Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Ekspong, Joakim
Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Perivoliotis, D. K., Ekspong, J., Zhao, X., Hu, G., Wågberg, T. & Gracia-Espino, E. (2023). Recent progress on defect-rich electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. Nano Today, 50, Article ID 101883.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent progress on defect-rich electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Nano Today, ISSN 1748-0132, E-ISSN 1878-044X, Vol. 50, article id 101883Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To meet the demanding requirements for clean energy production, the need to develop advanced electrocatalysts for efficiently catalysing the water splitting reactions attracts a continuously increased attention. However, to meet the anticipated expansion in green hydrogen production from renewable energy sources, the catalysts used for the water splitting reaction not only need to satisfy the required figures of merit but should concurrently be based mainly on abundant, non-critical materials with low environmental impact. In last decades, non-noble metal catalysts, based on transition metals, rare-earth metals, dichalcogenides, and light elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulphur have shown improved performance. Moreover, in recent years increased interest has been focused on variations of such materials, more specifically on the introduction of defects to further boost their catalytic performance. Through the many studies performed over the last years, it is now possible to summarize, understand and describe the role of these defects for the water splitting reactions, namely the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, and thereby to suggest strategies in the development of next generation electrocatalysts. This is the goal of the current review; we critically summarize the latest progress on the role of introduced defects for catalytic electrolysis applications by scrutinizing the structure–performance correlation as well as the specific catalytic activity. A broad class of nanomaterials is covered, comprising transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides and carbides, carbon-based materials as well as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Finally, the main challenges and future strategies and perspectives in this rapidly evolving field are provided at the end of the review.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Defects, Earth-abundant catalysts, Electrolysis, Heterogeneous catalysis, Hydrogen evolution reaction, Oxygen evolution reaction, Water-splitting
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209879 (URN)10.1016/j.nantod.2023.101883 (DOI)001015343200001 ()2-s2.0-85161062876 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03937Swedish Research Council, 2021-04629Carl Tryggers foundation , CTS 21-1581The Kempe Foundations, JCK-2021Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2023-06-16 Created: 2023-06-16 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Ekspong, J. (2021). Electrocatalysts for sustainable hydrogen energy: disordered and heterogeneous nanomaterials. (Doctoral dissertation). Umeå: Umeå Universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrocatalysts for sustainable hydrogen energy: disordered and heterogeneous nanomaterials
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With the current global greenhouse gas emissions, our remaining carbon budget is depleted in only 7 years. After that, several biophysical systems are predicted to collapse such as the arctic ice, coral reefs and the permafrost, leading to potentially irreversible consequences. Our emissions are strongly correlated to access of energy and even if we are aware of the planetary emergency today, our emissions still continue to grow. Electrical vehicles have the possibility to reduce the emissions in the transportation sector significantly. However, these vehicles are still expensive and impractical for long-distance or heavy transportation. While political actions and technological development are essential to keep prices down, the driving dis- tance can be increased by replacing the batteries for onboard electricity production. 

In hydrogen fuel cells, electricity is produced by combining hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen with only water as the by-product and if employed in electrical vehicles, distances of 500 km are enabled with a refueling time in 5 minutes. For other uses than in vehicles, H2 is also promising for large-scale electricity storage and for several industrial processes such as manufacturing CO2-free steel, ammonia and synthetic fuels. However, today most H2 production methods relies on fossil fuels and releases huge amounts of CO2. 

Electrolysis of water is an alternative production method where H2, along with oxygen are produced from water. To split the water, electricity has to be added and if renewable energy sources are used, the method has zero emissions and is considered most promising for a sustainable hydrogen energy economy. The tech- nique is relatively expensive compared to the fossil fuel-based methods and relies on rare noble metals such as platinum as catalysts for decreasing the required energy to split water. For large scale productions, these metals need to be replaced by more sustainable and abundant catalysts to lower the cost and minimize the environmental impacts. 

In this thesis we have investigated such candidates for the water splitting reaction but also to some extent for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. By combining theory and experiments we hope to aid in the development and facilitate a transition to clean hydrogen energy. We find among other things that i) defects in catalytic materials plays a significant role the performance and efficiency, and that ii) heterogeneity influence the adsorption energies of reaction intermediates and hence the catalytic efficiency and iii) while defects are not often studied for electrocatalytic reactions, these may inspire for novel materials in the future. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2021. p. 88
Keywords
Water splitting, Electrochemistry, Nanomaterials, Density functional theory, Hydrogen evolution, MoS2, Fuel cell
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
nanomaterials; Physics; Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-180130 (URN)978-91-7855-482-9 (ISBN)978-91-7855-481-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-03-11, BIO.A.206 – Aula Anatomica, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-02-18 Created: 2021-02-15 Last updated: 2021-02-16Bibliographically approved
Ekeroth, S., Ekspong, J., Perivoliotis, D. K., Sharma, S., Boyd, R., Brenning, N., . . . Wågberg, T. (2021). Magnetically Collected Platinum/Nickel Alloy Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 4(12), 12957-12965
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetically Collected Platinum/Nickel Alloy Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution
Show others...
2021 (English)In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 12957-12965Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a key process in electrochemical water splitting. To lower the cost and environmental impact of this process, it is highly motivated to develop electrocatalysts with low or no content of noble metals. Here, we report on an ingenious synthesis of hybrid PtxNi1-x electrocatalysts in the form of a nanoparticle-nanonetwork structure with very low noble metal content. The structure possesses important features such as good electrical conductivity, high surface area, strong interlinking, and substrate adhesion, which render an excellent HER activity. Specifically, the best performing Pt0.05Ni0.95 sample demonstrates a Tafel slope of 30 mV dec-1 in 0.5 M H2SO4 and an overpotential of 20 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 with high stability. The impressive catalytic performance is further rationalized in a theoretical study, which provides insight into the mechanism on how such small platinum content can allow for close-to-optimal adsorption energies for hydrogen.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
Keywords
catalysts, density functional theory, electrocatalyst, electrochemistry, hydrogen evolution reaction, metal alloy, nanoparticles, nanoparticles, plasma synthesis, platinum, pulsed plasma
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-190953 (URN)10.1021/acsanm.1c01676 (DOI)000731609700001 ()2-s2.0-85121617286 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-04862Swedish Research Council, 2017-04380Swedish Energy Agency, 45419-1Swedish Energy Agency, 50779-1
Available from: 2022-01-04 Created: 2022-01-04 Last updated: 2022-12-13Bibliographically approved
Ekspong, J., Larsen, C., Stenberg, J., Kwong, W. L., Wang, J., Zhang, J., . . . Wågberg, T. (2021). Solar-driven water splitting at 13.8 % solar-to-hydrogen efficiency by an earth-abundant PV-electrolyzer. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 9(42), 14070-14078
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar-driven water splitting at 13.8 % solar-to-hydrogen efficiency by an earth-abundant PV-electrolyzer
Show others...
2021 (English)In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, no 42, p. 14070-14078Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the synthesis and characterization of an efficient and low cost solar-driven electrolyzer consisting of Earth-abundant materials. The trimetallic NiFeMo electrocatalyst takes the shape of nanometer-sized flakes anchored to a fully carbon-based current collector comprising a nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube network, which in turn is grown on a carbon fiber paper support. This catalyst electrode contains solely Earth-abundant materials, and the carbon fiber support renders it effective despite a low metal content. Notably, a bifunctional catalyst–electrode pair exhibits a low total overpotential of 450 mV to drive a full water-splitting reaction at a current density of 10 mA cm–2 and a measured hydrogen Faradaic efficiency of ∼100%. We combine the catalyst–electrode pair with solution-processed perovskite solar cells to form a lightweight solar-driven water-splitting device with a high peak solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency of 13.8%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
Keywords
Solar-driven electrolysis, Earth-abundant materials, Nanostructured catalyst, Perovskite solar cells, Cost analysis
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-180129 (URN)10.1021/acssuschemeng.1c03565 (DOI)000711203000009 ()2-s2.0-85118127026 (Scopus ID)
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2021-02-15 Created: 2021-02-15 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Ekspong, J., Gracia-Espino, E. & Wågberg, T. (2020). Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Activity of Heterogeneous Materials: A Theoretical Model. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 124(38), 20911-20921
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Activity of Heterogeneous Materials: A Theoretical Model
2020 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 124, no 38, p. 20911-20921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we present a new comprehensive methodology to quantify the catalytic activity of heterogeneous materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using ab initio simulations. The model is composed of two parts. First, the equilibrium hydrogen coverage is obtained by an iterative evaluation of the hydrogen adsorption free energies (ΔGH) using density functional theory calculations. Afterward, the ΔGH are used in a microkinetic model to provide detailed characterizations of the entire HER considering all three elementary steps, i.e., the discharge, atom + ion, and combination reactions, without any prior assumptions of rate-determining steps. The microkinetic model takes the equilibrium and potential-dependent characteristics into account, and thus both exchange current densities and Tafel slopes are evaluated. The model is tested on several systems, from polycrystalline metals to heterogeneous molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and by comparing to experimental data, we verify that our model accurately predicts their experimental exchange current densities and Tafel slopes. Finally, we present an extended volcano plot that correlates the electrical current densities of each elementary reaction step to the coverage-dependent ΔGH.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020
National Category
Physical Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176146 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c05243 (DOI)000575823600029 ()2-s2.0-85095916115 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-04862Swedish Research Council, 2018-03937Swedish Energy Agency, 45419-1Olle Engkvists stiftelse, 186-0637
Available from: 2020-10-22 Created: 2020-10-22 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Sandström, R., Gracia-Espino, E., Annamalai, A., Persson, P., Persson, I., Ekspong, J., . . . Wågberg, T. (2020). Microwave-Induced Structural Ordering of Resilient Nanostructured L10-FePt Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 3(10), 9785-9791
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave-Induced Structural Ordering of Resilient Nanostructured L10-FePt Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
Show others...
2020 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 3, no 10, p. 9785-9791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We show how structurally ordered L10 face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePt nanoparticles are produced by a solid-state microwave-assisted synthesis method. The structural phase as well as the incorporated Fe into the nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments. The prepared particles exhibit a remarkable resilience toward crystallite growth at high temperatures. Directly correlated to the L10 phase, the best oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) characteristics are achieved for particles with a 1:1 Fe:Pt atomic ratio and an average size of ~2.9 nm where Pt-specific evaluation provided a high mass and specific activity of ~570 A/gPt and ~600 μA/cm2Pt respectively. Our results demonstrate that well-structured catalysts possessing activities vastly exceeding Pt/C (~210 A/gPt & ~250 μA/cm2Pt), can be synthesized through a fast and highly eco-friendly method. We note that the achieved mass activity represent a significant leap toward the theoretical maximum for fully ordered FePt nanoparticles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020
Keywords
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell, platinum iron, Oxygen reduction reaction, microwave synthesis, L1(0) phase, FePt-nanoparticles, electrocatalysts, structural ordering, electron microscopy
National Category
Nano Technology Other Materials Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Materials Science; nanomaterials; nanoparticles; Solid State Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158495 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.0c01368 (DOI)000586710300036 ()2-s2.0-85096581760 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-04862Swedish Energy Agency, 45419-1Interreg NordÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 15-483Swedish Research Council, 2016‐04412Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF 14‐0074Swedish Research Council, 2018-03937Olle Engkvists stiftelse, 186-0637
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form  

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Fan, J., Ekspong, J., Ashok, A., Koroidov, S. & Gracia-Espino, E. (2020). Solid-state synthesis of few-layer cobalt-doped MoS2 with CoMoS phase on nitrogen-doped graphene driven by microwave irradiation for hydrogen electrocatalysis. RSC Advances, 10(56), 34323-34332
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid-state synthesis of few-layer cobalt-doped MoS2 with CoMoS phase on nitrogen-doped graphene driven by microwave irradiation for hydrogen electrocatalysis
Show others...
2020 (English)In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 56, p. 34323-34332Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The high catalytic activity of cobalt-doped MoS2 (Co–MoS2) observed in several chemical reactions such as hydrogen evolution and hydrodesulfurization, among others, is mainly attributed to the formation of the CoMoS phase, in which Co occupies the edge-sites of MoS2. Unfortunately, its production represents a challenge due to limited cobalt incorporation and considerable segregation into sulfides and sulfates. We, therefore, developed a fast and efficient solid-state microwave irradiation synthesis process suitable for producing thin Co–MoS2 flakes (∼3–8 layers) attached on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide. The CoMoS phase is predominant in samples with up to 15 at% of cobalt, and only a slight segregation into cobalt sulfides/sulfates is noticed at larger Co content. The Co–MoS2 flakes exhibit a large number of defects resulting in wavy sheets with significant variations in interlayer distance. The catalytic performance was investigated by evaluating the activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and a gradual improvement with increased amount of Co was observed, reaching a maximum at 15 at% with an overpotential of 197 mV at −10 mA cm−2, and a Tafel slope of 61 mV dec−1. The Co doping had little effect on the HER mechanism, but a reduced onset potential and charge transfer resistance contributed to the improved activity. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using a rapid microwave irradiation process to produce highly doped Co–MoS2 with predominant CoMoS phase, excellent HER activity, and operational stability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020
National Category
Materials Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-175850 (URN)10.1039/d0ra05560c (DOI)000571760600065 ()2-s2.0-85091771968 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-10-14 Created: 2020-10-14 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Ekspong, J. & Gracia-Espino, E. (2020). Theoretical Analysis of Surface Active Sites in Defective 2H and 1T ' MoS2 Polymorphs for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction: Quantifying the Total Activity of Point Defects. Advanced Theory and Simulations, 3(3), Article ID 1900213.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theoretical Analysis of Surface Active Sites in Defective 2H and 1T ' MoS2 Polymorphs for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction: Quantifying the Total Activity of Point Defects
2020 (English)In: Advanced Theory and Simulations, E-ISSN 2513-0390, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 1900213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Defect engineering is a common and promising strategy to improve the catalytic activity of layered structures such as MoS2, where in particular the 2H and 1T ' polymorphs have been under intense study for their activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction. However, the large variety of defects, each with its own distinct and usually unknown effects, complicates the design and optimization of such defective materials. Therefore, it is relevant to characterize in detail the effect of individual defects and to be able to combine these observations to describe more complex materials, such as those seen experimentally. Therefore, nine point defects (antisites defects and vacancies) are theoretically studied on single layer 1T, 1T ', and 2H MoS2 polymorphs, and the variation and spatial distribution in the active sites are identified. It is found that all defective 1T ' monolayers exhibit an increase in the exchange current density of at least 2.3 times when compared to pristine 1T ' MoS2, even if a reduced number of active sites are observed. The results are later used to propose a methodology to study materials containing a mixture of crystal phases, or other alterations that cause inhomogeneous changes in the activity of catalytic sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2020
Keywords
density functional theory, hydrogen evolution reaction, molybdenum disulfide, point defects, transition metal chalcogenides
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168157 (URN)10.1002/adts.201900213 (DOI)000508585100001 ()2-s2.0-85081036235 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-18 Created: 2020-03-18 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Sandström, R., Annamalai, A., Boulanger, N., Ekspong, J., Talyzin, A. V., Mühlbacher, I. & Wågberg, T. (2019). Evaluation of Fluorine and Sulfonic Acid Co-functionalized Graphene Oxide Membranes in Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Conditions. Sustainable Energy & Fuels, 3(7), 1790-1798
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Fluorine and Sulfonic Acid Co-functionalized Graphene Oxide Membranes in Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Conditions
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 3, no 7, p. 1790-1798Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The use of graphene oxide (GO) based membranes consisting of self-assembled flakes with a lamellar structure represents an intriguing strategy to spatially separate reactants while facilitating proton transport in proton exchange membranes (PEM). Here we chemically modify GO to evaluate the role of fluorine and sulfonic acid groups on the performance of H2/O2 based PEM fuel cells. Mild fluorination is achieved by the presence of hydrogen fluoride during oxidation and subsequent sulfonation resulted in fluorine and SO3- co-functionalized GO. Membrane electrode assembly performance in low temperature and moderate humidity conditions suggested that both functional groups contribute to reduced H2 crossover compared to appropriate reference membranes. Moreover, fluorine groups promoted an enhanced hydrolytic stability while contributing to prevent structural degradation after constant potential experiments whereas sulfonic acid demonstrated a stabilizing effect by preserving proton conductivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2019
Keywords
Proton exchange membrane, Fuel Cell, Graphene oxide, Hydrogen, Fluorine, Sulfonic acid
National Category
Nano Technology Other Chemical Engineering Other Materials Engineering Energy Systems Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
nanomaterials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158496 (URN)10.1039/C9SE00126C (DOI)000472980200014 ()2-s2.0-85068152037 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-04862Swedish Energy Agency, 45419-1ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 15-483Interreg Nord
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Sandström, R., Ekspong, J., Gracia-Espino, E. & Wågberg, T. (2019). Oxidatively Induced Exposure of Active Surface Area during Microwave Assisted Formation of Pt3Co Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. RSC Advances, 9(31), 17979-17987
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxidatively Induced Exposure of Active Surface Area during Microwave Assisted Formation of Pt3Co Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
2019 (English)In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 31, p. 17979-17987Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the rate-limiting reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, can efficiently be facilitated by properly manufactured platinum catalysts alloyed with late 3d transition metals. Herein we synthesize a platinum:cobalt nanoparticulate catalyst with a 3:1 atomic ratio by reduction of a dry organometallic precursor blend within a commercial household microwave oven. The formed nanoparticles are simultaneously anchored to a carbon black support that enables large Pt surface area. Two separate microwave treatment steps were employed, where step one constitutes a fast oxidative treatment for revealing active surface area while a reductive secondary annealing treatment promotes a Pt rich surface. The resulting Pt3Co/C catalyst (~3.4 nm) demonstrate an enhanced ORR activity directly attributed to incorporated Co with a specific and mass activity of 704 μA cm-2Pt and 352 A g-1Pt corresponding to an increase by 279 % and 66 % respectively compared to a commercial Pt/C (~1.8 nm) catalyst measured under identical conditions. The method´s simplicity, scalability and novelty is expected to further assist in Pt-Co development and bring the catalyst one step closer toward commercialization and utility in fuel cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
Keywords
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell, platinum cobalt, Oxygen reduction reaction, Microwave synthesis
National Category
Nano Technology Other Materials Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
nanomaterials; nanoparticles; Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158492 (URN)10.1039/c9ra02095k (DOI)000471914300054 ()2-s2.0-85067473239 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-04862ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 15-483Swedish Energy Agency, 45419-1Swedish Research Council, 2018-03937Olle Engkvists stiftelse, 186-0637
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form 

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications