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García-López, Naxto
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
García-López, N., Bargués-Tobella, A., Goodman, R. C., Uwingabire, S., Sundberg, C., Boman, C. & Nyberg, G. (2024). An integrated agroforestry-bioenergy system for enhanced energy and food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Ambio
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An integrated agroforestry-bioenergy system for enhanced energy and food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa
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2024 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Most people in rural sub-Saharan Africa lack access to electricity and rely on traditional, inefficient, and polluting cooking solutions that have adverse impacts on both human health and the environment. Here, we propose a novel integrated agroforestry-bioenergy system that combines sustainable biomass production in sequential agroforestry systems with biomass-based cleaner cooking solutions and rural electricity production in small-scale combined heat and power plants and estimate the biophysical system outcomes. Despite conservative assumptions, we demonstrate that on-farm biomass production can cover the household’s fuelwood demand for cooking and still generate a surplus of woody biomass for electricity production via gasification. Agroforestry and biochar soil amendments should increase agricultural productivity and food security. In addition to enhanced energy security, the proposed system should also contribute to improving cooking conditions and health, enhancing soil fertility and food security, climate change mitigation, gender equality, and rural poverty reduction.

Keywords
Biochar, Cleaner cooking, Modern energy access, Restoration, Rural electrification through combined heat and power plants, Sustainable development
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-225945 (URN)10.1007/s13280-024-02037-0 (DOI)001236528400002 ()38822967 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85195114204 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-06-12 Created: 2024-06-12 Last updated: 2024-06-12
Hansson, A., Rankin, G., Uski, O., Sehlstedt, M., Pourazar, J., Lindgren, R., . . . Muala, A. (2023). Reduced bronchoalveolar macrophage phagocytosis and cytotoxic effects after controlled short-term exposure to wood smoke in healthy humans. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 20(1), Article ID 30.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduced bronchoalveolar macrophage phagocytosis and cytotoxic effects after controlled short-term exposure to wood smoke in healthy humans
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2023 (English)In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to wood smoke has been shown to contribute to adverse respiratory health effects including airway infections, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. A preceding study failed to confirm any acute inflammation or cell influx in bronchial wash (BW) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 24 h after wood smoke exposure but showed unexpected reductions in leukocyte numbers. The present study was performed to investigate responses at an earlier phase, regarding potential development of acute inflammation, as well as indications of cytotoxicity.

Methods: In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, 14 healthy participants were exposed for 2 h to filtered air and diluted wood smoke from incomplete wood log combustion in a common wood stove with a mean particulate matter concentration of 409 µg/m3. Bronchoscopy with BW and BAL was performed 6 h after exposure. Differential cell counts, assessment of DNA-damage and ex vivo analysis of phagocytic function of phagocytosing BAL cells were performed. Wood smoke particles were also collected for in vitro toxicological analyses using bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar type II-like cells (A549).

Results: Exposure to wood smoke increased BAL lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p = 0.04) and reduced the ex vivo alveolar macrophage phagocytic capacity (p = 0.03) and viability (p = 0.02) vs. filtered air. BAL eosinophil numbers were increased after wood smoke (p = 0.02), while other cell types were unaffected in BW and BAL. In vitro exposure to wood smoke particles confirmed increased DNA-damage, decreased metabolic activity and cell cycle disturbances.

Conclusions: Exposure to wood smoke from incomplete combustion did not induce any acute airway inflammatory cell influx at 6 h, apart from eosinophils. However, there were indications of a cytotoxic reaction with increased LDH, reduced cell viability and impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytic capacity. These findings are in accordance with earlier bronchoscopy findings at 24 h and may provide evidence for the increased susceptibility to infections by biomass smoke exposure, reported in population-based studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2023
Keywords
Air pollution, Biomass combustion, Bronchoscopy, Controlled human exposure, Cytotoxicity, In vitro, Macrophages, Phagocytosis, Wood smoke
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-212714 (URN)10.1186/s12989-023-00541-x (DOI)37517998 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85165871931 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationVästerbotten County CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyUmeå University
Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-15Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, R. L., Yadav, P., García-López, N., Lindgren, R., Nyberg, G., Diaz-Chavez, R., . . . Athanassiadis, D. (2020). Environmental Sustainability of Bioenergy Strategies in Western Kenya to Address Household Air Pollution. Energies, 13(3), Article ID 719.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Sustainability of Bioenergy Strategies in Western Kenya to Address Household Air Pollution
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2020 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over 640 million people in Africa are expected to rely on solid-fuels for cooking by 2040. In Western Kenya, cooking inefficiently persists as a major cause of burden of disease due to household air pollution. Efficient biomass cooking is a local-based renewable energy solution to address this issue. The Life-Cycle Assessment tool Simapro 8.5 is applied for analyzing the environmental impact of four biomass cooking strategies for the Kisumu County, with analysis based on a previous energy modelling study, and literature and background data from the Ecoinvent and Agrifootprint databases applied to the region. A Business-As-Usual scenario (BAU) considers the trends in energy use until 2035. Transition scenarios to Improved Cookstoves (ICS), Pellet-fired Gasifier Stoves (PGS) and Biogas Stoves (BGS) consider the transition to wood-logs, biomass pellets and biogas, respectively. An Integrated (INT) scenario evaluates a mix of the ICS, PGS and BGS. In the BGS, the available biomass waste is sufficient to be upcycled and fulfill cooking demands by 2035. This scenario has the lowest impact on all impact categories analyzed followed by the PGS and INT. Further work should address a detailed socio-economic analysis of the analyzed scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
agroforestry, waste valorization, sustainable development goals, renewable energy, bioenergy transitions, circular bioeconomy, clean cooking, life-cycle assessment, energy policy
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-170012 (URN)10.3390/en13030719 (DOI)000522489000212 ()2-s2.0-85079543499 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2020-05-05 Created: 2020-05-05 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, R. L., Yadav, P., Lindgren, R., García-López, N., Nyberg, G., Diaz-Chavez, R., . . . Athanassiadis, D. (2019). Bioenergy strategies to address deforestation and household air pollution in western Kenya. In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings: . Paper presented at 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2019, Lisbon, Portugal, May 27-30, 2019 (pp. 1536-1542). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioenergy strategies to address deforestation and household air pollution in western Kenya
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2019 (English)In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2019, p. 1536-1542Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Over 640 million people in Africa are expected to rely on solid-fuels for cooking by 2040. In Western Kenya, cooking inefficiently persists as a major cause of burden disease due to household air pollution. The Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system and the Life-Cycle Assessment tool Simapro 8.5 were applied for analyzing biomass strategies for the region. The calculation of the residential energy consumption and emissions was based on scientific reviews and original data from experimental studies. The research shows the effect of four biomass strategies on the reduction of wood fuel use and short-lived climate pollutant emissions. A Business As Usual scenario (BAU) considered the trends in energy use until 2035. Transition scenarios to Improved Cookstoves (ICS), Pellet-fired Gasifier Stoves (PGS) and Biogas Stoves (BGS) considered the transition to wood-logs, biomass pellets and biogas, respectively. An Integrated (INT) scenario evaluated a mix of the ICS, PGS and BGS. The study shows that, energy use will increase by 8% (BGS), 20% (INT), 26% (PGS), 42% (ICS) and 56% (BAU). The BGS has the lowest impact on global warming, particle formation, terrestrial acidification, fossil resource scarcity, water consumption, as well as on eutrophication followed by the PGS and INT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2019
Series
European biomass conference and exhibition proceedings, E-ISSN 2282-5819
Keywords
Agroforestry, Bioenergy transitions, Clean cooking, Energy policy, Life-cycle assessment, Solid-biofuels
National Category
Bioenergy Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-203424 (URN)2-s2.0-85071068129 (Scopus ID)
Conference
27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2019, Lisbon, Portugal, May 27-30, 2019
Available from: 2023-01-18 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Pourazar, J., Sehlstedt, M., Rankin, G., Uski, O., Boman, C., Lopez, N., . . . Muala, A. (2019). Exposure to wood smoke induced activation of lymphocyte subtypes in peripheral blood. Paper presented at European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.. European Respiratory Journal, 54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to wood smoke induced activation of lymphocyte subtypes in peripheral blood
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2019 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 54Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sheffield: European Respiratory Society Journals, 2019
Keywords
Air pollution, Systemic effect, Inflammation
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168164 (URN)10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.PA1983 (DOI)000507372402143 ()
Conference
European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Bio4Energy
Note

Supplement: 63. Meeting Abstract: PA1983.

Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Carvalho, R. L., Lindgren, R., Lopez, N., Nyambane, A., Nyberg, G., Diaz-Chavez, R. & Boman, C. (2019). Household air pollution mitigation with integrated biomass/cookstove strategies in Western Kenya. Energy Policy, 131, 168-186
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household air pollution mitigation with integrated biomass/cookstove strategies in Western Kenya
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2019 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 131, p. 168-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traditional cooking is today's largest global environmental health risk. Over 640 million people in Africa are expected to rely on biomass for cooking by 2040. In Kenya, cooking inefficiently with wood and charcoal persists as a cause of deforestation and household air pollution. This research analyses the effects of four biomass cookstove strategies on reducing air pollutant emissions in Kisumu County between 2015 and 2035 using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning system. The Business as Usual scenario (BAU) was developed considering the historical trends in household energy use. Energy transition scenarios to Improved Cookstoves (ICS), Pellet Gasifier Stoves (PGS) and Biogas Stoves (BGS) were applied to examine the impact of these systems on energy savings and air pollution mitigation. An integrated scenario (INT) was evaluated as a mix of the ICS, PGS and BGS. The highest energy savings, in relation to the BAU, are achieved in the BGS (30.9%), followed by the INT (23.5%), PGS (19.4%) and ICS (9.2%). The BGS offers the highest reduction in the GHG (37.6%), CH4 (94.3%), NMVOCs (85.0%), CO (97.4%), PM2.5 (64.7%) and BC (48.4%) emissions, and the PGS the highest reduction in the N2O (83.0%) and NOx (90.7%) emissions, in relation to the BAU.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Biomass pellets, Biogas, Cookstoves, Energy forecasting, Global warming, Local air pollutants
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-161498 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2019.04.026 (DOI)000472125200015 ()2-s2.0-85065396669 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-1385The Kempe Foundations, JCK-1516Bio4Energy
Available from: 2019-07-12 Created: 2019-07-12 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
Muala, A., Österdahl, R., Sehlstedt, M., Rankin, G., Pourazar, J., Bosson, J. A., . . . Öhberg, F. (2019). Small airways effects of exposure to wood smoke. Paper presented at European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.. European Respiratory Journal, 54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small airways effects of exposure to wood smoke
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2019 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 54Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sheffield: European Respiratory Society Journals, 2019
Keywords
Asthma, Air pollution
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168166 (URN)10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.PA2829 (DOI)000507372403325 ()
Conference
European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Bio4Energy
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Hansson, A., Rankin, G., Uski, O., Sehlstedt, M., Bosson, J. A., Pourazar, J., . . . Muala, A. (2019). Wood smoke effects on epithelial cell lines and human airway cells. Paper presented at European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.. European Respiratory Journal, 54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood smoke effects on epithelial cell lines and human airway cells
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2019 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 54Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Respiratory Society Journals, 2019
Keywords
Bronchoscopy, Immunology, Air pollution
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168169 (URN)10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.PA5448 (DOI)000507372407158 ()
Conference
European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Bio4Energy
Note

Supplement: 63. Meeting Abstract: PA5448.

Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Sehlstedt, M., Muala, A., Pourazar, J., Rankin, G., Uski, O., Behndig, A. F., . . . Blomberg, A. (2019). Wood smoke exposure induces the activation of bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes. Paper presented at European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.. European Respiratory Journal, 54
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood smoke exposure induces the activation of bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytes
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2019 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 54Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Respiratory Society Journals, 2019
Keywords
Air pollution, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Inflammation
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-168165 (URN)10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.PA2828 (DOI)000507372403324 ()
Conference
European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Madrid, SPAIN, SEP 28-OCT 02, 2019.
Projects
Bio4Energy
Funder
Bio4Energy
Note

Supplement: 63. Meeting Abstract: PA2828.

Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Uski, O., Rankin, G., Lindgren, R., Lopez, N., Blomberg, A., Muala, A., . . . Sandström, T. (2018). In vitro toxicity of particulate matter derived from biomass cook stoves used in developing countries. Paper presented at International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, MAY 18-23, 2018, San Diego, CA. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro toxicity of particulate matter derived from biomass cook stoves used in developing countries
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2018 (English)In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 197Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Thoraric Society, 2018
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154090 (URN)000449978902089 ()
Conference
International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, MAY 18-23, 2018, San Diego, CA
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
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