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Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Westin, I. M., Jonsson, F., Österman, L., Holmberg, M., Burstedt, M. & Golovleva, I. (2021). EYS mutations and implementation of minigene assay for variant classification in EYS-associated retinitis pigmentosa in northern Sweden. Scientific Reports, 11(1), Article ID 7696.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EYS mutations and implementation of minigene assay for variant classification in EYS-associated retinitis pigmentosa in northern Sweden
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2021 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 7696Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations. The ortholog of Drosophila eyes shut/spacemaker, EYS on chromosome 6q12 is a major genetic cause of recessive RP worldwide, with prevalence of 5 to 30%. In this study, by using targeted NGS, MLPA and Sanger sequencing we uncovered the EYS gene as one of the most common genetic cause of autosomal recessive RP in northern Sweden accounting for at least 16%. The most frequent pathogenic variant was c.8648_8655del that in some patients was identified in cis with c.1155T>A, indicating Finnish ancestry. We also showed that two novel EYS variants, c.2992_2992+6delinsTG and c.3877+1G>A caused exon skipping in human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293T and in retinal pigment epithelium cells, ARPE-19 demonstrating that in vitro minigene assay is a straightforward tool for the analysis of intronic variants. We conclude, that whenever it is possible, functional testing is of great value for classification of intronic EYS variants and the following molecular testing of family members, their genetic counselling, and inclusion of RP patients to future treatment studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2021
National Category
Medical Genetics Ophthalmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182475 (URN)10.1038/s41598-021-87224-9 (DOI)000639562100016 ()2-s2.0-85104048909 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-04-29 Created: 2021-04-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Jonsson, F., Westin, I. M., Österman, L., Sandgren, O., Burstedt, M., Holmberg, M. & Golovleva, I. (2018). ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 intronic variants c.4773+3A > G and c.5461-10T > C cause Stargardt disease due to defective splicing. Acta Ophthalmologica, 96(7), 737-743
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 intronic variants c.4773+3A > G and c.5461-10T > C cause Stargardt disease due to defective splicing
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2018 (English)In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 96, no 7, p. 737-743Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) represent a group of progressive conditions affecting the retina. There is a great genetic heterogeneity causing IRDs, and to date, more than 260 genes are associated with IRDs. Stargardt disease, type 1 (STGD1) or macular degeneration with flecks, STGD1 represents a disease with early onset, central visual impairment, frequent appearance of yellowish flecks and mutations in the ATP‐binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 (ABCA4) gene. A large number of intronic sequence variants in ABCA4 have been considered pathogenic although their functional effect was seldom demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to reveal how intronic variants present in patients with Stargardt from the same Swedish family affect splicing.

Methods

The splicing of the ABCA4 gene was studied in human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293T, and in human retinal pigment epithelium cells, ARPE‐19, using a minigene system containing variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461‐10T>C.

Results

We showed that both ABCA4 variants, c.4773+3A>G and c.5461‐10T>C, cause aberrant splicing of the ABCA4 minigene resulting in exon skipping. We also demonstrated that splicing of ABCA4 has different outcomes depending on transfected cell type.

Conclusion

Two intronic variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461‐10T>C, both predicted to affect splicing, are indeed disease‐causing mutations due to skipping of exons 33, 34, 39 and 40 of ABCA4 gene. The experimental proof that ABCA4 mutations in STGD patients affect protein function is crucial for their inclusion to future clinical trials; therefore, functional testing of all ABCA4 intronic variants associated with Stargardt disease by minigene technology is desirable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
ABCA4, intronic variants, mutation, splicing, Stargardt disease
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154068 (URN)10.1111/aos.13676 (DOI)000451035500011 ()29461686 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042190762 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Västerbotten County Council
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Rawcliffe, D. F. R., Österman, L., Nordin, A. & Holmberg, M. (2018). PTBP1 acts as a dominant repressor of the aberrant tissue-specific splicing of ISCU in hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine, 6(6), 887-897
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PTBP1 acts as a dominant repressor of the aberrant tissue-specific splicing of ISCU in hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis
2018 (English)In: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine, ISSN 2324-9269, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 887-897Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by an intron mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly (ISCU) gene. The mutation results in aberrant splicing, where part of the intron is retained in the final mRNA transcript, giving rise to a truncated nonfunctional ISCU protein. Using an ISCU mini-gene system, we have previously shown that PTBP1 can act as a repressor of the mis-splicing of ISCU, where overexpression of PTBP1 resulted in a decrease of the incorrect splicing. In this study, we wanted to, in more detail, analyze the role of PTBP1 in the regulation of endogenous ISCU mis-splicing.

Methods: Overexpression and knockdown of PTBP1 was performed in myoblasts from two HML patients and a healthy control. Quantification of ISCU mis-splicing was done by qRTPCR. Biotinylated ISCU RNA, representing wildtype and mutant intron sequence, was used in a pull-down assay with nuclear extracts from myoblasts. Levels of PTBP1 in human cell lines and mice tissues were analyzed by qRTPCR and western blot.

Results: PTBP1 overexpression in HML patient myoblasts resulted in a substantial decrease of ISCU mis-splicing while knockdown of PTBP1 resulted in a drastic increase. The effect could be observed in both patient and control myoblasts. We could also show that PTBP1 interacts with both the mutant and wild-type ISCU intron sequence, but with a higher affinity to the mutant sequence. Furthermore, low levels of PTBP1 among examined mouse tissues correlated with high levels of incorrect splicing of ISCU.

Conclusion: Our results show that PTBP1 acts as a dominant repressor of ISCU mis-splicing. We also show an inverse correlation between the levels of PTBP1 and ISCU mis-splicing, suggesting that the high level of mis-splicing in the skeletal muscle is primarily due to the low levels of PTBP1.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
alternative splicing, hereditary myopathy, ISCU, PTBP1
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-153102 (URN)10.1002/mgg3.413 (DOI)000454205500003 ()30209894 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053400372 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Rawcliffe, D. F. R., Österman, L., Lindsten, H. & Holmberg, M. (2016). The High Level of Aberrant Splicing of ISCU in Slow-Twitch Muscle May Involve the Splicing Factor SRSF3. PLOS ONE, 11(10), Article ID e0165453.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The High Level of Aberrant Splicing of ISCU in Slow-Twitch Muscle May Involve the Splicing Factor SRSF3
2016 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, article id e0165453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by an intronic one-base mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly (ISCU) gene, resulting in aberrant splicing. The incorrectly spliced transcripts contain a 100 or 86 bp intron sequence encoding a non-functional ISCU protein, which leads to defects in several Fe-S containing proteins in the respiratory chain and the TCA cycle. The symptoms in HML are restricted to skeletal muscle, and it has been proposed that this effect is due to higher levels of incorrectly spliced ISCU in skeletal muscle compared with other energy-demanding tissues. In this study, we confirm that skeletal muscle contains the highest levels of incorrect ISCU splice variants compared with heart, brain, liver and kidney using a transgenic mouse model expressing human HML mutated ISCU. We also show that incorrect splicing occurs to a significantly higher extent in the slow-twitch soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius and quadriceps. The splicing factor serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) was identified as a potential candidate for the slow fiber specific regulation of ISCU splicing since this factor was expressed at higher levels in the soleus compared to the gastrocnemius and quadriceps. We identified an interaction between SRSF3 and the ISCU transcript, and by overexpressing SRSF3 in human myoblasts we observed increased levels of incorrectly spliced ISCU, while knockdown of SRSF3 resulted in decreased levels. We therefore suggest that SRSF3 may participate in the regulation of the incorrect splicing of mutant ISCU and may, at least partially, explain the muscle-specific symptoms of HML.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public library science, 2016
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-129745 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0165453 (DOI)000389602800075 ()27783661 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84993965373 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A., Larsson, E. & Holmberg, M. (2012). The defective splicing caused by the ISCU intron mutation in patients with myopathy with lactic acidosis is repressed by PTBP1 but can be de-repressed by IGF2BP1. Human Mutation, 33(3), 467-470
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The defective splicing caused by the ISCU intron mutation in patients with myopathy with lactic acidosis is repressed by PTBP1 but can be de-repressed by IGF2BP1
2012 (English)In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 467-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is caused by an intron mutation in the iron-sulfur cluster assembly gene ISCU which leads to the activation of cryptic splice sites and the retention of part of intron 4. This incorrect splicing is more pronounced in muscle than in other tissues, resulting in a muscle-specific phenotype. In this study, we identified five nuclear factors that interact with the sequence harboring the mutation and analyzed their effect on the splicing of the ISCU gene. The identification revealed three splicing factors, SFRS14, RBM39 and PTBP1, and two additional RNA binding factors, matrin 3 (MATR3) and IGF2BP1. IGF2BP1 showed a preference for the mutant sequence, whereas the other factors showed similar affinity for both sequences. PTBP1 was found to repress the defective splicing of ISCU, resulting in a drastic loss of mutant transcripts. In contrast, IGF2BP1 and RBM39 shifted the splicing ratio toward the incorrect splice form.

Keywords
ISCU;hereditary myopathy;alternative splicing;PTBP1
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-50593 (URN)10.1002/humu.22002 (DOI)2-s2.0-84857045747 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-01-02 Created: 2011-12-14 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Norgren, N., Mattson, E., Forsgren, L. & Holmberg, M. (2011). A high-penetrance form of late-onset torsion dystonia maps to a novel locus (DYT21) on chromosome 2q14.3-q21.3. Neurogenetics, 12(2), 137-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A high-penetrance form of late-onset torsion dystonia maps to a novel locus (DYT21) on chromosome 2q14.3-q21.3
2011 (English)In: Neurogenetics, ISSN 1364-6745, E-ISSN 1364-6753, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The primary dystonias are a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that can be subdivided in pure dystonias, dystonia-plus syndromes, and paroxymal dystonia. Four pure autosomal dominant dystonia loci have been mapped to date, DYT1, 6, 7, and 13, with varying penetrance. We report the mapping of a novel locus for a late-onset form of pure torsion dystonia in a family from northern Sweden. The disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with a penetrance that may be as high as 90%. The torsion dystonia locus in this family was mapped to chromosome 2q14.3-q21.3 using an Illumina linkage panel. We also confirmed the linkage, using ten tightly linked microsatellite markers in the region, giving a maximum LOD score of 5.59 for marker D2S1260. The disease-critical region is 3.6-8.9 Mb depending on the disease status of one individual carrying a centromeric recombination. Mutational analysis was performed on 22 genes in the disease-critical region, including all known and hypothetical genes in the smaller, 3.6-Mb region, but no disease-specific mutations were identified. Copy number variation analysis of the region did not reveal any deletions or duplications. In order to increase the chances of finding the disease gene, fine-mapping may be necessary to decrease the region of interest. This report will hopefully result in the identification of additional dystonia families with linkage to the same locus, and thereby, refinement of the disease critical region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
Keywords
Dystonia, Late-onset, Autosomal dominant, Mapping
National Category
Medical Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-57021 (URN)10.1007/s10048-011-0274-9 (DOI)21301909 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79959935048 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-07-02 Created: 2012-07-02 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A., Larsson, E., Thornell, L.-E. & Holmberg, M. (2011). Tissue-specific splicing of ISCU results in a skeletal muscle phenotype in myopathy with lactic acidosis, while complete loss of ISCU results in early embryonic death in mice. Human Genetics, 129(4), 371-378
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue-specific splicing of ISCU results in a skeletal muscle phenotype in myopathy with lactic acidosis, while complete loss of ISCU results in early embryonic death in mice
2011 (English)In: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 129, no 4, p. 371-378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is caused by an intron mutation in the iron-sulphur cluster assembly gene (ISCU) leading to incorporation of intron sequence into the mRNA. This results in a deficiency of Fe-S cluster proteins, affecting the TCA cycle and the respiratory chain. The proteins involved in the Fe-S machinery are evolutionary conserved and shown to be fundamental in all organisms examined. ISCU is expressed at high levels in numerous tissues in mammals, including high metabolic tissues like the heart, suggesting that a drastic mutation in the ISCU gene would be damaging to all energy-demanding organs. In spite of this, the symptoms in patients with HML are restricted to skeletal muscle, and it has been proposed that splicing events may contribute to the muscle specificity. In this study we confirm that a striking difference in the splicing pattern of mutant ISCU exists between different tissues. The highest level of incorrectly spliced ISCU mRNA was found in skeletal muscle, while the normal splice form predominated in patient heart. The splicing differences were also reflected at a functional level, where loss of Fe-S cluster carrying enzymes and accumulation of iron were present in muscle, but absent in other tissues. We also show that complete loss of ISCU in mice results in early embryonic death. The mice data confirm a fundamental role for ISCU in mammals and further support tissue-specific splicing as the major mechanism limiting the phenotype to skeletal muscle in HML.

Keywords
iron-sulfur proteins; succinate-dehydrogenase; paroxysmal myoglobinuria; deficiency; exercise; clusters; mutation; mitochondria; metabolism; maturation
National Category
Medical Genetics
Research subject
Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40798 (URN)10.1007/s00439-010-0931-3 (DOI)000289275200002 ()21165651 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79953832566 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-03-09 Created: 2011-03-09 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Blomstedt, P., Hariz, M. I., Tisch, S., Holmberg, M., Bergenheim, T. A. & Forsgren, L. (2009). A family with a hereditary form of torsion dystonia from northern Sweden treated with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation. Movement Disorders, 24(16), 2415-2419
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A family with a hereditary form of torsion dystonia from northern Sweden treated with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation
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2009 (English)In: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 2415-2419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate pallidal DBS in a non-DYT1 form of hereditary dystonia. We present the results of pallidal DBS in a family with non-DYT1 dystonia where DYT5 to 17 was excluded. The dystonia is following an autosomal dominant pattern. Ten members had definite dystonia and five had dystonia with minor symptoms. Four patients received bilateral pallidal DBS. Mean age was 47 years. The patients were evaluated before surgery, and "on" stimulation after a mean of 2.5 years (range 1-3) using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden scale (BFM). Mean BFM score decreased by 79 % on stimulation, from 42.5 +/- 24 to 9 +/- 6.5 at the last evaluation. Cervical involvement improved by 89%. The 2 patients with oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm demonstrated a reduction of 95% regarding these symptoms. The present study confirms the effectiveness of pallidal DBS in a new family with hereditary primary segmental and generalized dystonia.

National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-34696 (URN)10.1002/mds.22842 (DOI)000273440200017 ()19890997 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-73949157449 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-06-12 Created: 2010-06-12 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Minde, J., Andersson, T., Fulford, M., Aguirre, M., Nennesmo, I., Remahl, I. N., . . . Solders, G. (2009). A novel NGFB point mutation: a phenotype study of heterozygous patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 80(2), 188-195
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel NGFB point mutation: a phenotype study of heterozygous patients
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, ISSN 0022-3050, E-ISSN 1468-330X, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 188-195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: A family with neurological findings similar to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V having a point mutation in the nerve growth factor beta (NGFB) gene was recently described. The homozygous genotype gives disabling symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the symptoms in heterozygous patients. METHODS: 26 patients heterozygous for the NGFB mutation (12 men, mean age 50 (13-90) years) were examined clinically and answered a health status questionnaire, including the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). 28 relatives (15 men, mean age 44 (15-86) years) without the mutation served as controls in the clinical examination part. 23 of the heterozygotes were examined neurophysiologically and six heterozygous patients underwent a sural nerve biopsy. RESULTS: The heterozygous phenotype ranged from eight patients with Charcot arthropathy starting in adult age and associated with variable symptoms of neuropathy but without complete insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis or mental retardation, to 10 symptom free patients. There was no difference in MNSI between the young heterozygous cases (<55 years old) and the controls. Six of 23 heterozygous patients had impaired cutaneous thermal perception and 11 of 23 had signs of carpal tunnel syndrome. Sural nerve biopsies showed a moderate reduction of both small myelinated (Adelta) and unmyelinated (C) fibres. No apparent correlation of small fibre reduction to symptoms was found. CONCLUSIONS: The NGFB mutation in its heterozygous form results in a milder disease than in homozygotes, with a variable clinical picture, ranging from asymptomatic cases to those with Charcot arthropathy appearing in adult age. Particularly age, but perhaps lifestyle factors also, may influence the development of clinical polyneuropathy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2009
National Category
Orthopaedics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26377 (URN)10.1136/jnnp.2007.136051 (DOI)18420729 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-60249097681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E., Kuma, R., Norberg, A., Minde, J. & Holmberg, M. (2009). Nerve growth factor R221W responsible for insensitivity to pain is defectively processed and accumulates as proNGF. Neurobiology of Disease, 33(2), 221-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nerve growth factor R221W responsible for insensitivity to pain is defectively processed and accumulates as proNGF
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2009 (English)In: Neurobiology of Disease, ISSN 0969-9961, E-ISSN 1095-953X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have previously identified a homozygous missense (R221W) mutation in the NGFB gene in patients with loss of deep pain perception. NGF is important not only for the survival of sensory neurons but also for the sympathetic neurons and cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain; however, it is the sensory neurons that are mainly affected in patients with mutant NGFB. In this report, we describe the effects of the mutation on the function of NGF protein and the molecular mechanisms that may underlie the pain insensitivity phenotype in these patients. We show that the mutant NGF has lost its ability to mediate differentiation of PC12 cells into a neuron-like phenotype. We also show that the inability of PC12 cells to differentiate is due to a markedly reduced secretion of mature R221W NGF. The R221W NGF is found mainly as proNGF, in contrast to wild-type NGF which is predominantly in the mature form in both undifferentiated and differentiated PC12 cells. The reduction in numbers of sensory fibers observed in the patients is therefore probably due to loss of trophic support as a result of drastically reduced secretion of NGF from the target organs. Taken together, these data show a clear decrease in the availability of mutant mature NGF and also an accumulation of proNGF in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The differential loss of NGF-dependent neurons in these patients, mainly affecting sensory neurons, may depend on differences in the roles of mature NGF and proNGF in different cells and tissues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Diego: Academic P., 2009
Keywords
pain insensitivity, secretion, processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-36994 (URN)10.1016/j.nbd.2008.10.012 (DOI)19038341 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-58149492541 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-10-14 Created: 2010-10-14 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Projects
Molecular dissection of neurogenetic disorders: identification and functional characterization of genetic factors important for basic and disease associated mechanisms [2008-03597_VR]; Umeå UniversityRegulation of defective and tissue specific splicing in hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis [2011-04350_VR]; Umeå University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4146-7531

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