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Lagerlöf, Olof
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Uygar, B. & Lagerlöf, O. (2023). Brain o-glcnacylation: from molecular mechanisms to clinical phenotype. Advances in neurobiology, 29, 255-280
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Brain o-glcnacylation: from molecular mechanisms to clinical phenotype
2023 (English)In: Advances in neurobiology, ISSN 2190-5215, Vol. 29, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

O-GlcNAc is the attachment of β-N-acetylglucosamine to the hydroxyl group of serine and threonine in nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. It is generally not further elongated but exists as a monosaccharide that can be rapidly added or removed. Thousands of proteins involved in gene transcription, protein translation and degradation as well as the regulation of signal transduction contain O-GlcNAc. Brain is one of the tissues where O-GlcNAc is the most highly expressed and deletion of neuronal O-GlcNAc leads to death early in development. O-GlcNAc is also important for normal adult brain function, where dynamic processes like learning and memory at least in part depend on the modification of specific proteins by O-GlcNAc. Conversely, too much or too little O-GlcNAc in the brain contributes to several disorders including obesity, intellectual disability and Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter, we describe the expression and regulation of O-GlcNAc in the nervous system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Keywords
Alzheimer’s disease, Food intake, Learning and memory, Neurodegeneration, Nutrient sensing, O-GlcNAc, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, Obesity, Post-translational modifications, Signaling
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-200660 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-12390-0_9 (DOI)36255678 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85140171507 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-07 Created: 2022-11-07 Last updated: 2022-11-07Bibliographically approved
Andersson, B., Tan, E. P., McGreal, S. R., Apte, U., Hanover, J. A., Slawson, C. & Lagerlöf, O. (2021). O-GlcNAc cycling mediates energy balance by regulating caloric memory. Appetite, 165, Article ID 105320.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>O-GlcNAc cycling mediates energy balance by regulating caloric memory
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2021 (English)In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 165, article id 105320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Caloric need has long been thought a major driver of appetite. However, it is unclear whether caloric need regulates appetite in environments offered by many societies today where there is no shortage of food. Here we observed that wildtype mice with free access to food did not match calorie intake to calorie expenditure. While the size of a meal affected subsequent intake, there was no compensation for earlier under- or over-consumption. To test how spontaneous eating is subject to caloric control, we manipulated O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), an energy signal inside cells dependent on nutrient access and metabolic hormones. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation in mice increasing or decreasing O-GlcNAcylation regulated daily intake by controlling meal size. Meal size was affected at least in part due to faster eating speed. Without affecting meal frequency, O-GlcNAc disrupted the effect of caloric consumption on future intake. Across days, energy balance was improved upon increased O-GlcNAc levels and impaired upon removal of O-GlcNAcylation. Rather than affecting a perceived need for calories, O-GlcNAc regulates how a meal affects future intake, suggesting that O-GlcNAc mediates a caloric memory and subsequently energy balance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Appetite, Feeding behavior, Food intake, Learning and memory, O-GlcNAc, Obesity, Set point
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-184201 (URN)10.1016/j.appet.2021.105320 (DOI)000670055500008 ()2-s2.0-85106903106 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationRegion Västerbotten
Available from: 2021-06-14 Created: 2021-06-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Lagerlöf, O. (2018). O-GlcNAc cycling in the developing, adult and geriatric brain. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 50(3), 241-261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>O-GlcNAc cycling in the developing, adult and geriatric brain
2018 (English)In: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, ISSN 0145-479X, E-ISSN 1573-6881, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 241-261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hundreds of proteins in the nervous system are modified by the monosaccharide O-GlcNAc. A single protein is often O-GlcNAcylated on several amino acids and the modification of a single site can play a crucial role for the function of the protein. Despite its complexity, only two enzymes add and remove O-GlcNAc from proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Global and local regulation of these enzymes make it possible for O-GlcNAc to coordinate multiple cellular functions at the same time as regulating specific pathways independently from each other. If O-GlcNAcylation is disrupted, metabolic disorder or intellectual disability may ensue, depending on what neurons are affected. O-GlcNAc's promise as a clinical target for developing drugs against neurodegenerative diseases has been recognized for many years. Recent literature puts O-GlcNAc in the forefront among mechanisms that can help us better understand how neuronal circuits integrate diverse incoming stimuli such as fluctuations in nutrient supply, metabolic hormones, neuronal activity and cellular stress. Here the functions of O-GlcNAc in the nervous system are reviewed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2018
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176629 (URN)10.1007/s10863-018-9760-1 (DOI)000434046400010 ()29790000 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-11-12 Created: 2020-11-12 Last updated: 2020-11-16Bibliographically approved
Lagerlöf, O., Hart, G. W. & Huganir, R. L. (2017). O-GlcNAc transferase regulates excitatory synapse maturity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(7), 1684-1689
Open this publication in new window or tab >>O-GlcNAc transferase regulates excitatory synapse maturity
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 7, p. 1684-1689Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Experience-driven synaptic plasticity is believed to underlie adaptive behavior by rearranging the way neuronal circuits process information. We have previously discovered that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), an enzyme that modifies protein function by attaching β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to serine and threonine residues of intracellular proteins (O-GlcNAc), regulates food intake by modulating excitatory synaptic function in neurons in the hypothalamus. However, how OGT regulates excitatory synapse function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that OGT is enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. In the postsynaptic density, O-GlcNAcylation on multiple proteins increased upon neuronal stimulation. Knockout of the OGT gene decreased the synaptic expression of the AMPA receptor GluA2 and GluA3 subunits, but not the GluA1 subunit. The number of opposed excitatory presynaptic terminals was sharply reduced upon postsynaptic knockout of OGT. There were also fewer and less mature dendritic spines on OGT knockout neurons. These data identify OGT as a molecular mechanism that regulates synapse maturity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington: National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 2017
Keywords
AMPA receptors, O-GlcNAc, OGT, excitatory synapses
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-176628 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1621367114 (DOI)000393989300078 ()28143929 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-11-12 Created: 2020-11-12 Last updated: 2020-11-16Bibliographically approved
Banerjee, P. S., Lagerlöf, O. & Hart, G. W. (2016). Roles of O-GlcNAc in chronic diseases of aging. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 51, 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roles of O-GlcNAc in chronic diseases of aging
2016 (English)In: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, ISSN 0098-2997, E-ISSN 1872-9452, Vol. 51, p. 1-15Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

O-GlcNAcylation, a dynamic nutrient and stress sensitive post-translational modification, occurs on myriad proteins in the cell nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria. O-GlcNAcylation serves as a nutrient sensor to regulate signaling, transcription, translation, cell division, metabolism, and stress sensitivity in all cells. Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation plays a critical role both in the development, as well as in the progression of a variety of age related diseases. O-GlcNAcylation underlies the etiology of diabetes, and changes in specific protein O-GlcNAc levels and sites are responsible for insulin expression and sensitivity and glucose toxicity. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation contributes directly to diabetes related dysfunction of the heart, kidney and eyes and affects progression of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. O-GlcNAcylation is a critical modification in the brain and plays a role in both plaque and tangle formation, thus making its study important in neurodegenerative disorders. O-GlcNAcylation also affects cellular growth and metabolism during the development and metastasis of cancer. Finally, alterations in O-GlcNAcylation of transcription factors in macrophages and lymphocytes affect inflammation and cytokine production. Thus, O-GlcNAcylation plays key roles in many of the major diseases associated with aging. Elucidation of its specific functions in both normal and diseased tissues is likely to uncover totally novel avenues for therapeutic intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
O-GlcNAc, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes, Neurodegenerative disease, Cancer, Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, O-GlcNAc transferase, O-GlcNAcase
National Category
Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182713 (URN)10.1016/j.mam.2016.05.005 (DOI)000384954900001 ()27259471 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84973161413 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2021-05-04Bibliographically approved
Lagerlöf, O., Slocomb, J., Hong, I., Blackshaw, S., Gerald, H. & Richard, H. (2016). The nutrient sensor OGT in PVN neurons regulates feeding. Science, 351(6279), 1293-1296
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The nutrient sensor OGT in PVN neurons regulates feeding
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2016 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 351, no 6279, p. 1293-1296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Maintaining energy homeostasis is crucial for the survival and health of organisms. The brain regulates feeding by responding to dietary factors and metabolic signals from peripheral organs. It is unclear how the brain interprets these signals. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc and is regulated by nutrient access. Here, we show that acute deletion of OGT from αCaMKII-positive neurons in adult mice caused obesity from overeating. The hyperphagia derived from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, where loss of OGT was associated with impaired satiety. These results identify O-GlcNAcylation in αCaMKII neurons of the PVN as an important molecular mechanism that regulates feeding behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AAAS, 2016
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182712 (URN)10.1126/science.aad5494 (DOI)000372397700036 ()26989246 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84961734214 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2021-05-04Bibliographically approved
Prendergast, J., Umanah, G. K. .., Yoo, S.-W., Lagerlöf, O., Motari, M. G., Cole, R. N., . . . Schnaar, R. L. (2014). Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(39), 13246-13258
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 34, no 39, p. 13246-13258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants on all vertebrate neurons. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis invariably result in intellectual disability and are often associated with intractable seizures. To probe the mechanisms of ganglioside functions, affinity-captured ganglioside-binding proteins from rat cerebellar granule neurons were identified by quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. Of the six proteins that bound selectively to the major brain ganglioside GT1b (GT1b:GM1 > 4; p < 10−4), three regulate neurotransmitter receptor trafficking: Thorase (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1), soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (γ-SNAP), and the transmembrane protein Nicalin. Thorase facilitates endocytosis of GluR2 subunit-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in an ATPase-dependent manner; its deletion in mice results in learning and memory deficits (J. Zhang et al., 2011b). GluR2-containing AMPARs did not bind GT1b, but bound specifically to another ganglioside, GM1. Addition of noncleavable ATP (ATPγS) significantly disrupted ganglioside binding, whereas it enhanced AMPAR association with Thorase, NSF, and Nicalin. Mutant mice lacking GT1b expressed markedly higher brain Thorase, whereas Thorase-null mice expressed higher GT1b. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with sialidase, which cleaves GT1b (and other sialoglycans), resulted in a significant reduction in the size of surface GluR2 puncta. These data support a model in which GM1-bound GluR2-containing AMPARs are functionally segregated from GT1b-bound AMPAR-trafficking complexes. Release of ganglioside binding may enhance GluR2-containing AMPAR association with its trafficking complexes, increasing endocytosis. Disrupting ganglioside biosynthesis may result in reduced synaptic expression of GluR2-contianing AMPARs resulting in intellectual deficits and seizure susceptibility in mice and humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Neuroscience, 2014
Keywords
AMPA receptor, ganglioside, GluR2, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, Nicalin, Thorase
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182715 (URN)10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1149-14.2014 (DOI)000343140000027 ()25253868 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84907292136 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2021-05-04Bibliographically approved
Lagerlöf, O. & Hart, G. W. (2014). O-GlcNAcylation of Neuronal Proteins: Roles in Neuronal Functions and in Neurodegeneration. In: Yu R., Schengrund CL. (Ed.), Glycobiology of the Nervous System: (pp. 343-366). New York: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>O-GlcNAcylation of Neuronal Proteins: Roles in Neuronal Functions and in Neurodegeneration
2014 (English)In: Glycobiology of the Nervous System / [ed] Yu R., Schengrund CL., New York: Springer, 2014, p. 343-366Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

O-GlcNAc is the attachment of β-N-acetylglucosamine to the hydroxyl group of serine and threonine in nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. It is generally not further elongated but exists as a monosaccharide that can be rapidly added or removed. Thousands of proteins involved in gene transcription, protein translation, and degradation as well as the regulation of signal transduction contain O-GlcNAc. Brain is one of the tissues where O-GlcNAc is most highly expressed and deletion of neuronal O-GlcNAc leads to death early in development. O-GlcNAc is also important for normal adult brain function, where dynamic processes like learning and memory at least in part depend on the modification of specific proteins by O-GlcNAc. Conversely, too much or too little O-GlcNAc on other proteins participates in neurodegenerative processes underlying diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. In this chapter, we describe the expression and regulation of O-GlcNAc in the nervous system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2014
Series
Advances in Neurobiology ; 9
Keywords
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine, O-GlcNAc, Learning and memory, Neurodegeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, Signaling, Nutrient sensing, Post-translational modifications
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182714 (URN)10.1007/978-1-4939-1154-7_16 (DOI)25151387 (PubMedID)978-1-4939-1153-0 (ISBN)978-1-4939-1154-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2021-12-20Bibliographically approved
Hart, G. W., Slawson, C., Ramirez-Correa, G. & Lagerlöf, O. (2011). Cross Talk Between O-GlcNAcylation and Phosphorylation: Roles in Signaling, Transcription, and Chronic Disease. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 50, 825-858
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross Talk Between O-GlcNAcylation and Phosphorylation: Roles in Signaling, Transcription, and Chronic Disease
2011 (English)In: Annual Review of Biochemistry, ISSN 0066-4154, E-ISSN 1545-4509, Vol. 50, p. 825-858Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

O-GlcNAcylation is the addition of β-D-N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) was not discovered until the early 1980s and still remains difficult to detect and quantify. Nonetheless, O-GlcNAc is highly abundant and cycles on proteins with a timescale similar to protein phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc occurs in organisms ranging from some bacteria to protozoans and metazoans, including plants and nematodes up the evolutionary tree to man. O-GlcNAcylation is mostly on nuclear proteins, but it occurs in all intracellular compartments, including mitochondria. Recent glycomic analyses have shown that O-GlcNAcylation has surprisingly extensive cross talk with phosphorylation, where it serves as a nutrient/stress sensor to modulate signaling, transcription, and cytoskeletal functions. Abnormal amounts of O-GlcNAcylation underlie the etiology of insulin resistance and glucose toxicity in diabetes, and this type of modification plays a direct role in neurodegenerative disease. Many oncogenic proteins and tumor suppressor proteins are also regulated by O-GlcNAcylation. Current data justify extensive efforts toward a better understanding of this invisible, yet abundant, modification. As tools for the study of O-GlcNAc become more facile and available, exponential growth in this area of research will eventually take place.

Keywords
O-GlcNAc, translation, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cancer
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182716 (URN)10.1146/annurev-biochem-060608-102511 (DOI)
Funder
NIH (National Institute of Health), R01 CA42486NIH (National Institute of Health), R01 DK61671
Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Roos, S., Lagerlöf, O., Wennergren, M., Powell, T. L. & Jansson, T. (2009). Regulation of amino acid transporters by glucose and growth factors in cultured primary trophoblast cells is mediated by mTOR signaling. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, 298, C723-C731
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulation of amino acid transporters by glucose and growth factors in cultured primary trophoblast cells is mediated by mTOR signaling
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2009 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, Vol. 298, p. C723-C731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cultured human primary trophoblast cells reduces the activity of key placental amino acid transporters. However, the upstream regulators of placental mTOR are unknown. We hypothesized that glucose, insulin, and IGF-I regulate placental amino acid transporters by inducing changes in mTOR signaling. Primary human trophoblast cells were cultured for 24 h with media containing various glucose concentrations, insulin, or IGF-I, with or without the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, and, subsequently, the activity of system A, system L, and taurine (TAUT) transporters was measured. Glucose deprivation (0.5 mM glucose) did not significantly affect Thr172-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation or REDD1 expression but decreased S6 kinase 1 phosphorylation at Thr389. The activity of system L decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to decreasing glucose concentrations. This effect was abolished in the presence of rapamycin. Glucose deprivation had two opposing effects on system A activity: 1) an “adaptive” upregulation mediated by an mTOR-independent mechanism and 2) downregulation by an mTOR-dependent mechanism. TAUT activity was increased after incubating cells with glucose-deprived media, and this effect was largely independent of mTOR signaling. Insulin and IGF-I increased system A activity and insulin stimulated system L activity, effects that were abolished by rapamycin. We conclude that the mTOR pathway represents an important intracellular regulatory link between nutrient and growth factor concentrations and amino acid transport in the human placenta.intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and accelerated fetal growth represent two important clinical conditions that occur in 15% of all pregnancies (1, 2). Aberrant fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity (7) as well as metabolic abnormalities in adult life, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (6, 12, 46). The most important determinant of fetal growth is nutrient availability, which is highly dependent on placental transport capacity. The mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth remain to be established, but accumulating evidence implicates changes in the activity of specific placental amino acid transporters as a critical factor contributing to abnormal fetal growth (27, 54). Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that changes in placental nutrient transporter activity are a cause of rather than a response to altered fetal growth. For example, in pregnant rats subjected to protein malnutrition, it is likely that downregulation of the placental system A amino acid transporter directly contributes to the development of IUGR (26).

In IUGR, fetuses may be hypoglycemic (15) and have reduced circulating levels of insulin (43) and IGF-I (4, 34). The maternal levels of glucose (15) and IGF-I (40, 41) may also be reduced in this condition. The placenta of the IUGR fetus could therefore be exposed to decreased levels of glucose, hormones, and growth factors. Both insulin and IGF-I stimulate placental system A activity (24, 30, 31). These results suggest that extracellular cues regulate placental nutrient transporters and, as a consequence, fetal nutrient supply, but the cellular mechanisms remain to be fully established.

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that is regulated by a multitude of intracellular and extracellular signals. For example, mTOR is activated by growth factors and nutrient levels, such as amino acids (59), and inhibited by numerous stress conditions, such as cellular energy depletion (13, 17). Glucose may also regulate mTOR signaling through energy production in the form of ATP (13, 17). The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is regulated by the AMP-to-ATP ratio, which rises under nutrient deprivation and activates AMPK (10). Activated AMPK can in turn phosphorylate tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), leading to mTOR inactivation (23). AMPK is phosphorylated and activated by LKB1 (52), and it has been shown that phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser428 is essential for AMPK activation by metformin, and the authors speculate that LKB1-Ser428 phosphorylation may be a common pathway required for AMPK activation (60). There might also be additional, AMPK-independent, pathways involved in energy depletion. A recent report has shown that REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is induced by chronic energy depletion, and this in turn leads to inactivation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) measured as phosphorylation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) at Thr389, independent of AMPK (55).

Insulin and IGF-I activate the tyrosine kinase activity of its receptors to phosphorylate the insulin receptor substrate 1, which in turn activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to generate PI(3,4,5)P3. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) binding to Akt leads to the translocation of Akt to the plasma membrane, where it is phosphorylated and activated. The activation of Akt positively modulates mTORC1 function, by phosphorylating, and inhibiting, TSC2 (reviewed in Ref. 59).

We have previously shown that inhibition of mTOR reduces the activity of placental system L, system A, and the taurine transporter (TAUT) (50). Since the activity of these amino acid transporter systems is downregulated in the placenta in association to IUGR (14, 19, 28, 37, 45) and placental mTOR activity has been reported to be decreased in IUGR (49, 62), it is possible that mTOR signaling plays an important role in regulating placental amino acid transporters in vivo. However, the upstream regulators of placental mTOR are unknown. We hypothesized that glucose, insulin, and IGF-I regulate placental amino acid transporter activity by inducing changes in mTOR signaling. To test this hypothesis, human primary trophoblast cells were incubated with media containing various concentrations of glucose, insulin, or IGF-I in the presence or absence of the specific mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Subsequently, the activity of system L, system A, and the taurine transporter was measured. To investigate whether the AMPK pathway and/or REDD1 is activated in glucose-deprived primary trophoblasts, the protein expression of phosphorylated (P)-Thr172-AMPKα, total AMPK, P-Ser428-LKB1, and REDD1 in control and glucose-deprived cells was also studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society, 2009
Keywords
placental transport, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, mammalian target of rapamycin
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-182717 (URN)10.1152/ajpcell.00191.2009 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 10838Swedish Research Council, 14555DiabetesfondenMagnus Bergvall Foundation
Available from: 2021-05-03 Created: 2021-05-03 Last updated: 2021-05-04Bibliographically approved
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