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Kampik, T., Čyras, K. & Alarcón, J. R. (2024). Change in quantitative bipolar argumentation: sufficient, necessary, and counterfactual explanations. International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 164, Article ID 109066.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Change in quantitative bipolar argumentation: sufficient, necessary, and counterfactual explanations
2024 (English)In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 164, article id 109066Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a formal approach to explaining change of inference in Quantitative Bipolar Argumentation Frameworks (QBAFs). When drawing conclusions from a QBAF and updating the QBAF to then again draw conclusions (and so on), our approach traces changes – which we call strength inconsistencies – in the partial order over argument strengths that a semantics establishes on some arguments of interest, called topic arguments. We trace the causes of strength inconsistencies to specific arguments, which then serve as explanations. We identify sufficient, necessary, and counterfactual explanations for strength inconsistencies and show that strength inconsistency explanations exist if and only if an update leads to strength inconsistency. We define a heuristic-based approach to facilitate the search for strength inconsistency explanations, for which we also provide an implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
quantitative argumentation, explainable AI, formal methods
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-216331 (URN)10.1016/j.ijar.2023.109066 (DOI)2-s2.0-85176266551 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-11-09 Created: 2023-11-09 Last updated: 2023-11-23Bibliographically approved
Kampik, T. (2024). Kettle logic in abstract argumentation. Journal of logic and computation (Print), 34(3), 528-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kettle logic in abstract argumentation
2024 (English)In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 528-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kettle logic is a colloquial term that describes an agent’s advancement of inconsistent arguments in order to defeat a particular claim. Intuitively, a consistent subset of the advanced arguments should exist that is at least as successful at refuting the claim as the advancement of the set of inconsistent arguments. In this paper, we formalize this intuition and provide a formal analysis of kettle logic in abstract argumentation, a fundamental approach to computational argumentation, showing that all of the analysed abstract argumentation semantics (inference functions)—with the exception of naive semantics, which is considered a mere simplistic helper for the construction of other semantics—suffer from kettle logic. We also provide an approach to mitigating kettle logic under some circumstances. The key findings presented in this paper highlight that agents that apply the inference functions of abstract argumentation, are—similarly to humans—receptive to persuasion by agents who deliberately advance inconsistent and intuitively ‘illogical’ claims. As abstract argumentation can be considered one of the most basic models of computational argumentation, this raises the question to what extent and under what circumstances kettle logic-free argumentation can and should be enforced by computational means.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024
Keywords
Formal argumentation, non-monotonic reasoning, logical fallacy
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-208596 (URN)10.1093/logcom/exad027 (DOI)000993521200001 ()2-s2.0-85190850937 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-26 Created: 2023-05-26 Last updated: 2024-04-30Bibliographically approved
Kampik, T., Gabbay, D. & Sartor, G. (2023). A comprehensive account of the burden of persuasion in abstract argumentation. Journal of logic and computation (Print), 33(2), 257-288
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive account of the burden of persuasion in abstract argumentation
2023 (English)In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 257-288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we provide a formal framework for modeling the burden of persuasion in legal reasoning. The framework is based on abstract argumentation, a frequently studied method of non-monotonic reasoning, and can be applied to different argumentation semantics; it supports burdens of persuasion with arbitrary many levels, and allows for the placement of a burden of persuasion on any subset of an argumentation framework’s arguments. Our framework can be considered an extension of related works that raise questions on how burdens of persuasion should be handled in some conflict scenarios that can be modeled with abstract argumentation. An open source software implementation of the introduced formal notions is available as an extension of an argumentation reasoning library. A theoretical analysis shows that our approach can be generalized to a novel method for the preference-based selection of extensions from argumentation frameworks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
Formal argumentation, legal reasoning
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-204131 (URN)10.1093/logcom/exac094 (DOI)000918534100001 ()
Funder
Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)
Available from: 2023-01-27 Created: 2023-01-27 Last updated: 2023-06-19Bibliographically approved
Aler Tubella, A., Coelho Mollo, D., Dahlgren, A., Devinney, H., Dignum, V., Ericson, P., . . . Nieves, J. C. (2023). ACROCPoLis: a descriptive framework for making sense of fairness. In: FAccT '23: Proceedings of the 2023 ACM conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency. Paper presented at 2023 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, Chicago, Illinois, USA, June 12-15, 2023 (pp. 1014-1025). ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ACROCPoLis: a descriptive framework for making sense of fairness
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2023 (English)In: FAccT '23: Proceedings of the 2023 ACM conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency, ACM Digital Library, 2023, p. 1014-1025Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fairness is central to the ethical and responsible development and use of AI systems, with a large number of frameworks and formal notions of algorithmic fairness being available. However, many of the fairness solutions proposed revolve around technical considerations and not the needs of and consequences for the most impacted communities. We therefore want to take the focus away from definitions and allow for the inclusion of societal and relational aspects to represent how the effects of AI systems impact and are experienced by individuals and social groups. In this paper, we do this by means of proposing the ACROCPoLis framework to represent allocation processes with a modeling emphasis on fairness aspects. The framework provides a shared vocabulary in which the factors relevant to fairness assessments for different situations and procedures are made explicit, as well as their interrelationships. This enables us to compare analogous situations, to highlight the differences in dissimilar situations, and to capture differing interpretations of the same situation by different stakeholders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2023
Keywords
Algorithmic fairness; socio-technical processes; social impact of AI; responsible AI
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209705 (URN)10.1145/3593013.3594059 (DOI)2-s2.0-85163594710 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-7252-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2023 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency, Chicago, Illinois, USA, June 12-15, 2023
Available from: 2023-06-13 Created: 2023-06-13 Last updated: 2023-07-18Bibliographically approved
Kilic, K., Weck, S., Kampik, T. & Lindgren, H. (2023). Argument-based human–AI collaboration for supporting behavior change to improve health. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 6, Article ID 1069455.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Argument-based human–AI collaboration for supporting behavior change to improve health
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, E-ISSN 2624-8212, Vol. 6, article id 1069455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents an empirical requirement elicitation study for an argumentation-based digital companion for supporting behavior change, whose ultimate goal is the promotion and facilitation of healthy behavior. The study was conducted with non-expert users as well as with health experts and was in part supported by the development of prototypes. It focuses on human-centric aspects, in particular user motivations, as well as on expectations and perceptions regarding the role and interaction behavior of a digital companion. Based on the results of the study, a framework for person tailoring the agent's roles and behaviors, and argumentation schemes are proposed. The results indicate that the extent to which a digital companion argumentatively challenges or supports a user's attitudes and chosen behavior and how assertive and provocative the companion is may have a substantial and individualized effect on user acceptance, as well as on the effects of interacting with the digital companion. More broadly, the results shed some initial light on the perception of users and domain experts of “soft,” meta-level aspects of argumentative dialogue, indicating potential for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
argumentation schemes, behavior change, digital companion, formal argumentation dialogues, health promotion, Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence, user-modeling, value-based argumentation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-205786 (URN)10.3389/frai.2023.1069455 (DOI)000942156200001 ()36872933 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85149508964 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW 2019.0220Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018- 01461EU, Horizon 2020, 952026
Available from: 2023-04-03 Created: 2023-04-03 Last updated: 2023-04-03Bibliographically approved
Calbimonte, J.-P., Ciortea, A., Kampik, T., Mayer, S., Payne, T. R., Tamma, V. & Zimmermann, A. (2023). Autonomy in the age of knowledge graphs: vision and challenges. Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, 1(1), 13:1-13:22
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonomy in the age of knowledge graphs: vision and challenges
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2023 (English)In: Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13:1-13:22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this position paper, we propose that Knowledge Graphs (KGs) are one of the prime approaches to support the programming of autonomous software systems at the knowledge level. From this viewpoint, we survey how KGs can support different dimensions of autonomy in such systems: For example, the autonomy of systems with respect to their environment, or with respect to organisations; and we discuss related practical and research challenges. We emphasise that KGs need to be able to support systems of autonomous software agents that are themselves highly heterogeneous, which limits how these systems may use KGs. Furthermore, these heterogeneous software agents may populate highly dynamic environments, which implies that they require adaptive KGs. The scale of the envisioned systems - possibly stretching to the size of the Internet - highlights the maintainability of the underlying KGs that need to contain large-scale knowledge, which requires that KGs are maintained jointly by humans and machines. Furthermore, autonomous agents require procedural knowledge, and KGs should hence be explored more towards the provisioning of such knowledge to augment autonomous behaviour. Finally, we highlight the importance of modelling choices, including with respect to the selected abstraction level when modelling and with respect to the provisioning of more expressive constraint languages. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dagstuhl, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, 2023
Keywords
Knowledge graphs, Autonomous Systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-218589 (URN)10.4230/TGDK.1.1.13 (DOI)
Note

ISSN to be assigned.

Available from: 2023-12-22 Created: 2023-12-22 Last updated: 2023-12-22Bibliographically approved
Bergman, A., Rebmann, A. & Kampik, T. (2023). BPMN2Constraints: breaking down BPMN diagrams into declarative process query constraints. In: Dirk Fahland; Andrés Jiménez Ramírez; Akhil Kumar; Jan Mendling; Brian Pentland; Stefanie Rinderle-Ma; Tijs Slaats; Johan Versendaal; Barbara Weber; Mathias Weske; Karol Winter (Ed.), BPM 2023 best dissertation award, doctoral consortium, and demonstration & resources forum: proceedings of the Best dissertation award, doctoral consortium, and demonstration & resources forum at BPM  2023, co-located with 21st International conference on business process management (BPM 2023). Paper presented at BPM 2023, 21st International Conference on Business Process Management, Utrecht, the Netherlands, September 11-15, 2023 (pp. 137-141). Aachen: Aachen University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BPMN2Constraints: breaking down BPMN diagrams into declarative process query constraints
2023 (English)In: BPM 2023 best dissertation award, doctoral consortium, and demonstration & resources forum: proceedings of the Best dissertation award, doctoral consortium, and demonstration & resources forum at BPM  2023, co-located with 21st International conference on business process management (BPM 2023) / [ed] Dirk Fahland; Andrés Jiménez Ramírez; Akhil Kumar; Jan Mendling; Brian Pentland; Stefanie Rinderle-Ma; Tijs Slaats; Johan Versendaal; Barbara Weber; Mathias Weske; Karol Winter, Aachen: Aachen University , 2023, p. 137-141Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents BPMN2Constraints, a tool that compiles BPMN diagrams into sets of declarative constraints that can then, for example, be used for conformance checking. Notably, BPMN2Constraints does not rely on Petri net replay for generating the constraints; by generating constraints directly from a control flow graph extracted from the BPMN model, the tool avoids indirection. BPMN2Constraints can generate constraints in several languages: DECLARE, finite-trace linear temporal logic, and SIGNAL, a proprietary process querying language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen: Aachen University, 2023
Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073 ; 3469
Keywords
Business process management, Declarative constraints, Conformance checking, Process querying
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214023 (URN)2-s2.0-85172014722 (Scopus ID)
Conference
BPM 2023, 21st International Conference on Business Process Management, Utrecht, the Netherlands, September 11-15, 2023
Available from: 2023-09-03 Created: 2023-09-03 Last updated: 2024-06-25Bibliographically approved
Klievtsova, N., Benzin, J.-V., Kampik, T., Mangler, J. & Rinderle-Ma, S. (2023). Conversational process modelling: state of the art, applications, and implications in practice. In: Chiara Di Francescomarino; Andrea Burattin; Christian Janiesch; Shazia Sadiq (Ed.), Business Process Management Forum: BPM 2023 Forum, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 11–15, 2023, Proceedings. Paper presented at Business Process Management Forum, BPM 2023 Forum, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 11–15, 2023 (pp. 319-336). Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conversational process modelling: state of the art, applications, and implications in practice
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2023 (English)In: Business Process Management Forum: BPM 2023 Forum, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 11–15, 2023, Proceedings / [ed] Chiara Di Francescomarino; Andrea Burattin; Christian Janiesch; Shazia Sadiq, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 319-336Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Chatbots such as ChatGPT have caused tremendous hype lately. For BPM applications, it is often not clear how to apply chatbots to generate business value. Hence, this work aims at the systematic analysis of existing chatbots for their support of conversational process modelling as a process-oriented capability. Application scenarios are identified along the process life cycle. Then a systematic literature review on conversational process modelling is performed. The resulting taxonomy serves as input for the identification of application scenarios for conversational process modelling, including paraphrasing and improvement of process descriptions. The application scenarios are evaluated for existing chatbots based on a real-world test set from the higher education domain. It contains process descriptions as well as corresponding process models, together with an assessment of the model quality. Based on the literature and application scenario analyses, recommendations for the usage (practical implications) and further development (research directions) of conversational process modelling are derived.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356 ; 490
Keywords
Conversational process modelling, Chatbots, Process Descriptions, Process Models
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214022 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-41623-1_19 (DOI)978-3-031-41622-4 (ISBN)978-3-031-41623-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Business Process Management Forum, BPM 2023 Forum, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 11–15, 2023
Available from: 2023-09-03 Created: 2023-09-03 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
Kurz, A. F., Kampik, T., Pufahl, L. & Weber, I. (2023). Reinforcement learning-supported ab testing of business process improvements: an industry perspective. In: Han van der Aa; Dominik Bork; Henderik A. Proper; Rainer Schmidt (Ed.), Enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling: 24th International Conference, BPMDS 2023, and 28th International Conference, EMMSAD 2023, Zaragoza, Spain, June 12–13, 2023, Proceedings. Paper presented at BPMDS2023, International Conference on Business Process Modeling, Development and Support, Zaragoza, Spain, June 12-13, 2023 (pp. 12-26). Cham: Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reinforcement learning-supported ab testing of business process improvements: an industry perspective
2023 (English)In: Enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling: 24th International Conference, BPMDS 2023, and 28th International Conference, EMMSAD 2023, Zaragoza, Spain, June 12–13, 2023, Proceedings / [ed] Han van der Aa; Dominik Bork; Henderik A. Proper; Rainer Schmidt, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, p. 12-26Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to better facilitate the need for continuous business process improvement, the application of DevOps principles has been proposed. In particular, the AB-BPM methodology applies AB testing and reinforcement learning to increase the speed and quality of improvement efforts. In this paper, we provide an industry perspective on this approach, assessing requirements, risks, opportunities, and more aspects of the AB-BPM methodology and supporting tools. Our qualitative analysis combines grounded theory with a Delphi study, including semi-structured interviews and multiple follow-up surveys with a panel of ten business process management experts. The main findings indicate a need for human control during reinforcement learning-driven experiments, the importance of aligning the methodology culturally and organizationally with the respective setting, and the necessity of an integrated process execution platform.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356 ; 479
Keywords
Business Process Improvement, Process Redesign, Reinforcement Learning, AB Testing, Grounded Theory, Delphi Study
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-209530 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-34241-7_2 (DOI)978-3-031-34240-0 (ISBN)978-3-031-34241-7 (ISBN)
Conference
BPMDS2023, International Conference on Business Process Modeling, Development and Support, Zaragoza, Spain, June 12-13, 2023
Available from: 2023-06-11 Created: 2023-06-11 Last updated: 2023-06-12Bibliographically approved
Amaral, C. J., Hübner, J. F. & Kampik, T. (2023). TDD for AOP: test-driven development for agent-oriented programming. In: AAMAS '23: Proceedings of the 2023 international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems. Paper presented at 22nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2023, London, UK, May 29 - June 2, 2023 (pp. 3038-3040). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>TDD for AOP: test-driven development for agent-oriented programming
2023 (English)In: AAMAS '23: Proceedings of the 2023 international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 3038-3040Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This demonstration paper introduces native test-driven development capabilities that have been implemented in an agent-oriented programming language, in particular as extensions of AgentSpeak. We showcase how these capabilities can facilitate the testing and continuous integration of agents in JaCaMo multi-agent systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Series
Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, ISSN 1548-8403, E-ISSN 1558-2914
Keywords
Agent-Oriented Programming, Engineering Multi-Agent Systems, Test-Driven Development
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-214690 (URN)2-s2.0-85171272342 (Scopus ID)978-1-4503-9432-1 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2023, London, UK, May 29 - June 2, 2023
Available from: 2023-09-27 Created: 2023-09-27 Last updated: 2023-09-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6458-2252

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