and life partners, as well as how police officers balance these roles in between. We used qualitative content analysis after interviewing 13 uniformed police officers. The findings show how the police officers’ professional roles affect their private life roles within three different sub-themes and are summarized under the theme of "Balancing conflicting roles: Coping with professional and private life commitments". The theme revolves around the various challenges of working as a uniformed police officer, such as hypervigilance and risks, as well as the enrichments and conflicts of working shifts while also juggling private life roles. The results also touch on gender and equality in life-partner relationships. The study raises an important question about how these challenges can be mitigated within Police authorities to enable uniformed police officers to balance their professional and personal lives in a healthy and sustainable manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
aktivitetsvetenskap, arbetsterapi, polisers hälsa
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Research subject
Occupational therapy; police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212025 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1178314 (DOI)37484103 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165178650 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-07-13 Created: 2023-07-13 Last updated: 2023-12-13Bibliographically approved
Granholm Valmari, E., Ghazinour, M., Nygren, U. & Gilenstam, K. (2023). Life contexts among patrolling police officers in the European Union, investigating environmental characteristics and health: a protocol for a scoping review and a systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 30(7), 1135-1142
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life contexts among patrolling police officers in the European Union, investigating environmental characteristics and health: a protocol for a scoping review and a systematic review
2023 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1135-1142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The police officer occupation is a high-risk profession, with significantly more traumatic and stressful events than other occupations. Key factors for the health of police officers have been found to be related to intra-interpersonal, occupational, and organizational factors. However, the mechanisms underlying why is inconclusive. This protocol therefore intends to explain the approach for conducting both a scoping review, and systematic review. The overall aim of the reviews is to investigate patrolling police officers' life contexts with the intention to identify barriers and resources that affect their lifestyle and health.

Methods: The protocol is reported according to the PRISMA-P guidelines, with PROSPERO number: CRD42020190583. Searches will be carried out in SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, OpenGrey, and EBSCO (Academic Search Premiere, APA PsychINFO, CINAHL, SocINDEX). Two independent raters will screen articles and conduct the critical appraisal. Analyses include Arksey and O'Malley's methodology for the scoping review, and a narrative synthesis for the systematic review, including critically appraising the total body of evidence in the systematic review.

Discussion: The purpose of the reviews is to understand patrolling police officers' life contexts, and support future development of an assessment that measures patrolling police officers' life balance from a contextual viewpoint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
scoping review, systematic review, protocol, occupational therapy, occupational science, livsbalans, arbetsterapi, protokoll, systematisk litteraturöversikt
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health Other Health Sciences
Research subject
Occupational therapy; police science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-185220 (URN)10.1080/11038128.2021.1939415 (DOI)000665644200001 ()2-s2.0-85108652372 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Livsbalans för poliser i yttre tjänst
Available from: 2021-06-24 Created: 2021-06-24 Last updated: 2023-12-29Bibliographically approved
Gilenstam, K. & Geithner, C. (2019). Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players: Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(9), 2496-2502
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players: Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA
2019 (English)In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 2496-2502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women’s ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % Fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p<0.05. The % Fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%,p=0.000). Bland Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % Fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72% to 18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the Sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population, but result in underestimates of % Fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2019
Keywords
women’s ice hockey, female athletes, relative fatness, skinfolds, DXA
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148368 (URN)10.1519/JSC.0000000000002400 (DOI)000498828500023 ()29239987 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85071612855 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Gilenstam, K. (2019). Struktur för text & tanke. In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019: helhetssyn på undervisning - kropp, känsla och kognition i akademin. Paper presented at Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019, Umeå, 10-11 oktober, 2019. (pp. 19-20). Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struktur för text & tanke
2019 (Swedish)In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019: helhetssyn på undervisning - kropp, känsla och kognition i akademin, Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 19-20Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet, 2019
Series
Skriftserie från Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL) ; 2019:1
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-194788 (URN)
Conference
Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019, Umeå, 10-11 oktober, 2019.
Available from: 2022-05-17 Created: 2022-05-17 Last updated: 2022-05-23Bibliographically approved
Bengtsson, V., Yu, J.-G. & Gilenstam, K. (2018). Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 58(9), 1185-1189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?
2018 (English)In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, ISSN 0022-4707, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1185-1189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-up as it is generally believed to increase mobility and reduce the risk of injury; however, SS has been shown to induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on certain sports, especially of explosive muscular performance. Whether sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on isokinetic muscle performance remains unclear.

METHODS: The present study conducted two different warm-ups: 2-component warm-up and 3-component warm-up on 15 university students. Both protocols contained low intensity aerobic exercise and sport specific exercise, whereas the 3-component warm-up also contained SS which has been previously proven to induce negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. After the warm-ups, the subjects performed an isokinetic test on a Biodex. To make the sport specific exercise mimic the subsequent test, both included concentric isokinetic knee extension. During the tests, muscle performance of peak torque, mean power, and total work was recorded. Comparison of the measurements on each parameter between the two warm-ups was performed using paired t test.

RESULTS: The comparisons did not reveal any significant difference in the measurement of any parameter between the two different warm-up protocols, and calculation of Cohen's revealed small effect sizes on all of the three variables.

CONCLUSIONS: On basis of the present results and that the SS could induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance, we concluded that the negative effects of the SS on the variables were restored by the isokinetic contractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2018
Keywords
warm-up, static stretching, transient negative effect, sport specific exercise, restore effects
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134043 (URN)10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07101-8 (DOI)000445212900001 ()28409517 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051128677 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Strömbäck, E., Aasa, U., Gilenstam, K. & Berglund, L. (2018). Prevalence and consequences of injuries in powerlifting: a cross-sectional study. The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 6(5), Article ID 2325967118771016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and consequences of injuries in powerlifting: a cross-sectional study
2018 (English)In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 2325967118771016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Powerlifting consists of the squat, bench press, and dead lift, and extreme loads are lifted during training and competitions. Previous studies, which have defined an injury as an event that causes an interruption in training or competitions, have reported a relatively low frequency of powerlifting injuries (1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training). No previous study has investigated the prevalence of injuries, defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training, in a balanced sample of men and women, and no studies have established possible risk factors for an injury.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence, localization, and characterization of injuries among Swedish subelite classic powerlifters, with an emphasis on differences between men and women, and to investigate whether training and lifestyle factors are associated with an injury.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A total of 53 female and 51 male Swedish subelite powerlifters answered an online questionnaire including questions about background characteristics, training habits, and lifestyle factors. The main part of the questionnaire included questions about injuries and their consequences. An injury was defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters’ training.

Results: Seventy percent (73/104) of participants were currently injured, and 87% (83/95) had experienced an injury within the past 12 months. The lumbopelvic region, shoulder, and hip were the most commonly injured areas for both sexes. Women experienced a significantly greater frequency of injuries in the neck and thoracic region than men. Injuries seemed to occur during training, although only 16% (11/70) of those currently injured had to completely refrain from training. Training frequency, greater personal best in the dead lift, injury onset during bench-press and dead-lift training, use of straps, alcohol consumption, and dietary issues were associated with current injuries.

Conclusion: Injuries are very common in subelite powerlifters. Men and women report similar injury frequencies but different anatomic locations. These injuries do not prevent powerlifters from training and competing, but they may change the content of training sessions. Why powerlifters develop injuries is still unclear; however, it is likely that the management of training loads and optimization of the lifting technique during the squat, bench press, and dead lift are of importance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
sports injury, risk factors, resistance training, low back pain
National Category
Physiotherapy Sport and Fitness Sciences Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
physiotherapy; biomechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147734 (URN)10.1177/2325967118771016 (DOI)000432239400001 ()29785405 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048296297 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2024-05-23Bibliographically approved
Geithner, C. A., Molenaar, C. E., Henriksson, T., Fjellman-Wiklund, A. & Gilenstam, K. (2018). Relative Age Effects in Women’s Ice Hockey: Contributions of Body Size and Maturity Status. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 26(2), 124-133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative Age Effects in Women’s Ice Hockey: Contributions of Body Size and Maturity Status
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, ISSN 1063-6161, E-ISSN 1938-1581, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research on relative age effects (RAEs) in women’s ice hockey is lacking data on participant characteristics, particularly body size and maturity status. The purposes of our study were to investigate RAEs in women’s ice hockey players from two countries, and to determine whether RAE patterns could be explained by chronological age, body size, and maturity status. Participants were 54 Swedish elite and 63 Canadian university players. Birthdates were coded by quartiles (Q1–Q4). Weight and height were obtained, and body mass index and chronological age were calculated for each player. Players recalled age at menarche, and maturity status was classified as early, average, or late relative to population-specific means. Chi-square (χ2), odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and effect sizes (Cohen’s w) were calculated using population data across quartiles and for pairwise comparisons between quartiles. Descriptive statistics and MANOVAs were run by quartile and by country. Significant RAEs were found for Canadian players across quartiles (p < .05), along with a Q2 phenomenon (Q2: Q3, Q2: Q4, p < .05). Swedish players were overrepresented in Q3 (Q3: Q4, p < .05). Q4 was significantly underrepresented in both countries (p < .05). The oldest, earliest maturing, and shortest players in both countries were clustered in Q2, whereas the next oldest and latest maturing Swedish players were found in Q3. Age, physical factors, and interactions may contribute to overrepresentations in Q2 and Q3. These findings do not suggest the same bias for greater relative age and maturity found in male ice hockey.

Keywords
birth distribution, female ice hockey, height, maturation, weight
National Category
Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142865 (URN)10.1123/wspaj.2017-0034 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063077178 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kempe Foundations
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form with the title "Relative age effects in women's ice hockey: international comparisons".

Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4690-6759

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