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Herdenberg, C. & Hedman, H. (2023). Hypothesis: Do LRIG proteins regulate stem cell quiescence by promoting BMP signaling?. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, 19(1), 59-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hypothesis: Do LRIG proteins regulate stem cell quiescence by promoting BMP signaling?
2023 (English)In: Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, ISSN 2629-3269, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 59-66Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved integral membrane proteins. Mammalian LRIG1 regulates stem cell quiescence in various tissue compartments, including compartments in the epidermis, oral mucosa, intestines, neural system, and incisors. The planarian LRIG1 homolog regulates the quiescence of multipotent neoblasts. The mechanism through which LRIG proteins regulate stem cell quiescence has not been well documented, although it is generally assumed that LRIG1 regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or other receptor tyrosine kinases. However, Lrig-null (Lrig1-/-;Lrig2-/-; and Lrig3-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) have been recently found to exhibit apparently normal receptor tyrosine kinase functions. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has been shown to depend on LRIG1 and LRIG3 expression. BMPs are well-known regulators of stem cell quiescence. Here, we hypothesize that LRIG1 might regulate stem cell quiescence by promoting BMP signaling.

HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings, it is hypothesized that LRIG1 regulates stem cell quiescence in mammalian tissues as well as in planarian neoblasts by promoting BMP signaling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
BMP, EGF, LRIG1, Quiescence, Stem cell
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-198922 (URN)10.1007/s12015-022-10442-9 (DOI)000840596100002 ()35969315 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85135895107 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-09 Created: 2022-09-09 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Abdullah Nasir, A., Herdenberg, C. & Hedman, H. (2023). Ligand-specific regulation of transforming growth factor beta superfamily factors by leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains proteins. PLOS ONE, 18(8), Article ID e0289726.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ligand-specific regulation of transforming growth factor beta superfamily factors by leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains proteins
2023 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 8, article id e0289726Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) are transmembrane proteins shown to promote bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals. BMPs comprise a subfamily of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily, or TGFβ family, of ligands. In mammals, LRIG1 and LRIG3 promote BMP4 signaling. BMP6 signaling, but not BMP9 signaling, is also regulated by LRIG proteins, although the specific contributions of LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3 have not been investigated, nor is it known whether other mammalian TGFβ family members are regulated by LRIG proteins. To address these questions, we took advantage of Lrig-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with doxycycline-inducible LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3 alleles, which were stimulated with ligands representing all the major TGFβ family subgroups. By analyzing the signal mediators pSmad1/5 and pSmad3, as well as the induction of Id1 expression, we showed that LRIG1 promoted BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6 signaling and suppressed GDF7 signaling; LRIG2 promoted BMP2 and BMP4 signaling; and LRIG3 promoted BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, and GDF7 signaling. BMP9 and BMP10 signaling was not regulated by individual LRIG proteins, however, it was enhanced in Lrig-null cells. LRIG proteins did not regulate TGFβ1-induced pSmad1/5 signaling, or GDF11- or TGFβ1-induced pSmad3 signaling. Taken together, our results show that some, but not all, TGFβ family ligands are regulated by LRIG proteins and that the three LRIG proteins display differential regulatory effects. LRIG proteins thereby provide regulatory means for the cell to further diversify the signaling outcomes generated by a limited number of TGFβ family ligands and receptors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2023
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214058 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0289726 (DOI)001055176800011 ()37603563 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85168488332 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, 21 1583 PjThe Kempe Foundations, JCK-1829Umeå University, RV-967035Region Västerbotten, RV-967035
Available from: 2023-09-06 Created: 2023-09-06 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Herdenberg, C., Mutie, P., Billing, O., Abdullah, A., Strawbridge, R. J., Dahlman, I., . . . Hedman, H. (2021). LRIG proteins regulate lipid metabolism via BMP signaling and affect the risk of type 2 diabetes. Communications Biology, 4(1), Article ID 90.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LRIG proteins regulate lipid metabolism via BMP signaling and affect the risk of type 2 diabetes
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2021 (English)In: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins have been implicated as regulators of growth factor signaling; however, the possible redundancy among mammalian LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3 has hindered detailed elucidation of their physiological functions. Here, we show that Lrig-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are deficient in adipogenesis and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. In contrast, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling appeared unaltered in Lrig-null cells. The BMP signaling defect was rescued by ectopic expression of LRIG1 or LRIG3 but not by expression of LRIG2. Caenorhabditis elegans with mutant LRIG/sma-10 variants also exhibited a lipid storage defect. Human LRIG1 variants were strongly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) yet protected against type 2 diabetes; these effects were likely mediated by altered adipocyte morphology. These results demonstrate that LRIG proteins function as evolutionarily conserved regulators of lipid metabolism and BMP signaling and have implications for human disease. Herdenberg et al. show that adipogenesis and BMP signaling are altered in mouse cells deficient in LRIG (Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains) proteins. They find that mutant LRIG/sma-10 variant worms exhibit lipid storage defects and that human LRIG1 variants are associated with higher body mass index, yet protect against type 2 diabetes. This study suggests an evolutionarily conserved role of LRIG proteins for lipid metabolism and BMP signaling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-180823 (URN)10.1038/s42003-020-01613-w (DOI)000613509200014 ()33469151 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85099541477 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-02-26 Created: 2021-02-26 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Herdenberg, C. (2021). Molecular and physiological functions of LRIG proteins and netrin-1 in health and disease. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular and physiological functions of LRIG proteins and netrin-1 in health and disease
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) gene family has three members, LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3, that encode three structurally similar transmembrane proteins. LRIG1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase regulator, tumor suppressor, and stem cell marker in the skin, intestine, and brain. LRIG2 and LRIG3 have been less studied but shown to interact with LRIG1. The different roles and mechanisms of action of LRIG proteins have not yet been fully elucidated. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), the LRIG homolog SMA-10 regulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling; however, this function has not been demonstrated for mammalian LRIG proteins. In mice, the gene encoding the neurodevelopmental guidance cue netrin-1, Ntn1, interacts with Lrig3 in inner ear development. The physical interactions between LRIG proteins and other proteins are mostly unknown. 

Here, we describe an LRIG1-centered protein interaction network that regulates growth factor receptor levels. The LRIG1 interactome comprised LRIG2 and LRIG3 as well as many unanticipated proteins. 

An unbiased pathological examination of female mice with different Lrig3 genotypes (homozygous, heterozygous, or knockout) revealed a reduced incidence of spontaneous fatty liver and lymphocytic hyperplasia of the spleen in Lrig3-null mice. Female Lrig3-null mice also had a lower incidence of microvesicular cytoplasm in the liver after eight weeks on a high-fat diet. 

To further explore the molecular and physiological functions of LRIG proteins, we generated Lrig-null (Lrig1-/-;Lrig2-/-;Lrig3-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which displayed a deficiency in adipogenesis caused by impaired BMP signaling. LRIG1 and LRIG3, but not LRIG2, sensitized cells to BMP and rescued the adipogenesis deficiency in Lrig-null MEFs. In C. elegans, the LRIG homolog sma-10 was needed for proper lipid accumulation. By analyzing data from the UK Biobank and GENiAL cohort, we found that certain LRIG1 gene variants were associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) yet protected against type 2 diabetes. This effect was probably mediated by altered adipocyte morphology. 

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation of Ntn1 revealed that the BMP-promoting function of LRIG1 and LRIG3 was opposed by netrin-1, which functioned as an inhibitor of BMP signaling via its receptor neogenin.

In summary, the present thesis describes a novel LRIG protein interaction network, the regulation of BMP signaling by LRIG proteins and netrin-1, and an important function of LRIG proteins in regulating fat metabolism with implications for human metabolic health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2021. p. 68
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2150
Keywords
LRIG, Netrin-1, LRIG1, LRIG2, LRIG3, Type 2 diabetes
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Endocrinology and Diabetes Cell Biology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186845 (URN)978-91-7855-621-2 (ISBN)978-91-7855-622-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-09-17, Bergasalen, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The thesis will be defended via zoom link: https://umu.zoom.us/j/68144103623

Available from: 2021-08-27 Created: 2021-08-24 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Abdullah Nasir, A., Herdenberg, C. & Hedman, H. (2021). Netrin-1 functions as a suppressor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Scientific Reports, 11(1), Article ID 8585.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Netrin-1 functions as a suppressor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling
2021 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 8585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Netrin-1 is a secreted protein that is well known for its involvement in axonal guidance during embryonic development and as an enhancer of cancer cell metastasis. Despite extensive efforts, the molecular mechanisms behind many of the physiological functions of netrin-1 have remained elusive. Here, we show that netrin-1 functions as a suppressor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in various cellular systems, including a mutually inhibitory interaction with the BMP-promoting function of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins. The BMP inhibitory function of netrin-1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts was dependent on the netrin receptor neogenin, with the expression level regulated by both netrin-1 and LRIG proteins. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized function of netrin-1 that may help to explain several of the developmental, physiological, and cancer-promoting functions of netrins at the signal transduction level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2021
National Category
Cancer and Oncology Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182911 (URN)10.1038/s41598-021-87949-7 (DOI)000644194200021 ()33883596 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85104705931 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-28 Created: 2021-05-28 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Jansson, M., Billing, O., Herdenberg, C., Lundin, C., Tolockiene, E., Nazemroaya, A. & Sund, M. (2020). Expression and Circulating Levels of Perlecan in Breast Cancer: Implications for Oestrogen Dependent Stromal Remodeling. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia, 25, 69-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression and Circulating Levels of Perlecan in Breast Cancer: Implications for Oestrogen Dependent Stromal Remodeling
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2020 (English)In: Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia, ISSN 1083-3021, E-ISSN 1573-7039, Vol. 25, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Localised breast cancer can be cured by surgery and adjuvant treatments, but mortality remains high as some tumours metastasize early. Perlecan is a basement membrane (BM) protein involved in tumour development and progression. Here, mRNA and protein expression of perlecan, and mRNA expression of matrix degrading enzymes were studied in normal breast and invasive breast cancer, and correlated to prognostic risk factors, in particular oestrogen status. Moreover, plasma levels of perlecan were measured in patients with breast cancer and compared with controls. mRNA data was extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Perlecan protein expression was visualized using immunofluorescence and plasma levels measured by ELISA assay. Perlecan mRNA levels were twice as high in normal breast compared with breast cancer tissue. A strong correlation was found between mRNA expression of perlecan and several matrix-degrading enzymes in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumours. Perlecan protein was localized to both epithelial and vascular BMs, but absent in the stroma in normal breast. In breast cancer, the expression of perlecan in epithelial BM was fragmented or completely lost, with a marked upregulation of perlecan expression in the stroma. Significantly higher levels of perlecan were found in plasma of ER+ patients when compared with ER- patients. This study shows that perlecan expression and degradation in breast cancer may be linked to the ER status of the tumour.

Keywords
Perlecan, HSPG2, Breast cancer, Oestrogen receptor, extracellular matrix, Matrix metalloproteinases
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-169048 (URN)10.1007/s10911-020-09447-2 (DOI)000517718100001 ()32124140 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081637971 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-19 Created: 2020-03-19 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Franklin, O., Billing, O., Öhlund, D., Berglund, A., Herdenberg, C., Wang, W., . . . Sund, M. (2019). Novel prognostic markers within the CD44-stromal ligand network in pancreatic cancer. Journal of Pathology, 5(2), 130-141
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel prognostic markers within the CD44-stromal ligand network in pancreatic cancer
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 130-141Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dense stroma in pancreatic cancer tumours is rich in secreted extracellular matrix proteins and proteoglycans. Secreted hyaluronan, osteopontin and type IV collagen sustain oncogenic signalling by interactions with CD44s and its variant isoform CD44v6 on cancer cell membranes. Although well established in animal and in vitro models, this oncogenic CD44-stromal ligand network is less explored in human cancer. Here, we use a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray from 69 primary tumours and 37 metastatic lymph nodes and demonstrate that high tumour cell expression of CD44s and, surprisingly, low stromal deposition of osteopontin correlate with poor survival independent of established prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer. High stromal expression of hyaluronan was a universal trait of both primary tumours and metastatic lymph nodes. However, hyaluronan species of different molecular mass are known to function differently in pancreatic cancer biology and immunohistochemistry cannot distinguish between them. Using gas-phase electrophoretic molecular mobility analysis, we uncover a shift towards high molecular mass hyaluronan in pancreatic cancer tissue compared to normal pancreas and at a transcriptional level, we find that hyaluronan synthesising HAS2 correlates positively with CD44. The resulting prediction that high molecular mass hyaluronan would then correlate with poor survival in pancreatic cancer was confirmed in serum samples, where we demonstrate that hyaluronan >27 kDa measured before surgery is an independent predictor of postoperative survival. Our findings confirm the prognostic value of CD44 tissue expression and highlight osteopontin tissue expression and serum high molecular mass hyaluronan as novel prognostic markers in pancreatic cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
CD44, biomarkers, hyaluronan, osteopontin, pancreatic cancer, type IV collagen
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154564 (URN)10.1002/cjp2.122 (DOI)000465218700006 ()30456933 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064472279 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Faraz, M., Herdenberg, C., Holmlund, C., Henriksson, R. & Hedman, H. (2018). A protein interaction network centered on leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) regulates growth factor receptors. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 293(9), 3421-3435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A protein interaction network centered on leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) regulates growth factor receptors
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 293, no 9, p. 3421-3435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of several receptor tyrosine kinases. The molecular mechanisms by which LRIG1 mediates its tumor suppressor effects and regulates receptor tyrosine kinases remain incompletely understood. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify novel LRIG1-interacting proteins and mined data from the BioPlex (biophysical interactions of ORFeome-based complexes) protein interaction data repository. The putative LRIG1 interactors identified in the screen were functionally evaluated using a triple co-transfection system in which HEK293 cells were co-transfected with platelet-derived growth factor receptor α, LRIG1, and shRNAs against the identified LRIG1 interactors. The effects of the shRNAs on the ability of LRIG1 to down-regulate platelet-derived growth factor receptor α expression were evaluated. On the basis of these results, we present an LRIG1 protein interaction network with many newly identified components. The network contains the apparently functionally important LRIG1-interacting proteins RAB4A, PON2, GAL3ST1, ZBTB16, LRIG2, CNPY3, HLA-DRA, GML, CNPY4, LRRC40, and LRIG3, together with GLRX3, PTPRK, and other proteins. In silico analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets revealed consistent correlations between the expression of the transcripts encoding LRIG1 and its interactors ZBTB16 and PTPRK and inverse correlations between the transcripts encoding LRIG1 and GLRX3. We further studied the LRIG1 function–promoting paraoxonase PON2 and found that it co-localized with LRIG1 in LRIG1-transfected cells. The proposed LRIG1 protein interaction network will provide leads for future studies aiming to understand the molecular functions of LRIG1 and the regulation of growth factor signaling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018
Keywords
LRIG1, PDGFRA, PON2, PTPRK, ZBTB16, platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C), protein expression, protein-protein interaction, receptor tyrosine kinase, yeast two-hybrid
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-147386 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M117.807487 (DOI)000426562800032 ()29317492 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042930541 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-02 Created: 2018-05-02 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Lindquist, D., Alsina, F. C., Herdenberg, C., Larsson, C., Höppener, J., Wang, N., . . . Hedman, H. (2018). LRIG1 negatively regulates RET mutants and is downregulated in thyroid cancer. International journal of oncology, 52(4), 1189-1197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>LRIG1 negatively regulates RET mutants and is downregulated in thyroid cancer
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2018 (English)In: International journal of oncology, ISSN 1791-2423, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1189-1197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are characterized by genomic rearrangements and point mutations in the proto-oncogene RET. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a suppressor of various receptor tyrosine kinases, including RET. LRIG1 expression levels are associated with patient survival in many cancer types. In the present study, we investigated whether the oncogenic RET mutants RET2A (C634R) and RET2B (M918T) were regulated by LRIG1, and the possible effects of LRIG1 expression in thyroid cancer were investigated in three different clinical cohorts and in a RET2B-driven mouse model of MTC. LRIG1 was shown to physically interact with both RET2A and RET2B and to restrict their ligand-independent activation. LRIG1 mRNA levels were downregulated in PTC and MTC compared to normal thyroid gland tissue. There was no apparent association between LRIG1 RNA or protein expression levels and patient survival in the studied cohorts. The transgenic RET2B mice developed pre-cancerous medullary thyroid lesions at a high frequency (36%); however, no overt cancers were observed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-cancerous lesions between Lrig1 wild-type and Lrig1-deficient RET2B mice. In conclusion, the findings that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of RET2A and RET2B and is also downregulated in PTC and MTC may suggest that LRIG1 functions as a thyroid tumor suppressor.

Keywords
thyroid cancer, LRIG1, RET, C634R, M918T, MEN2A, MEN2B
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Research subject
Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145641 (URN)10.3892/ijo.2018.4273 (DOI)000427164400013 ()29436694 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85042748666 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF)
Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-12 Last updated: 2024-07-02Bibliographically approved
Herdenberg, C., Hedman, H., Henriksson, R. & Rondahl, V.Lrig3 affects liver fat accumulation in female mice.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lrig3 affects liver fat accumulation in female mice
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186829 (URN)
Available from: 2021-08-24 Created: 2021-08-24 Last updated: 2024-07-02
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8849-6810

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