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Burén, J., Ericsson, M., Damasceno, N. R. & Sjödin, A. (2021). A ketogenic low‐carbohydrate high‐fat diet increases ldl cholesterol in healthy, young, normal‐weight women: A randomized controlled feeding trial. Nutrients, 13(3), 1-12, Article ID 814.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A ketogenic low‐carbohydrate high‐fat diet increases ldl cholesterol in healthy, young, normal‐weight women: A randomized controlled feeding trial
2021 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1-12, article id 814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ketogenic low‐carbohydrate high‐fat (LCHF) diets are popular among young, healthy, normal‐weight individuals for various reasons. We aimed to investigate the effect of a ketogenic LCHF diet on low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (primary outcome), LDL cholesterol sub-fractions and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in the blood of healthy, young, and nor-mal‐weight women. The study was a randomized, controlled, feeding trial with crossover design. Twenty‐four women were assigned to a 4 week ketogenic LCHF diet (4% carbohydrates; 77% fat; 19% protein) followed by a 4 week National Food Agency recommended control diet (44% carbo-hydrates; 33% fat; 19% protein), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The LCHF diet increased LDL cholesterol in every woman with a treatment effect of 1.82 mM (p < 0.001). In addition, Apolipoprotein B‐100 (ApoB), small, dense LDL cholesterol as well as large, buoyant LDL cholesterol increased (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). The data suggest that feeding healthy, young, normal‐weight women a ketogenic LCHF diet induces a deleterious blood lipid profile. The elevated LDL cholesterol should be a cause for concern in young, healthy, normal‐weight women following this kind of LCHF diet.

Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, Diet intervention, Dietary fat, Female, Lipoproteins, Saturated fatty acids
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-181584 (URN)10.3390/nu13030814 (DOI)000633938600001 ()2-s2.0-85101664551 (Scopus ID)
Note

Reply: Burén, J.; Ericsson, M.; Damasceno, N.R.T.; Sjödin, A. Reply to Ravnskov, U. Is High Cholesterol Deleterious? An Alternative Point of View. Comment on “Burén et al. A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 814”. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2127. DOI: 10.3390/nu13072127

Available from: 2021-03-19 Created: 2021-03-19 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Burén, J., Ericsson, M., Damasceno, N. R. & Sjödin, A. (2021). Reply to Ravnskov, U. Is High Cholesterol Deleterious? An Alternative Point of View. Comment on “Burén et al. A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 814”. Nutrients, 13(7), Article ID 2127.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reply to Ravnskov, U. Is High Cholesterol Deleterious? An Alternative Point of View. Comment on “Burén et al. A Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Increases LDL Cholesterol in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 814”
2021 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 2127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2021
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186366 (URN)10.3390/nu13072127 (DOI)2-s2.0-85108299607 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Magnus Bergvall Foundation
Available from: 2021-07-23 Created: 2021-07-23 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Sjödin, A., Hellström, F., Sehlstedt, E., Svensson, M. B. & Burén, J. (2020). Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Muscle Fatigue in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial. Nutrients, 12(4), Article ID 955.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Muscle Fatigue in Healthy, Young, Normal-Weight Women: A Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial
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2020 (English)In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 955Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular in broad sections of the population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a non-energy-restricted ketogenic LCHF diet on muscle fatigue in healthy, young, and normal-weight women. Twenty-four women were randomly allocated to a 4-week ketogenic LCHF diet followed by a 4-week control diet (a National Food Agency recommended diet), or the reverse sequence due to the crossover design. Treatment periods were separated by a 15 week washout period. Seventeen women completed the study and were included in the analyses. Treatment effects were evaluated using mixed models. The ketogenic LCHF diet had no effect on grip strength or time to fatigue, measured with handgrip test (day 24–26). However, cycling time to fatigue decreased with almost two minutes (−1.85 min 95% CI:[−2.30;−1.40]; p < 0.001) during incremental cycling (day 25–27), accommodated with higher ratings of perceived exertion using the Borg scale (p < 0.01). Participants’ own diary notes revealed experiences of muscle fatigue during daily life activities, as well as during exercise. We conclude that in young and healthy women, a ketogenic LCHF diet has an unfavorable effect on muscle fatigue and might affect perceived exertion during daily life activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
sports nutrition, fat adaptation, saturated fat, diet intervention, female, food, nutrition, low carbohydrate diet (LCD)
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-171061 (URN)10.3390/nu12040955 (DOI)000531831300075 ()32235518 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85082733010 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-25 Created: 2020-05-25 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Blomquist, C., Alvehus, M., Burén, J., Ryberg, M., Larsson, C., Lindahl, B., . . . Olsson, T. (2017). Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity. Obesity, 25(5), 892-900
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity
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2017 (English)In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 892-900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed.

METHODS: Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters.

RESULTS: Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P < 0.001) on adipose gene expression were found for toll-like receptor 4 (decreased at 24 months) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (increased at 24 months) in both groups. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α levels were decreased at 24 months in both groups (P < 0.001) with a significant diet-by-time interaction for serum IL-6 (P = 0.022). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was decreased in the PD group at 24 months (P = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression.

National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134986 (URN)10.1002/oby.21815 (DOI)000400045000013 ()28440046 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85018850409 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2011-12237-15-6
Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Ericsson, M., Sjödin, A. & Burén, J. (2017). Försämrad hjärtfunktion efter fyra veckors intag av lågkolhydrat/högfettkost hos möss: Kan vi lära av translationell forskning?. Svensk kardiologi (1), 33-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Försämrad hjärtfunktion efter fyra veckors intag av lågkolhydrat/högfettkost hos möss: Kan vi lära av translationell forskning?
2017 (Swedish)In: Svensk kardiologi, ISSN 1400-5816, no 1, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Cardiology; Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135644 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-01 Created: 2017-06-01 Last updated: 2021-09-17Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J., Ericsson, M., Joibari, M. M., Anderson, F., Carlsson, L., Nilsson, S. K., . . . Burén, J. (2016). A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice. Nutrition & Metabolism, 13, Article ID 79.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice
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2016 (English)In: Nutrition & Metabolism, E-ISSN 1743-7075, Vol. 13, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids. Here we investigated the metabolic and physiological consequences of a diet with a macronutrient composition similar to the Scandinavian LCHF diet and its effects on the organs, tissues, and metabolism of weight stable mice.

METHODS: Female C57BL/6J mice were iso-energetically pair-fed for 4 weeks with standard chow or a LCHF diet. We measured body composition using echo MRI and the aerobic capacity before and after 2 and 4 weeks on diet. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography before and after 4 weeks on diet. The metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry the fourth week of the diet. Mice were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the organ weight, triglyceride levels, and blood chemistry were analyzed, and the expression of key ketogenic, metabolic, hormonal, and inflammation genes were measured in the heart, liver, and adipose tissue depots of the mice using real-time PCR.

RESULTS: The increase in body weight of mice fed a LCHF diet was similar to that in controls. However, while control mice maintained their body composition throughout the study, LCHF mice gained fat mass at the expense of lean mass after 2 weeks. The LCHF diet increased cardiac triglyceride content, impaired cardiac function, and reduced aerobic capacity. It also induced pronounced alterations in gene expression and substrate metabolism, indicating a unique metabolic state.

CONCLUSIONS: Pair-fed mice eating LCHF increased their percentage of body fat at the expense of lean mass already after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks the function of the heart deteriorated. These findings highlight the urgent need to investigate the effects of a LCHF diet on health parameters in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2016
Keywords
Low-carbohydrate diet, Heart, Mouse
National Category
Clinical Medicine Physiology Nutrition and Dietetics Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-128938 (URN)10.1186/s12986-016-0132-8 (DOI)000388140200001 ()27891164 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84995511496 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2024-03-06Bibliographically approved
Boman, N., Burén, J., Antti, H. & Svensson, M. B. (2015). Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies. Muscle and Nerve, 52(2), 812-817
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies
2015 (English)In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 812-817Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Muscle sample collection can introduce variation in any measured variable due to inter- and intramuscle variation. We investigated the variation in gene expression and fiber type composition after repeated biopsy sampling from the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Six subjects donated 3 tissue samples each. One hour after baseline sampling from 1 vastus lateralis muscle, samples from both vastus lateralis muscles were obtained. Results: The fiber type composition differed between biopsies taken from the same leg. There were no within-subject differences in gene expression between the 3 biopsies. Multivariate analysis supports a model in which gene expression differs significantly between individuals but is not affected by repeated muscle biopsy sampling from the same subject. Conclusion: One vastus lateralis muscle sample per subject is sufficient to establish a reliable baseline for comparing gene expression representing selected pathways over time within the same individual.

Keywords
fiber type, gene expression, human, muscle, repeated sampling
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103248 (URN)10.1002/mus.24616 (DOI)000362549500017 ()25703336 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84943199666 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Alvehus, M., Boman, N., Söderlund, K., Svensson, M. B. & Buren, J. (2014). Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(7), 1463-1471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and whole-body oxidative capacity in response to resistance training
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 7, p. 1463-1471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of resistance training on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle are not fully characterized, and even less is known about alterations in adipose tissue. We aimed to investigate adaptations in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after 8 weeks of heavy resistance training in apparently healthy young men. Expression of genes linked to oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was assessed before and after the training program. Body composition, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), fat oxidation, activity of mitochondrial enzyme in muscle, and serum adiponectin levels were also determined before and after resistance training. In muscle, the expression of the genes AdipoR1 and COX4 increased after resistance training (9 and 13 %, respectively), whereas the expression levels of the genes PGC-1 alpha, SIRT1, TFAM, CPT1b, and FNDC5 did not change. In adipose tissue, the expression of the genes SIRT1 and CPT1b decreased after training (20 and 23 %, respectively). There was an increase in lean mass (from 59.7 +/- A 6.1 to 61.9 +/- A 6.2 kg), VO2 peak (from 49.7 +/- A 5.5 to 56.3 +/- A 5.0 ml/kg/min), and fat oxidation (from 6.8 +/- A 2.1 to 9.1 +/- A 2.7 mg/kg fat-free mass/min) after training, whereas serum adiponectin levels decreased significantly and enzyme activity of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase did not change. Despite significant increases in VO2 peak, fat oxidation, and lean mass following resistance training, the total effect on gene expression and enzyme activity linked to oxidative metabolism was moderate.

Keywords
Resistance training, Oxidative capacity, Skeletal muscle, Adipose tissue, Gene expression, Enzyme activity
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91051 (URN)10.1007/s00421-014-2879-9 (DOI)000337052300013 ()2-s2.0-84902539137 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-07-11 Created: 2014-07-10 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Ji, C., Dai, Y., Jiang, W., Liu, J., Hou, M., Wang, J., . . . Li, X. (2014). Postnatal overfeeding promotes early onset and exaggeration of high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through disordered hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 25(11), 1108-1116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postnatal overfeeding promotes early onset and exaggeration of high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through disordered hepatic lipid metabolism in rats
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, ISSN 0955-2863, E-ISSN 1873-4847, Vol. 25, no 11, p. 1108-1116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to overnutrition in critical or sensitive developmental periods may increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome in adults. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, but the relationship among postnatal nutrition, lipid metabolism, and NAFLD progression during development remains poorly understood. Here we investigated in a rat model whether postnatal overfeeding increases susceptibility to NAFLD in response to a high-fat diet. Litters from Sprague-Dawley dams were culled to three (small litters) or ten (normal litters) pups and then weaned onto a standard or high-fat diet at postnatal day 21 to generate normal-litter, small-litter, normal-litter/high-fat, and small-litter/high-fat groups. At age 16 weeks, the small-litter and both high-fat groups showed obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Hepatic disorders appeared earlier in the small-litter/high-fat rats with greater liver mass gain and higher hepatic triglycerides and steatosis score versus normal-litter/high-fat rats. Hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and mRNA expression were increased in small-litter rats and aggravated in small-litter/high-fat rats but not in normal-litter/high-fat rats. The high expression in small-litter/high-fat rats coincided with high sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA and protein expression. However, mRNA expression of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) and output (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) was decreased under a high-fat diet regardless of litter size. In conclusion, overfeeding related to small-litter rearing during lactation contributes to the NAFLD phenotype when combined with a high-fat diet, possibly through up-regulated hepatic lipogenesis. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Early overfeeding, Liver, High-fat diet, Lipid metabolism, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Rat
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96948 (URN)10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.06.010 (DOI)000344205600002 ()2-s2.0-84908176321 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2023-03-23Bibliographically approved
Sjödin, A., Persson, S., Stigsson Claesson, M. & Burén, J. (2013). Motionärer och elit har samma koll på kosten. Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning (4), 35-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motionärer och elit har samma koll på kosten
2013 (Swedish)In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 35-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Elitspelare i innebandyns superliga har inte bättre kunskap än motionärer om vilka kostrekommendationer som gäller vid träning. Lägst kunskap har spelarna om kostens betydelse för uppladdningen. För att kunna prestera maximalt är det viktigt att kunna anpassa energi-, närings- och vätskeintag till sin idrott.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Centrum för Idrottsforskning, 2013
Keywords
Idrottsnutrition, kost, uppladdning, innebandy, kunskap
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Food and Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86508 (URN)
Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2020-05-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5846-9002

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